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PAKT I.— 1865. 

I. On the Phenomena of Variation and Geographical Distribution as illustrated by the 

Papilionidse of the Malayan Begion. By Alfeed E.. Wallace, Esq. . page 1 


PAET II.— 1865. 

II. Monograph on the Anguillulidfe, or Free Nematoids, Marine^ Land, and Fresh- 

water, idth Descriptions of 100 Neio Species. By H. Chaelton Bastian, M.A., 
M.B. Bond., F.L.S . 73 


III. Description of some New and Bemarkable Species of Aristolocliia from JFestern 

Tropical Africa. By Jos. D. Hooker, M.D., F.B.S., V.P.L.S., ^"c. ... 185 

IV. On the Anatomy of Doridopsis, a Genus of the Nudibranchiate Mollusca. By 

Albany Ha:ncock, F.L.S. , . . , 189 

V. A List of the Exogenous Blants found i^i the Anamallay Mountains, in Southern 

Lndia, ivith Descriptions of the New Sj^ecies. By Capt. R. H. Beddome, Officiating 
Conservator of Forests in the Madras Bresidency. Communicated by Dr. T. Thom- 

son, FL.S, 


VI. On Gripidea, a Neio Genus of the Loasacese, with an account of some BecuUarities 

in the Structure of the Seeds in that Family. By John Miees, F.E.S. §' L.S., Com- 
7nend. Ord. Lmp. Bras. Bosoi 227 

VII. Supplementary Observations on the Sphserise of the Eookerian Serbarium. By 

rREDERiCK CuREEY, M.A., F.E.S., Scc L.S. 289 


VIII. On the Asyinmetry of the Pleuronectidse, as elucidated by an Examination of the 

Skeleton in the Turbot, Halibut, and Plaice. By Eamsay H. Teaquair, M.D., 
Demonstrator of Anatomy in the University of Edinburgh. Communicated byTro- 

fessor IIuxLEY, F.B.S. 8f L,S...^ 


IX. Description of some New Genera and Species of Tropical Leguminosoe. By George 

Bentham, p. L.S. 




X. Descriptions of Fifty-tico New Sjjecies of Phasmidse, from the Collection of Mr. "W. 

Wilson Saundees, icith Remarks on the Family. By Henry Walter Bates, 



PART III.— 1866. 


_ _ • 

XI. On Hillebrandia, a New Genus of Begoniacese. By Professor Oliver, F.E.S. 

F.L.S., Keeper of the Kew Serharium pa«'e 361 

XII. 071 the Spicula of the Begular Echinoidea. By Charles Stewart, Esq. Com- 

municated by Professor Huxley, F.B.S. 365 

XIII. On some New British Polynoma. By E. Ray Lankester, Esq. Com^nunicaied 

by J. G. Jeffreys, Esq., F.Z.S. 373 

Xiy. On some points in the Anatomy of Echidna hystrix. By St. George Mivart, 

Esq., F.L.S., Lecturer on Comparative Anatomy at St. Mary's Hospital . . 379 

XV. On Circulation and the Fo7mation of Wood in Blants. By Herbert Spencer, Esq. 

Communicated by George Busk, Esq., F.B.S., Sec. E.S. '.405 


XVI. On two New British Fimgi. By the Bev. M. J. Berkeley, M.A., F.Z.S. . 431 


XVII. lAchenes Amazonici et Andini lecti a Domino Spruce. By the Bev. W. A. 

Leighton, B.A., F.Z.S. ^33 

XVIII. On Myostoma, a New Genus of the BurmanniaceEe. By John Miers, Esq., 

F.B.S. 8c Z.8., Commend. Ord. Imp. Bras. Mosce 461 

XIX. On the Development of Chloeon (Ephemera) dimidiatum. By Sir John Lubbock, 

Bart., F.B.S., V.B. Zinn. Soc, Bres. Ent. Soc, V.B. Eth. Soc. 8fc. , . , 477 

XX. Observations on New-Zealand Zichens. By W. Lauder Lindsay, M.D., F.B.S. 

Edinb., Sfc 


XXI. Contributions to a Natural Bistory of the Teredidie. By E. Perceval Wright 

^'^'.^'M.,Brofessorof Zoology, Vniversity of Dublin, F.Z.S., F.Z.S. . .561 



















PAin^ I.— i>^n5. 

I. On Ui£ Vhrnomrna of Varhifion and Gcograjrthkal Distribuiion m illustrated by IJie 

rapilionidiu of the Jlalayan Hegion, By ALrui:!) R. Wallace, ^«/. 





I. On the Tlienomena of Variation and Geographical Distribution as illustrated hy the 

'^di^Hioni^^ of the Malayan Region. -Sy Alfred R. "Wallace, ^,92'. 

(Plates I.-VIII.) 

Read March 17, 1864. 

When the naturalist studies the hahits, the structure, or the affinities of animals, it 
matters little to which group he especially devotes himself ; all alike offer him endless 
materials for ohservation and research. But, for the purpose of investigating the phe- 
nomena of geographical distribution and of local or general variation, the several groups 
differ greatly in their value and importance. Some have too limited a range, others are 
not sufficiently varied in specific forms, while, what is of most importance, many groups 
have not received that amount of attention over the whole region they inhabit, which 
could furnish materials sufficiently approaching to completeness to enable us to arrive at 
any accurate conclusions as to the phenomena they present as a whole. It is in those 
groups which are and have long been favourites with collectors that the student of dis- 
tribution and variation will find his materials the most satisfactory, from their compara- 
tive completeness. 

Preeminent among such groups are the diurnal Lepidoptera or Butterflies, whose ex- 
treme beauty and endless diversity have led to their having been assiduously collected in 
all parts of the world, and to the numerous species and varieties having been figured in 
a series of magnificent works, from those of Cramer, the contemporary of Linnseus, down 
to the inimitable productions of our own Hewitson. But, besides their abundance, their 
universal distribution, and the great attention that has been paid to them, these insects 
have other qualities that especially adapt them to elucidate the branches of inquiiy already 
alluded to. These are the immense development and peculiar structure of the wings, 
which not only vary in form more than those of any other insects, but offer on both sur- 
faces an endless variety of pattern, colouring, and texture. The scales with which they 
are more or less completely covered imitate the rich hues and delicate surfaces of satin 


or of velvet, glitter with metallic lustre, or glow with the changeable tints of the opal. 
This delicately painted surface acts as a register of the minutest differences of organiza- 





tion, — a shade of colour, an additional streak or spot, a slight modification of outline 


with the greatest regularity and fixity, while the body and all its 

other members exhibit no appreciable change. The wings of Butterflies, as Mr. Eates 
has well put it*, " serve as a tablet on which Nature writes the story of the modifications 
of species ;" they enable us to perceive changes that would otherwise be uncertain and 

difficult of observation, and exhibit to us on an enlarged scale the effects of the climatal 

and other physical conditions which influence more or less profoundly the organization 
of every living thing. 

A proof that this greater sensibility to modifying causes is not imaginary may, I think, 
be drawn from the consideration that while the Lepidoptera as a whole are of all insects 
the least essentially varied in form, structure, or habits, yet in the number of their specific 
forms they are not much inferior to those orders which range over a much wider field of 
nature, and exhibit more deeply seated structural modifications. The Lepidoptera are 
all vegetable-feeders in their larva-state, and suckers of juices or other liquids in their 
perfect form. In their most widely separated groups they differ but little from a com- 
mon type, and offer comparatively unimportant modifications of structure or of habits. 
The Coleoptera, the Dipt era, or the Hymenoptera, on the other hand, present far greater 
and more essential variations. In either of these orders we have both vegetable- and 
animal-feeders, aquatic, and terrestrial, and parasitic groups. Whole families are devoted 
to special departments in the economy of nature. Seeds, fruits, bones, carcases, excrement, 
bark, have each their special and dependent insect tribes from among them ; whereas the 
Lepidoptera are, with but few exceptions, confined to the one function of devourino" the 
foliage of living vegetation. We might therefore anticipate that their population would 
be only equal to those of the sections of the other orders that have a similar uniform 
mode of existence ; and the fact that their numbers are at all comparable with those 
of entire orders, so much more varied in organization and habits, is, I think, a proof 
that they are in general highly susceptible of specific modification. 

The Papilionidge are a family of diurnal Lepidoptera which have hitherto, bv almost 
universal consent, held the first rank in the order ; and though this position has recently 
been denied them, I cannot altogether acquiesce in the reasoning by which it has been 
proposed to degrade them to a lower rank. In Mr. Bates's most excellent paper on the 
Heliconidset, he claims for that family the highest position, chiefly because of the imper- 
fect structure of the fore legs, which is there carried to an extreme degree of abortion, 
and thus removes them further than any other family from the Hesperidce and Hetero- 
cera, which all have perfect legs. Now it is a question whether any amount of difference 
which IS exhibited merely in the imperfection or abortion of certain organs, can establish 
m the group exhibitmg it a claim to a high grade of organization; still less can this be 

iTf ^'^^^ "^f ^^^' S^^^P' ^^^^? ^ith perfection of structure in the same organs, 
exhibits modifications peculiar to it, together with the possession of an organ whi^h in 
the remamdor of the order is altogether wanting. This is, however, the position of the 
Papibonuk.. The perfect insects possess two characters quite peculiar to them. Mr. 



Sec ' The Naturalist on the Amazons/ 2nd edit. p. 412. 




Edward Doubleday, in his 'Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptcra/ says, "The Papilionidu 
may be known by the apparently four-branched median norvule and the spur on the 
anterior tibice, characters found in no other family." Tlie four-branched median ncrvuh 
is a character so constant, so peculiar, and so well marked, as to enable a person to tell 
at a glance at the wings only of a butterfly, whether it does or docs not belong to this 
family ; and I am not aware that any other group of Butterflies, at all comparable to tin 
in extent and modifications of form, possesses a character in its neuration to which the 
same degree of certainty can be attached. The spur on the anterior tibise is also found 
in some of the Hespcridse, and is therefore supposed to show a direct affinity between the 
two groups ; but I do not imagine it can counterbalance the differences in neuration and 
in every other part of their organization. The most characteristic feature of the Papi- 
lionidge, however, and that on which I think insufficient stress has been laid, is undoubt- 
edly the peculiar structure of the larvae. These all possess an extraordinary organ 
situated on the neck, the well-known Y-shaped tentacle, which is entirely concealed in a 
state of repose, but which is capable of being suddenly thrown out by the insect when 
alarmed. When we consider this singular apparatus, which in some species is nearly 
half an inch long, the arrangement of muscles for its protrusion and retraction, its per- 
fect concealment during repose, its blood-red colour, and the suddenness with which it 
can be thrown out, we must, I think, be led to the conclusion that it serves as a protec- 
tion to the larva by startling and frightening away some enemy when about to seize 
it, and is thus one of the causes which has led to the wide extension and maintained 
the permanence of this now dominant group. Those who believe that such peculiar 
structures can only have arisen by very minute successive variations, each one advan- 
tageous to its possessor, must see, in the possession of such an organ by one group, and 

its complete absence in every other, a proof of a very ancient origin and of very Ion 
continued modification. And such a positive structural addition to the organization of 
the family, subserving an important function, seems to me alone sufficient to warrant us 
in considering the Papilionida? as the most highly developed portion of the whole order, 
and thus in retaining it in the position which the' size, strength, beauty, and general 
structure of the perfect insects have been generally thought to deserve. 

The Papilionidj© are pretty widely distributed over the earth, but are especially abun- 
dant in the tropics, where they attain their maximum of size and beauty and the greatest 
variety of form and colouring. South America, North India, and the Malay Islands are 

where these fine insects occur in the greatest profusion, and where they 
actuaUy become a not unimportant feature in the scenery. In the Malay Islands in par- 
ticular the giant Ornithoptera? may be frequently seen about the borders of the cultivated 
and forest districts, their large size, stately flight, and gorgeous colouring rendering them 
even more conspicuous than the generality of birds. In the shady siiburbs of the town 
of Malacca two large and handsome Papilios {Memnon and JVephelus) are not uncommon, 
flapping with irregular flight along the roadway, or, in the early morning, expanding 
their wings to the invigorating rays of the sun. In Amboyna and other towns of the 
Moluccas^ the magnificent Dei2)hobus and Severus, and occasionally even the azure-winged 
Uli/sses, frequent similar situations, fluttering about the orange-trees and flower-beds, or 

B 2 

the reg 



sometimes even straying into the narrow bazaars or covered markets of the city. In 
Java the golden-dusted Arjuna may often be seen at damp places on the roadside in the 
mountain districts^ in company with Sarpedony BatliycleSy and Agamenmon, and less fre- 


quently the beautiful swallow-tailed Antiphates. In the more luxuriant parts of these 
islands one can hardly take a morning's walk in the neighbourhood of a town or village 
without seeing three or four species of Fapillo, and often twice that number. No less 
than 120 species of the family are now known to inhabit the Archipelago, and of these 
ninety-six were collected by myself. Twenty-nine species are found in Borneo, being the 
largest number in any one island, twenty-three species having been obtained by myself 
in the vicinity of Sarawak ; Java has twenty- seven species ; Celebes and the Peninsula 
of Malacca twenty-three each. Eurther east the numbers decrease, Batchian producing 
seventeen, and New Guinea only thirteen, though this number is certainly too small, 
owing to our present imperfect knowledge of that great island. 

In estimating these numbers I have had the usual difficulty to encounter, of determining 
what to consider species and what varieties. The Malayan redon, consisting of a lar^e 

number of islands of generally great antic^uity, possesses, compared to its actual area, a 
great number of distinct forms, often indeed distinguished by very slight characters, but 
in most cases so constant in large series of specimens, and so easily separable from each 
other, that I know not on what principle we can refuse to give them the name and rank 
of species. One of the best and most orthodox definitions is that of Pritchard, the great 
ethnologist, who says, that « separate origin and distinctness of race, evinced hy a con- 
stant transmission of some characteristic peculiarity of organization r constitutes a species. 
Now leavmg out the question of " origin," which we cannot determine, and taldng only 
the proof of separate origin, - the constant transmission of some characteristic peculiarity 
of orgamzationr we have a definition which wiU compel us to nei?lect alto-ether the 

O'^'-' "'^""S 

of difference between any two forms, and to consider only whether the diffe 
that preseiit themselves are ii>ermanent. The rule, therefore, I have endeavoured to adopt 
IS, that when the difference between two foms inhabiting separate areas seems quite 
constant, when it can he defined in words, and when it is not confined to a single pecu- 
harity only, I have considered such forms to be species. When, however, the individuals 
of each locality vary among themselves, so as to cause the distinctions between the two 
forms to become inconsiderable and indeiinite, or where the differences, though constant 

confined to one particular only, such as size, tint 

le point of differ 

marking or in outline, I class one of the forms as a variety of the othei 

Thoithlt "'"''' f '/!"' "^^ ""''"''^ "' '^'''''' '' '"^ ^" ^"^^^^^ ^=^"0 to their range. 

miose which are confined to one or two islands are generally very constant. When they 

TrZZHf ' Ttr": ™™^ =>^P^"^ ■' ^^' ^-^^ ^hey have an exten' 

^L Te e f.i"'' ^' r ^ ? ''''''''^'''So, the amount of unstable variation is very 

torge. These fae s are explicable on Mr. Darwin's principles. When a species exists 

variations fmttft? ZT^ "' '""''^"^'= '"^ ™"°"^ P-t-- "^ »- -■-' -liffeLnt 

i moainecl torms . hut this process ,s checked by the dispersive powers 



of the whole species, which leads to the more or less frequent intermixture of the inci- 
pient varieties, which thus become irregular and unstable. Where, however, a species 
has a limited range, it indicates less active powers of dispersion, and the process of modifi- 
cation under changed conditions is less interfered with. The species will therefore exist 
under one or more permanent forms according as portions of it have been isolated at a 
more or less remote period. 

What is commonly called variation consists of several distinct phenomena which have 
been too often confounded. I shall proceed to consider these under the heads of — 1st, 
simple variability ; 2nd, polymorphism ; 3rd, local forms ; 4th, coexisting varieties; 5tli, 
races or subspecies ; and 6th, true species. 

1. Simple variability. — Under this head I include all those cases in which the specific 
form is to some extent unstable. Throughout the whole range of the species, and even 
in the progeny of individuals, there occur continual and uncertain differences of form, 
analogous to that variability which is so characteristic of domestic breeds. It is impossible 
usefully to define any of these forms, because there are indefinite gradations to each otlier 
form. Species which possess these characteristics have always a wide range, and are more 
frequently the inhabitants of continents than of islands, though such cases are always 
exceptional, it being far more common for specific forms to be fixed within very narrow 
limits of variation. The only good example of this kind of variability which occurs among 
the Malayan Papilionidse is in Papilio Severus, a species inhabiting all the islands of 
the Moluccas and New Guinea, and exhibitino; in each of them a neater amount of in- 

dividual difference than often serves to distinguish well-marked species. Almost equally 
remarkable are the variations exhibited in most of the species of OniitJiopteray which I 
have found in some cases to extend even to the form of the wing and the arrangement of 


the nervures. Closely allied, however, to these variable species arc others which, though 
differing slightly from them, are constant and confined to limited areas. After satisfy- 
ing oneself, by the examination of numerous specimens captured in their native countries, 
that the one set of individuals are variable and the others are not, it becomes evident that 
by classing all alike as varieties of one species we shall be obscuring an important fact 
in nature, and that the only way to exhibit that fact in its true light is to treat tlie inva- 
riable local form as a distinct species, even though it does not off'er better distinguish- 
ing characters than do the extreme forms of the variable species. Cases of this kind are 
the Ornithoptera Priamus, which is confined to the islands of Ceram and Ambojma, and is 
very constant in both sexes, while the allied species inhabiting New Guinea and the 
Papuan Islands is exceedingly variable ; and in the island of Celebes is a species closely 
allied to the variable P. Severus, but which, being exceedingly constant, I have described 
as a distinct species under the name of Papilio Pertinax. 

2. Polymorphism or dimorphism. — By this term I understand the coexistence in the 
same locality of two or more distinct forms, not connected by intermediate gradations, 
and all of which are occasionally produced from common parents. These distinct forms 
generally occur in the female sex only, and the intercrossing of two of these forms does 
not generate an intermediate race, but reproduces the same forms in varying proportions. 
I believe it will be found that a considerable number of what have been classed as 



varieties arc really cases of polymo7''phism. Albinoism and melanism are of this character, 
as well as most of those cases in which well-marked varieties occur in company with the 
parent sj^ecies, but without any intermediate forms. Under these circumstances, if the 
two forms breed separately, and are never reproduced from a common parent, they must 
be considered as distinct species, contact without intermixture being a good test of 
specific difference. On the other hand, intercrossing mthout producing an intermediate 
race is a test of dimorphism. I consider, therefore, that under any circumstances the 
term ' variety ' is wrongly applied to such cases. 

The Malayan Papilionidse exhibit some very curious instances of polymorphism, some 
of which have been recorded as varieties, others as distinct species ; and they all occur in 
the female sex. Papilio Memnon, L., is one of the most striking, as it exhibits the 
mixture of simple variability, local and polymorphic forms, all hitherto classed under the 
common title of varieties. The polymorphism is strikingly exhibited by the females, one 
set of which resemble the males in form, with a variable paler colouring ; the others have 
a large spatulate tail to the hinder wings and a distinct style of colouring, which causes 
them closely to reseml)le P. Coon, a species of which the sexes are alike and inhabiting 
the same countries, but with which they have no direct affinity. The tailless females 
exhibit simple variability, scarcely two being found exactly alike even in the same 
locality. The males of the island of Borneo exhibit constant differences of the under 
surface, and may therefore be distinguished as a local form, while the continental speci- 
mens, as a whole, offer such large and constant differences from those of the islands that 
I am inclined to separate them as a distinct species — P. Aitdrogeiis, Cr. We have here, 


therefore, distinct species, local forms, polymorphism, and simple variability, which seem 
to me to be distinct phenomena, but which have been hitherto all classed toj^ether as 
varieties. I may mention that the fact of these distinct forms being one species is doubly 
proved. The males, the tailed and tailless females, have all been bred from a single 
group of the larvae, by Messrs. Payen and Eocarme, in Java, and I myself captured in 
Sumatra a male P. Memnon, L., and a tailed female P. Achates, Cr., " in copula." 

Fapilio Pammon, L., offers a somewhat similar case. The female was described by 
Linnaeus as P. Folate's, and was considered to be a distinct species till Westermann bred 
the two from the same larvae (see Boisduval, ' Species Generales des L<^pidoptercs,' p. 272). 
They were therefore classed as sexes of one species by Mr. Edward Doubleday, in his 
' Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera,' in 1816. Later, female specimens were received from 
India closely resembling the male insect, and this was held to overthrow the authority of 
M. Westermann's observation, and to reestablish P. Toli/tes as a distinct species ; and as 
such it accordingly appears in the British Museum List of Papilionida? in 1856, and in 
the Catalogue of the East India Museum in 1857. This discrepancy is explained by the 
tact of P. Pammon having two females, one closely resembling the male, while the other 
IS totally different from it. A long familiarity with this insect (which, replaced by local 
forms or by closely alUed species, occurs in every island of the Archipelago) has con- 
vinced me of the correctness of this statement ; for in every place where a male allied to 
P. Pammon is found, a female resembling P. Polytes also occurs, and sometimes, though 
less frequently than on the continent, another female closely resembling the male : while 



not only lias no male specimen of P. Folytes yet been found, but tlie female {Fohjtes) has 
never yet been found in localities to which the male {Fammon) does not extend. In this 
case, as in the last, distinct species, local forms, and dimorphic specimens have been con- 
founded under the common appellation of varieties. 

But, besides the true P. Folates, there are several allied forms of females to be con- 
sidered, namely, P. Theseus, Cr., P. Melanides, De Haan, P. Elyt^os, G. R. G., and 
P. Bomulusy L. The dark female figured by Cramer as P. Theseus seems to be the com- 
mon and perhaps the only form in Sumatra, whereas in Java, Borneo, and Timor, along 
with males quite identical with those of Sumatra, occur females of the Folytes form, 
although a single specimen of the true P. Theseus, Cr., taken at Lombock would seem to 
show that the two forms do occur together. In the allied species found in the Philippine 
Islands (P. Alphenor, Cr., P. Ledehouria, Eschsch., ? P. Elyros, G. E,. G.) forms corre- 
sponding to these extremes occur along with a number of intermediate varieties, as shown 
by a fine series in the British Museum. We have here an indication of how dimorphism 
may be produced ; for let the extreme Philippine forms be better suited to their condi- 
tions of existence than the intermediate connecting links, and the latter will gradually 
die out, leaving two distinct forms of the same insect, each adapted to some special con- 
ditions. As these conditions are sure to vary in different districts, it will often happen, 
as in Sumatra and Java, that the one form will predominate in the one island, the other 
in the adjacent one. In the island of Borneo there seems to be a third form ; for P. Mela- 
nides, De Haan, evidently belongs to this group, and has all the chief characteristics of 
P. Theseus, with a modified coloration of the hind wings. I now come to an insect 
which, if I am correct, offers one of the most interesting cases of variation yet adduced. 
Fapilio Eomulus, L., a butterfly found over a large part of India and Ceylon, and not 
uncommon in collections, has always been considered a true and independent species, 
and no susj)icions have been expressed regarding it. But a male of this form does not, I 
believe, exist. I have examined the fine series in the British Museum, in the East India 
Company's Museum, in the Hope Museum at Oxford, in Mr. Hewitson's and several other 
private collections, and can find nothing but females ; and for this common butterfly no 
male partner can be found except the equally common P. Fammon, a species already 
provided with two wives, and yet to whom we shall be forced, I believe, to assign a third. 
On carefully examining P. Momulus, I find that in all essential characters, — the form and 
texture of the wings, the length of the antcnme, the spotting of the head and thorax, and 
even the peculiar tints and shades with which it is ornamented, — it corresponds exactly 
with the other females of the Fammon grouj) ; and though, from the peculiar marking of 
the fore wings, it has at first sight a very different aspect, yet a closer examination shows 
that every one of its markings could be produced by slight and almost imperceptible 
modifications of the various allied forms. I fully believe, therefore, that I shall be 
correct in placing P. Fomulus as a third Indian form of the female P. Fammon, corre- 
sponding to P. Melanides, the third form of the Malayan P. Theseus. I may mention 
here that the females of this group have a superficial resemblance to the Folydonis 
group, as shown by P. Theseus having been considered to be the female of P. Antiphus, 
and by P. Bomiiliis being arranged next to P. Hector. There is no close affinity between 


■ L 

these two groups of Fapilio, and I am disposed to believe that we have here a case of 
mimicry, brought about by the same causes which Mr. Bates has so well explained in his 
account of Heliconidge, and which thus led to the singular exuberance of polymorphic 
forms in this and allied groups of the genus Tapilio. I shall have to devote a section of 
my paper to the consideration of this subject. 

The third example of polymorphism I have to bring forward is Fapilio Ormenus^ 
Guer.j which is closely allied to the well-known P. JEJrechthenSj Don., of Australia. The 
most common form of the female also resembles that of P. Erechtheus ; but a totally 
different-looking insect was found by myself in the Aru Islands, and figured by Mr. 
Hewitson under the name of P. Onesimus, which subsequent observation has convinced 
me is a second form of the female of P. Ormemis. Comparison of this with Boisduval's 
description of P. Aj?ianga, a specimen of which from New Guinea is in the Paris 
Museum, shows the latter to be a closely similar form ; and two other specimens were 
obtamed by myself, one in the island of Goram and the other in Waigiou, all evidently 
local modifications of the same form. In each of these localities males and ordinary 
females of P. Ormenus were also found. So far there is no evidence that these light- 
coloured insects are not females of a distinct species, the males of which have not been 
discovered. But two facts have convinced me this is not the case. At Dorey, in New 
Guinea, where males and ordinary females closely allied to P. Ormemis occur (but which 
seem to me worthy of being separated as a distinct species), I found one of these light- 
coloured females closely followed in her flight by three males, exactly in the same manner 
as occurs (and, I believe, occurs only) with the sexes of the same species. After watchin^ 
them a considerable time, I captured the whole of them, and became satisfied that I 
had discovered the true relations of this anomalous form. The next year I had corro- 
borative proof of the correctness of this opinion by the discovery in the island of Bat- 
chian of a new species allied to P. Ormemis, all the females of which, either seen or 
captured by me, were of one form, and much more closely resembling the abnormal 
light-coloured females of P. Ormenus and P. FancUon than the ordinary specimens of 
that sex. Every naturalist wiU, I think, agree that this is strongly confirmative of the 
supposition that both forms of female are of one species ; and when we consider, further, 
that m four separate islands, in each of which I resided for several months, the two forms 
of female were obtained and only one form of male ever seen, and that about tlie same 
time M Montrouzier in Woodlark Island, at the other extremity of New Guinea (where 
he resided several years, and must have obtained all the large Lepidoptera of the island), 

'" r r f' "'""^''"^ "'"'' ^^''^' ^ ^''^''^' "* ^^^^^ ^^ appropriate 
SZtl" !;^^^^^-f!- -t^ - -dely different species,-it becomes, I think, 

^^J:^ T '^' t '"^''" ^^^^ ^^ polymorphism of the same nature as 
noHniril'^f .? " ^' ^~'" '"' ^- ^^"^^^^- ™« ^P--«' however, is 
f:!! it S^^^^ \^^ *^^ f?-^ ^^ J^^^ obtained a third 

the ordinarv fomTl. ^T.f ^'' f ^^'^ ^*^^^«^ ^""'^ "^ s^^e degree intermediate between 

produced by what he ier^'x;^^^^^^^^ " '' "" """ ^^^ ^^^" ^''''^''^ 

^ ne teim. sexual selection, since it may be supposed to exhibit one of 




the intermediate steps in that process which has been accidentally preserved in company 
with its more favoured rivals, tliough its extreme rarity (only one specimen having been 
seen to many hundreds of the other form) would indicate that it may soon become extinct. 

The only other case of polymorphism in the genus FajpiUo, at all e(][ual in interest to 
those I have now brought forward, occurs in America ; and we have, fortunately, accu- 
rate information about it. Fci/pillo Turims, L., is common over almost the whole of 
temperate North America ; and the female resembles the male very closely. A totally 
different-looking insect both in form and colour, Fapilio Glcmcus, L., inhabits the same 
region; and though, down to the time when Eoisduval published his 'Species G(^neral,' 
no connexion was supposed to exist between the two species, it is now well ascertained that 
J*. Glaucus is a second female form of P. Tiirnus, In the * Proceedings of the Entomological 
Society of Philadelphia,' Jan, 1863, Mr. Walsh gives a very interesting account of the 
distribution of this species. He tells us that in the New England States and in New York 
all the females are yellow, while in Illinois and further south all are black ; in the inter- 
mediate region both black and yellow females occur in varying proportions. Lat. 37° is 
approximately the southern limit of the yellow form, and 42° the northern limit of the black 
form ; and, to render the proof complete, both black and yellow insects have been bred 
from a single batch of eggs. He further states that, out of thousands of specimens, he 
has never seen or heard of intermediate varieties between these forms. In this interestino' 
example we see the effects of latitude in determining the proportions in which the indi- 
viduals of each form should exist. The conditions are here favourable to the one form, there 
to the other ; but we are by no means to suppose that these conditions consist in climate 
alone. It is highly probable that the existence of enemies, and of competing forms of life, 
may be the main determining influences ; and it is much to be wished that such a com- 
petent observer as Mr. Walsh would endeavour to ascertain what are the adverse causes 
which are most efficient in keeping down the numbers of each of these contrasted forms. 

Dimorphism of this kind in the animal kingdom does not seem to have any direct 
relations to the reproductive powers, as Mr. Darwin has shown to be the case in plants, nor 
does it appear to be very general. One other case only is known to me in another family 
of my eastern Lepidoptcra, the Fierida? ; and but few occur in the Lepidoptcra of other 
countries. The spring and autumn broods of some Em'opean species differ very remarkably; 
and this must be considered as a phenomenon of an analogous though not of an identical 
nature *. Araschnia prorsa, of Central Europe, is a striking example of this alternate or 
seasonal dimorphism. Mr. Pascoe has pointed out tw^o forms of the male sex in some 
species of Coleoptera belonging to the family Anthribidge, in seven species of the two 
genera Xenoce?nis and Mecocerus (Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1862, p. 71) ; and no less than 
sis European Water-beetles, of the genus Dytlscus, have females of two forms, the most 
common having the elytra deeply sulcate, the rarer smooth as in the males. The three, 
and sometimes four or more, forms under which many Hymenopterous insects (especially 
Ants) occur must be considered as a related phenomenon, though here each form is spe- 
cialized to a distinct function in the economy of the species. Among the higher animals, 

* Among our nocturnal Lepidoptera, I am informed, many analogous cases occur ; and as tbe whole liistorj of 
many of these has been investigated by breeding successive generations from the e^^, it is to be hoped that some of 
our British Lepidopterists will give us a connected account of all the abnormal phenomena which they present. 

91. XXV. 





albinoism and melanism may, as I have already stated, be considered as analogous facts ; 
and I met with one case of a bird, a species of Lory {Eosfuscata, Blyth), clearly existing 
under two forms, since I obtained both sexes of each from a single flock. 

The fact of the two sexes of one species differing very considerably is so common, that 
it attracted but little attention till Mr. Darwin showed how it could in many cases be 
exj)laincd by wdiat he termed sexual selection. !Por instance, in most polygamous animals 
the males fight for the possession of the females, and the victors, always becoming the 
jn'ogcnitors of the su.cceeding generation, impress upon their male offspring their own 
superior size, strength, or unusually developed offensive weapons. It is thus that we can 
account for the spurs and the superior strength and size of the males in Gallinaceous 
birds, and also for the large canine tusks in the males of fruit-eating Apes. So the 
superior beauty of plumage and special adornments of the males of so many birds 
can be explained by supposing (what there are many facts to prove) that the females 
' prefer the most beautiful and perfect -plumaged males, and that thus slight accidental varia- 
tions of form and colour have been accumulated till they have produced the wonderful 
train of the Peacock and the gorgeous plumage of the Bird of Paradise. Both these 
causes have no doubt acted partially in insects, so many species possessing horns and power- 
ful jaws in the male sex only, and still more frequently the males alone rejoicing in rich 
colours or sparkling lustre. But there is here another cause which has led to sexual 
differences, viz. a special adaptation of the sexes to diverse habits or modes of life. This 
is well seen in female Butterflies (which are generally weaker and of slower flight), often 
having colours better adapted to concealment ; and in certain South American species 
{Fapilio torquatus) the females, which inhabit the forests, resemble the ^neas group, 
which abound in similar localities, while the males, which frequent the sunny open river- 
banks, have a totally different coloration. In these cases, therefore, natural selection 
seems to have acted independently of sexual selection ; and aU such cases may be con- 
sidered as examples of the simplest dimorphism, since the offspring never offer interme- 
diate varieties between the parent forms. 

The distinctive character therefore of dimorphism is this, that the union of these dis- 
tmct forms does not produce intermediate varieties, but reproduces them unchanged. 
In smiple varieties, on the other hand, as weU as when distinct local forms or distinct 
species are crossed, the offspring never resembles either parent exactly, but is more or 
less intermediate between them. Dimorphism is thus seen to be a speciaHzed result of 
variation, by which new physiological phenomena have been developed ; the two should 
ttierctore, whenever possible, be kept separate *. 

3. Local form^ or variety, -TU, is'the first step in the transition from variety to species. 

^d w"rh °[ f "'''^''" "' pohjmor,hism may be well illustrated by supposing that a blue-eyed, flaxeu- 
skinned X" ^^^^ a bl e^^ Indian s.uaw, the other a woollyheaU sooty. 

characteristL of their p^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ - ^-^^ tints, mingling the separate 

girls should altogether'::! :rri':r^^"^ ^T."^ ^^ P-^ S-- ^«y« '^^ their father, while the 


esemble their mothers. This would be thought a sufficiently wonderful fact ; yet the phe- 

warn ika civiaf!*, ™ :« *i.- • _ . i i .,, * ^ J * 


exactly like her fellow-wife, and akoiether rUff. • 'e ^ Z ' '° ""^ producmg other females 

human beings havin. similL HTJ'^ "f"^' '^.°" '!^^^5- '' ^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ stocked with a colony of 



It occurs in species of wide range, when groups of individuals liavc become partially 
isolated in several points of its area of distribution, in each of which a characteristic 
form has become segregated more or less completely. Such forms arc very common in 


all parts of the world, and have often been classed as varieties or species alternately. I 
restrict the term to those cases where the difference of the forms is very slight, or where 
the segregation is more or less imperfect. The best example in the present group is 
Fajnlio Agamemnon, L., a species which ranges over the greater part of tropical Asia, 
the whole of the Malay archipelago, and a portion of the Australian and Pacific regions. 
Tlie modifications are principally of size and form, and, though slight, are tolerably con- 
stant in each locality. The steps, however, are so numerous and gradual that it would 
be impossible to define many of them, though the extreme forms are sufiiciently distinct. 
Fapillo SmyedoUy L., presents somewhat similar but less numerous variations. 

4. Coexisting variety. — This is a somewhat doubtful case. It is when a sliglit but per- 
manent and hereditary modification of form exists in company with the parent or typical 
form, without presenting those intermediate gradations which would constitute it a case 
of simple variability. It is evidently only by direct evidence of the two forms breeding 
separately that this can be distinguished from dimorpliism. The dilficulty occurs in Fa- 
pilio Jason, Esp., and P. Bvemon, Bd., which inhabit the same localities, and are almost 
exactly alike in form, size, and coloration, except that the latter always wants a very 
conspicuous red spot on the under surface, which is found not only in P. Jason, but in all 
the allied species. It is only by breeding the two insects that it can be determined whe- 
ther this is a case of a coexisting variety or of dhnotpMsm. In the former case, however, 
the difference being constant and so very conspicuous and easily defined, I see not how 
we could escape considering it as a distinct species. A true case of coexisting forms 
would, I consider, be produced, if a slight variety had become fiixed as a local form, and 
afterwards been brought into contact with the parent species with little or no inter- 
mixture of the two ; and such instances do very probably occur. 

5. Hace, or subspecies. — These are local forms completely fixed and isolated ; and there 
is no possible test but individual opinion to determine which of them shall be considered 
as sj)ecies and which varieties. If stability of form and " the constant transmission of 
some characteristic pecidiarity of organization " is the test of a species (and I can find 
no other test that is more certain than individual opinion), then every one of these fixed 
races, confined as they almost always are to distinct and limited areas, must be regarded 
as a species ; and as such I have in most cases treated them. The various modifications of 
Fapilio Ulysses, P. Peranthus, P. Codrus, P. Eurypilus, P. Selenns, &c., are excellent 
examples ; for while some present great and well-marked, others offer slight and incon- 
spicuous differences, yet in all cases these differences seem equally fixed and permanent. 
If, therefore, we call some of these forms species, and others varieties, we introduce a 
purely arbitrary distinction, and shall never be able to decide where to draw the line. 
The races of TapiUo Ulysses^ L., for example, vary in amount of modification from the 
scarcely differing New Guinea form to those of T\^odlark Island and New Caledonia, but 

white men living with yellow, red, and black women, and their offspring always reproducing the same types ; so that 
at the end of many generations tlie men would remain pure white, and the women of the same well-marked races as 

at the commencement. 



all seem equally constant ; and as most of these had already been named and described 
as species, I have added the New Guinea form nnder the name of P. Penelope. We thus 
get a little group of Flyssine Papilios, the whole comprised within a very limited area, each 
one confined to a separate portion of that area, and, though differing in various amounts, 
each apparently constant. Few naturalists will doubt that all these may and probably 
have been derived from a common stock ; and therefore it seems desii-able that there 
should be a unity in our method of treating them : either call them all varieties or all 
species. Varieties, however, continually get overlooked ; in lists of species they are often 
altogether unrecorded ; and thus we are in danger of neglecting the interesting phenomena 
of variation and distribution which they present. I think it advisable, therefore, to name 
all such forms ; and those who will not accept them as species may consider them as sub- 
species or races. 

6. Species.^^}^eGiQB are merely those strongly marked races or local forms which, when 
in contact, do not intermix, and when inhabiting distinct areas are generally be],/eved to 
have had a separate origin, and to be incapable of producing a fertile hybrid offspring. 
But as the test of hybridity cannot be applied in one case in ten thousand, and even if it 
could be applied, would prove nothing, since it is founded on an assumption of the very 
question to be decided-and as the test of separate origin is in every case inapplicable— 
and as, further, the test of non-intermixture is useless, except in those rare cases where 
the most closely alHed species are found inhabiting the same area, it wiU be evident 
that we have no means whatever of distinguishing so-called "true species" from the 
several modes of variation here pointed out, and into which they so often pass by an 
insensible gi^dation It is qmte true that, in the great majority of cases, what we term 
species are so weU marked and definite that there is no difference • of opinion about 

LTnkt'r i' t '?^" *^''^ "' '^^* '' ^^^°^^*^ ^-' '^ -' *^^ -^- 1-^t is not 

d^Urc^o^l . . '"'' "'^ '^' '^^'^ '" '^^^^' ^^^ ^^^- ^^- *h« doctrine of the 

it nt V 3o; . ^TT"/ '^'"" "^' ^"P^^^" ^^^ ^— ^- t^-- It has been 
ecently asserted by a high authority that the difficulty of limiting species is in nropor- 

tion to our ignorance, and that just as groups or countries are m^re' a"^^^^^^^^ 
and studied m greater detail the liiuits of species become settled ^ ThTriH: 
Ike many other general assertions, its portion of both truth and ...... . ner 

w r:!LT^r ^^'^ ^-^^^d - ^- or isolated specimens, l2 

This statement has, 
There is no doubt 

had their 

true nature determined by the studv nf , 7 . 'i-'-'-iu^ens, nave Had tlicir 

thereby estabhdied .~^ ^- ^ '^ '*'™' °^ examples : they have been 

single specif Wwf, f ""' °*^'' ^""^ "1"^"^ trustworthy cases in ,,^ch. not 

Dr. Carpenter's • In roducttn n ft' , f ^ "" '"^ °' '''''' "'"^^ ^« '^d^«««''- I" 

not a l,le .peciulntftZ t fl "' ''^' ^^^^-^<^^-> he states that " there is 

the renew of Messrs. WUUmison L V''^^ " "!1 "-^ '^"'^""'■'^ «« >uive passed under 

"'ray Oa the Speeies of Lemuioids," Proc, Zool. Soc. 1863, p. 134. 



types of this group ; " and the result of this extended comparison of specimens is stated to 
be, *^ The range of variation is so great among the Foramiuifcra as to include not merely 
those differential characters which have been mually accounted specific, hut also those 
upon ivhich the greater part of the genera of this group have been founded, and even in 
some instances those of its orders" (Foraminifera, Preface, x). Yet this same group 
had been di\ided by D'Orbigny and other authors into a number of clearly dafmadi families, 
genera, and species, which these careful and conscientious researches have showTi to liave 
been almost all founded on incomplete knowledge. 

Professor DeCandolle has recently given the results of an extensive review of the species 
of Cupuliferai. He finds that the best-known species of oaks arc tliose which produce 
most varieties and sub varieties, that they are often surrounded by provisional species ; 
and, Avith the fullest materials at his command, two-thirds of the species he considers 
more or less doubtful. His general conclusion is, tliat "i;i hotany tJie lowest series of 
groups, SUBVAEIETIES, VARIETIES, and RACES are very hadly limited ; these can he grouped 
Into SPECIES a little less vaguely limited, ichicli again can be formed into sufficiently precise 
GENERA." This general conclusion is entirely objected to by the T^Titcr of the article in 
the * Natural History Review,' who, however, docs not deny its applicability to the par- 
ticular order under discussion, while this very difference of opinion is another proof that 
difficulties in the determination of species do not, any more than in the higher groups, 
vanish with increasing materials and more accurate research. 

Another striking example of the same kind is seen in the genera Buhus and Bosa, 
adduced by Mr. Darwin himself ; for though the amplest materials exist for a knowledge 
of these groups, and the most careful research has been bestowed upon them, yet the 
various species have not tliereby been accurately limited and defined so as to satisfy the 
majority of botanists. 

Dr. Hooker seems to have found the same thing in his study of the Arctic flora. Por 
though he has had much of the accumulated materials of his predecessors to work upon, 
he continually expresses himself as unable to do more than group the numerous and 
apparently fluctuating forms into more or less imperfectly defined species*. 

Lastly, I will adduce Mr. Bates's researches on the Amazons. During eleven years he 
accumulated vast materials, and carefully studied the variation and distribution of insects. 
Yet he has shown that many species of Lepidoptera, which before offered no special difii- 
culties, are in reality most intricately combined in a tangled web of affinities, leading by 
sucli gradual steps from the sliglitcst and least stable variations to fixed races and well- 

marked species, that it is very often impossible to draw those sharp dividing-lines which 
it is supposed that a careful study and full materials will always enable us to do. 

These few examples show, I think, that in every department of nature there occur 
instances of the instability of specific form, which the increase of materials acrgravates 

* In his paper on the " Distribution of Arctic Plants/' Trans, Lmn. Soc. xxiii. p. 310, Dr. Hooker says : — % 

*^The most able and experienced descriptive botanists vary in their estimate of the value of the * specific term ' to a 
much greater extent than is generally supposed," 

**I think I may safely affirm that the 'specific term' has three different standard values, all current in descriptive 
botany, but each more or less confined to one class of observers/* 

"This is no question of what is right or wrong as to the real value of the specific term; I believe each is right 
according to the standard he assumes as the specific." 


ratlier than diminislies. And it must be remembered that the naturalist is rarely likely 
to err on the side of imputing greater indefiniteness to species than really exists. There 
is a com2)leteness and satisfaction to the mind in defining and limiting and naming a 
species, which leads us all to do so whenever we conscientiously can, and which we know 
has led many collectors to reject vague intermediate forms as destroying the symmetry of 
their ca])inets. We must therefore consider these cases of excessive variation and insta- 
bility as being thoroughly well established ; and to the objection that, after all, these cases 
are but few compared with those in which species ^ can be limited and defined, and are 
therefore merely exceptions to a general rule, I reply that a true law embraces all 
apparent exceptions, and that to the great laws of nature there are no real exceptions 
that what appear to be such are equally results of law, and are often (perhaps indeed 
always) those very results which are most important as revealing the true nature and 
action of the law. It is for such reasons that naturalists now look upon the study of 

more important than that of well-fixed species. It is in the former that we 


nature still at work, in the very act of producing those wonderful modifications of foi 
endless variety of colour, and that complicated harmony of relations, which gratify 

every sense and give occupation to every faculty of the true lover of nature 



Variation as specially influenced hy LocaUiy. 
The phenomena of variation as influenced by local ity have not hitherto received much 
attention. Botanists, it is true, are acquainted with the influences of chmate, altitude and 
other physical conditions in modifying the forms and external characteristics of plants • 
but I aui not aware that any peculiar influence has been traced to locality, independent 
of chmate Almost the only case I can find recorded is mentioned in that repertory of 

o become arboreal m islands. In the animal world, 1 cannot find that any facts have 
been pointed out as showing the special influence of locality in givin. a peculL to 

matter will therefore, I hope, possess some interest and novelty 

On examining the closely allied species, local forms, and varieties distriliuted over the 

a special chaiacter to the majority of their- Papilionida^. Tor instance- 1 The 
-= of ho ndian region (Sumatra, Java, and Borneo) are almost invaS y smalle 
_ e a lied species inhabiting Celebes and the Moluccas ; 2. The sS of New 
Gmnca and Australia are also, though in a less de-^ree «mnll»J+i, 7, ^ 

anterior wm<^s, different fvom ihn+ r.4^ +t,^ it i . ^ ^ii<^iiacier m the form of the 

o uiireient iiom that of the aUied species and varieties of nil +1.^ 1 

mg islands; 6. Tailed species in India or the Indfn. ^^.^'^'f ' ^^ aU the surround- 

spread eastward through the arcVpela ^'"'^ ^'"'^^ ^""^''^ 


than the 


that the tables I^ .ow ^ r^Z::^^^ S:iT '' ''T ^^^' ' ''''-'' 

utiy exact, ihe difi'erenccs of expanse of win"-s 




are in most cases very great, and are mucli more conspicuous in the specimens themselves 
than on paper. It will be seen that no less than fourteen Papilionidcc inhabiting Celebes 
and the Moluccas are from one-third to one-half greater in extent of wing than the allied 

species representing them in Java, Sumatra, and B 

Six species inhabiting Amboy 

larger than the closely allied forms of the northern Moluccas and IS^cw Guinea by about 
■sixth. These include almost every case in which closely allied species can be compared. 


Species of the Moluccas aad Celebes (large). 


Ornithoptera Helena (Amboyna) 


. 7-6 

Papilio Macedon (Celebes) 5*8 


P. Philippus (Moluccas) 4-8 

P, Blumei (Celebes) 5-4 

P. Alphenor (Celebes) 4-8 

P. Gigon (Celebes) 5*4 

P. Deucalion (Celebes) 4'6 

P. Agamemnon, var. (Celebes) . • . . 

P. Eurypilus (Moluccas) 4'0 

P. Telephus (Celebes) . 4'3 

P. -^gisthus (Moluccas) 4'4 

P- Miletus (Celebes) 4*4 

P. Androcles (Celebes) ...... 4*8 

P. Polyphonies (Celebes) ..... 4'6 

Leptocircus Curtius (Celebes) .... 2'0 

Closely allied species of Java and tlie Indian region 




O. Pompeus 5'8 

O. Amphrisius CO 

P. Peranthus 3*8 

P. Brama 40 

P. Theseus 2'G 

P. Demolion 4'0 

P. Macareus 3*7 

P. Agamemnon^ var 3'8 

P. Jason 3'4 

P. Rama 3-2 

P. Sarpedon 3-8 

P. Antiphates 3*7 

P. Diphilus 3-9 

L. Meges 1*8 

Species inhabiting Amboyna (large). 

Papilio Ulysses ..61 

P. Polydorus 4*9 

P. Deiphobus 6'8 

P. Gambrisius 6*4 


P. Codrus 5-1 

Ornithoptera Priamus, d 80 

Allied species of New Guinea and the North Moluccas 


P. Penelope . . .5' 

P. Telegonus • . . . 4'0 

P. Leodamas 4*0 

P. Deiphontes 5*8 

P. Ormenus 5 6 

P. Tydeus G'O 

P. Codrus, var. papuensis 4*3 

Orn. Poseidon, c? 7'0 

In Java, Sumatra 

The differences of form are equally clear. 

FapiUo Pammon everywhere on the continent is tailed in Loth sexes, 
and Borneo, the closely allied P. TJieseus has a very short tail, or tooth only, in the male, 
while in tlie females the tail is retained. Further east, in Celebes and the South Moluccas, 
the hardly separable P. AlpJicnoi^ has quite lost the tail in the male, while the female 
retains it, but in a narrower and less spatulate form. A little further, in Gilolo, P. Nicanor 
has completely lost the tail in both sexes. 

I^cfjnlio Agamemnon exhibits a somewhat similar series of changes 

In India it 

always tailed 

the greater part of the archipelago it has a very short tail ; while far 

east, in New Guinea and the adjacent islands, the tail has almost entii*ely disappeared 




In the Poli/dorns-sTou^ two species, P. Antiphus and P. DipMlus, inhabitin 
and the Indian rc-ion, arc tailed, while the two which take their place in the Moluccas 

New Guinea, and Australia, P. Folydor 

and P. Leodamas 

destitute of tail, the 

species furthest east having lost this ornament the most completely 

Western species, tailed 

Papilio Pammon (India) . 
P. Agamemnon, var. (India) 
P. Aatlphus (India^ Java) 
P. Dlphilus (India^ Java) 


tailed. P. Thesus (islands) • 

. very short tail. 

tailed. P. Agamemnon, var. (islands) not tailed. 



not tailed. 

tailed, P. Leodamas (New Guinea) . not tailed. 

The most conspicuous instance of local modification of form, lio\Yever, is exhibited in 
the island of Celebes, wliich in this respect, as in some others, stands alone and isolated 
in the whole archipelago. Almost every species of Fapilio inhabiting Celebes has the 
wings of a peculiar shape, which distinguishes them at a glance from the allied species of 
eveiy other island. This peculiarity consists, first, in the upper wings being generally 
more elongate and falcate ; and secondly, in the costa or anterior margin being much 
more curved, and in most instances exhibiting near the base an abrupt bend or elbow, 
which in some species is very conspicuous. This peculiarity is visible, not only when 
the Celebesian species are compared with, their small-sized allies of Java and Eorneo, but 
also, and in an almost equal degree, when the large forms of Amboyna and the Moluccas 
are the objects of comparison, showing that this is quite a distinct phenomena from the 
difference of size which has just been pointed out. 

In the following Table I have arranged the chief Papilios of Celebes in the order in 
which they exhibit this characteristic form most prominently. (See Plate VIII.) 

I of Celebes^ having the wings 
ir with abruptly curved costa. 

1. P. Gigon, n. s. 

2, P. TelephuSj n. s. 





6. P. Ascalaphus. 

7- P* Hecuba, n. s. 

8. P. Blumei. 

9. P. Androcles. 

10. P. Rhesus. 

11. P. Theseus, var.^ c? . 

12. P. Codrus^ var. 

13. P, Encelades, 

Closely allied Papilios of the surrounding islands, with 
less falcate wings and slightly cui'ved costa. 

P. Demolion (Java). 
P. Jason (Sumatra). 
P. Sarpedon (Moluccas, Java). 
P. Agamemnon^ var. (Borneo). 
P. Peranthus (Java). 
P. Dciphontes, n. s. (Gilolo). 
P. Helenus (Java). 
P. Brama (Sumatra). 
P. Antiphates (Borneo). 
P. Aristasus (Moluccas). 
P. Thesus, 6 (Java). 
P. Codrus (Moluccas). 


It thus appears that eveiy species of JPapilio exhibits this peculiar form in a "reater or 
less degree except one, P. Polyphonies, Bd., allied to J>. Diphilm of India and P.Fohdorus 

of the Moluccas. This fact I shall recur to again, as I think it helps us to understand 
somctlung of the causes that may have brought about the phenomenon we are considering. 
Neither do the genera Ommoptera and Zeptocireus exhibit any traces of this peculiar 
form. In several other families of Butterflies this characteristic form reappears in a few 
species. In the Pieridoe the foUowing species exhibit it distinctly ; 


■ . - 

1. Eronia tritaea compared with Eronia Valeria (Java). 

2. Iphias Glaucippe, var. . . „ „ Iphias Glaucippe (Java). 

3. Pieris Zebuda „ „ Pieris Descombesi (India). 

4. P. Zarinda „ » P« Nero (Malacca). 

5. P.J n. s „ „ P. Ilyparete (Java). 

6. P. Hombronii . .1 , ., ^ i i. ■ i i. j 

\ have the same form^ but are isolated species. 

7. P. Ithome . . .J 

8. P. Epcria, Bd compared with P. Coronis (Java). 

9. P. Pohsma „ „ P., n. s. (Malacca). 

10. Terias, n. s „ „ P. Tilaha (Java). 

The other species of Terias, one or two Fieris, and the genus Callidryas do not exhibit 

any perceptible change of form. 

In the other families there are hut few similar examples. The following are all that I 

can find in my collection : — 

Cethosia -^ole compared with Cethosia Biblis (Java). 

Junonia, n. s „ „ Junonia Polynice (Borneo). 

Limenitis Li mire ,, „ Limenitis Procris (Java). 

Cynthia Arsinoe^ var „ „ Cynthia Arsinoe (Java, Sum., Born.). 

All these belong to the family of the Nymphalidse. Many other genera of this family, as 
Diadema, AdollaSj Charaxes, and Ctjrestis, as well as the entire families of the Danaidse, 
Satyridse, Lycacnidoe, and Hesperidse, present no examples of this peculiar form of the 


upper wing in the Celehesian species. 



The facts now brought forward seem to me of the highest interest. We see that 
almost all the species in two important families of the Lepidoptcra (Papilionidoe and 
Pieridse) acquire, in a single island, a characteristic modification of form distinguishing 
them from the allied species and varieties of all the surrounding islands. In other 
equally extensive families no such change occurs, except in one or two isolated species. 
However we may account for these phenomena, or whether we may be quite unable to 
account for them, they furnish, in my opinion, a strong corroborative testimony in favour 
of the doctrine of the origin of species by successive small variations ; for we have here 
slight varieties, local races, and undoubted species, all modified in exactly the same 
manner, indicating plainly a common cause producing identical results. On the gene- 
rally received theory of the original distinctness and permanence of species, we are met 
by this difficulty : one portion of these curiously modified forms are admitted to have 
been produced by variation and some natural action of local conditions ; whilst the other 
portion, differing from the former only in degree, and connected with them by insensible 
gradations, are said to have possessed this peculiarity of form at their first creation, or to 
have derived it from unknown causes of a totally distinct nature. Is not the a jp7nori 
evidence in favour of the assumption of an identity of the causes that have produced 
such similar results ? and have we not a right to call upon our opponents for some proofs 
of their own doctrine, and for an explanation of its difficulties, instead of their assuming 
that they are right, and laying upon us the burthen of disproof ? 

Let us now see if the facts in question do not themselves furnish some clue to their 

VOL. XXV. . D 



own explanation. Mr. Bates lias sliown that certain groups of butterflies have a defence 
against insectivorous animals, independent of swiftness of motion. These are generally 
very abundant, slow, and weak fliers, and are more or less the objects of mimicry by 
other groups, which thus gain an advantage in a freedom from persecution similar to 
tliat enjoyed by those they resemble. Now the only Papilios which have not in Celebes 
acquu*ed the peculiar form of wing belong to a group which is imitated both by other 

species of Fapilio and by Moths of the genus Epicopeia, West. This group is of weak 


and slow flight ; and we may therefore fairly conclude that it possesses some means of 
defence (probably in a peculiar odour or taste) which saves it from attack. Now the 
arched costa and falcate form of wing is generally supposed to give increased powers of 
flight, or, as seems to me more probable, greater facility in making sudden turnings, and 
thus bafiling a pursuer. . But the members of the Tolydonis-^^mw^ (to which belongs the 
only unchanged Celebesian Fapilio), being already guarded against attack, have no need 
of this increased power of wing ; and " natural selection" would therefore have no tendency 
to produce it. The whole family of Danaidse are in the same position : they are slow^ and 

eak fliers ; yet they abound in species and individuals, and are the objects of mimicry. 
SatyridiB have also probably a means of protection — ^]_)erhaps their keepiiig always 
near the ground and their generally obscure colours ; while the Lyc^enidfe and Hesperid^ 
may find security in their small size and rapid motions. In the extensive family of the 
Nymphalidae, however, we find that several of the larger species, of comparatively feeble 
structure, have their mngs modified {Cethosia, Limemtis, Jimonia, Cynthia), while the 
large-bodied powerfid species, which have all an excessively rapid flight, have exactly 
the same form of wing in Celebes as in the other islands. On the whole, therefore, we 
may say that all the butterflies of rather large size, conspicuous colours, and not very 
swift flight have been affected in the manner described, while the smaller-sized and 
obscure groups, as well as those which are the objects of mimicry, and also those of 
exceedingly swift flight, have remained unaffected. 

It would thus appear as if there must be (or once ^have been) in the island of 
Celebes, some peculiar enemy to these larger-sized butterflies which does not exist 

less abundant, in- the surrounding islands. Increased powers of flight, or rapidity of 
turmng, was advantageous in bafiling this enemy ; and the peculiar form of wing necessary 
to give this would be readily acquired by the action of "natural selection " on the sh^ht 
variations of form that are continually occurring. Such an enemy one would naturally 
suppose to be an insectivorous bird ; but it is a remarkable fact that most of the 


of Jly-eatehers of Borneo and Java on the one side (Musc^etu, mUentoma), and of the 
Moluccas on the other {MonarcU, BhipHuru), are almost entkely absent from Celebes, 
wh ch^rof™' ^^^-^PPlif l^y tl^^^ CaterpiUar^eatchers {Graucalus, Campephaga), of 

^> e have no positive evidence that these birds pursue butterflies on the 

winir, but it 

fi of Sies^f 7 t ':. "''^" "'""" '°°' " ''''"'*■ However this may be, the 

fauna of Celebes is undoubtedly highly pecuUar in every department of which we Lave 

"tjo^^.vv^ ^.iittt lue larger uragon-i 

they were more abundant ia Celebes than elaewbere. 


ies ; but I did not notice that 



any knowledge ; and though we may not he ahlc to trace it satisfactorily, there can, I 
think, he little donht that the singular modification in the wings of so many of the 
hntterflics of that island is an effect of that complicated action and reaction of all living 
things upon each other in the struggle for existence, which continually tends to readjust 
disturhcd relations, and to bring every species into harmony with the varying conditions 
of the surrounding universe. 

But even the conjectural explanation now given fails us in the other cases of local modi- 
fication. AVhy the species of the western islands should he smaller than those furthfer east, 

why those of Amhoyna should exceed in size those of Gilolo and New Guinea — why 
the tailed species of India should hcgin to lose that appendage in the islands, and retain 
no trace of it on the horders of the Pacific, are questions which we cannot at present 
attempt to answer. That they depend, however, on some general principle is certain, 
because analogous facts have been observed in other parts of the world. Mr. Bates 
informs me that, in three distinct groups, Papilios which on the Upper Amazon and in 
most other parts of South America have spotless upper wings obtain pale or white spots 
at Para and on the Lower Amazon ; and also that the ^neas-^YOU]) of Papilios never have 
tails in the equatorial regions and the Amazons valley, hut gradually acquire tails in many 
cases as they range towards the northern or southern tropic. Even in Europe we have 
somewhat similar facts ; for the species and varieties of butterflies peculiar to the island 
of Sardinia are generally smaller and more deeply coloured than those of the mainland, 
and Fcqnlio Hosjoiton has lost the tail, which is a prominent feature of the closely allied 
P. Machaon. 


Eacts of a similar nature to those now brought forward would no doubt be found to 
occur in other groups of insects, were local faunas carefully studied in relation to those 
of the surrounding countries ; and they seem to indicate that climate and other physical 
causes have, in some cases, a very powerful effect in modifying specific form, and thus 
directly aid in producing the endless variety of nature. 

I may state that I can adduce facts perfectly analogous to these from other families of 
Lepidoj)tera, especially the Danaidse ; but as the greater part of the species are still unde- 
scribed, I can only now assert that similar phenomena do occur there. 


I need scarcely say that I entirely agree with Mr. Bates's explanation of the 
causes which have led to one group of insects mimicking another (Trans, Linn. Soc. 
vol. xxiii. p. 495). I have, therefore, only now to adduce such illustrations of this 
curioas phenomenon as are furnished by the Eastern Papilionidae, and to show their 
bearing upon the phenomena of variation already mentioned. As in America, so in the 
Old "World, species of Banaidse are the objects which the other families most often 
imitate. But, besides these, some genera of Morphidae and one section of the genus 
Tapilio are also less frequently copied. Many species of Fcqnlio mimic other species 

of these three groups so closely that they are undistinguishable when on the wing ; and 

in every case the pairs which resemble each other inhabit the same locality. 

The following list exhibits the most important and best-marked cases of mimicry which 
occur among the Papilionidae of the Malayan region and India ; 

D 2 




Mimiclvers*. Species mimicked. Conunon habitat 

1 . Papilio paradoxa, ^m^., c? . . - Euploea Midamus, Cr., cJ . . • 1 g^j^j^t^a &c 


,? J 

2, ^ West E. Rhadamanthus Sumatra, &c. 

3. P. Caunusj . E., sp *. . . . Borneo. 

4. P. Thule, Wall. Danais sobrinaj Bd. .... New Guinea. 

5. P. Macareus, Godt D. Aglaia, Cr Malacca, Java. 

C. P. Agestor, G. 2?. G D. Tytia, G. i?. G Northern India. 

7. P- id^eoiclesj Hewits Hestia Leuconoe^ Erichs. . . . Philippines. 

8. P. Delessertiij Giier. Hestia^ sp. . Penang. 


9. P. Pandion^ Wall.^ $ Drusilla bioculata, Guer. • • . New Guinea. 

Papilio (Polydorus- and CooN-groups). 

10. P. Pammon^ L. (Romulus^ X.)^ $ . Papilio Hector^ X. . • . . . India. 

11. P. Theseus, Cr,, var.5$ .^ . . • P. Antlphus, -F<2^ Sumatra, Borneo. 

12. P. Theseus, Cr., var., 2 .... P. Diphilus, Esp Sumatra, Java. 

13. P. Memnon, var. Achates^ $ . . P, Coon, Fab Sumatra. 

14. P. Androgens, var. Achates^ ? , P. Doubledayi, Wall • • . . Northern India. 

15. P. CEnomaus, God.^2 .... P. Liris, God. Timor. 

We have therefore fifteen species or marked varieties of Papilio which so closely 

resemhle species of other groups in their respective localities, that it is not possible to 
impute the resemhlanee to accident. The first two in the list (Papilio paradoxa and P. 
Cmtmis) are so exactly like Eit])laia Midamus and P. Blmdamantlms on the wing, that, 
although they fly veiy slowly, I was quite unable to distinguish them. The first is a 
very interesting case, because the male and female differ considerably, and each mimics 
the corresponding sex of the Euplcea. A new species of Popilio which I discovered in 

New Guinea resembles Dmiaia soh-hia, Bd., from the same countiy, just as Papilio 

Maaareus resembles Panais Aglaia in Malacca, and (according to Dr. Horsfleld's figure) 
stiU more closely in Java. The Indian Papilio Agestor closely imitates Pauaii Tytia, 
which has quite a different style of eolourin g from the preceding ; and the extraordinary 
Papiho idwoides from the Philippine Islands must, when on the wing, perfectly resemble 

tli^Hedia Zeuconoe of the same region, as also does the P. Pelessertii, Gu&., imitate an 
undescnbed species of Meslia from Penang. Now in every one of these cases the Papilios 
are very scarce, while the Danaida. which they resemble are exceedingly abundant-most 
of them swarmmg so as to be a positive nuisance to the coUocting entomologist by con- 

S"'S. ;'™^ '^^°'\'7 ''''''' ""' " ^"^ ^^^^^ °f "«^« ^-^ more varied caiL.. 

i^eiy garden, every roadside, the suburbs of every village are full of them, indicatin 


The terms "«);»i,-/.«,-" -> i «._..•..-» „ 

mimicry and « mimickera 


on the Dart of tTiP ?T.=«of= rr\ • » -j----^ tu uu tue grouna mat tliey imply voluntary action 

originator of the term i„ thU sense exclude, all idea of voL toy aelf The T T '"'""*"*' '' 7 

not i„ptyi„g ^u, are «w?„„„. .•„,7„„-,„ .„.,,• L.I =""'•. . ^'"'.°°'^ W'o-nately sj-uonj-mons words, 

mimic, mlmickers, mimicry, mimiched. 

Mr. Bates's expression so readily lends itself in tlie terms 

and wide discussion of the snhject must be 17 —--nee ot changing 

nothin. would b. ..,.., .. JH'T' ^\f''!^^ ^^^ 8^^^^% ^^^-^tood, and 





very clearly that their life is an easy one, and that they are free from persecution by the 
foes which keep down the population of less favoured races. This supernhundant popula- 
tion has been shown by Mr. Bates to be a general characteristic of all American groups 
and species which arc objects of mimicry ; and it is interesting to find his observations 
confirmed by examples on the other side of the globe. 

The remarkable genus Drusilla, a group of pale-coloured butterflies, more or less 
adorned with .ocellatc spots, is also the object of mimicry by three distinct genera 
{Melanitis, Hf/antis, and Papilio). These insects, like the Danakhe, are abundant 
in individuals, have a very weak and slow flight, and do not seek concealment, or 
appear to have any means of protection from insectivorous creatures. It is natural to 
conclude, therefore, that they have some hidden property which saves them from attack ; 
and it is easy to see that when any other insects, by what we call accidental variation, 
come more or less remotely to resemble them, the latter will share to some extent in 
their immunity. An extraordinary dimorphic form of a female FajnUo has come to 
resemble the Drusillas sufiiciently to be taken for one of that group at a little distance ; 
and it is curious that I captured one of these Papilios in the Aru Islands hovering along 
the ground, and settling on it occasionally, just as it is the habit of the Drusillas to do. 
The resemblance in this case is only general; but this form of Papilio varies much, and 
there is therefore material for natural selection to act upon so as ultimately to pro- 
duce a copy as exact as in the other cases. 

The eastern Papilios allied to Pohjdorns Coon and P. PMloxemis, form a natural section 
of the genus resembling, in many respects, the ^w<?«s-group of South America, which 
they may be said to represent in the East. Like them, they are forest insects, have a 
low and weak flisrht, and in their favourite localities are rather abundant in individuals 5 
and like them, too, they are the objects of mimicry. We may conclude, therefore, that 
they possess some hidden means of protection, which makes it useful to other insects to 

be mistaken for them. 

The Papilios which resemble them belong to a very distinct section of the genus, in 

which the sexes differ greatly; and it is those females only which differ most from 
the males, and which have already been alluded to as exhibiting instances of dimorphism, 

which resemble species of the other group. 

The resemblance of P. Romulus to P. Hector is, in some specimens, very considerable,- 
and has led to the two species being placed to follow each other in the British Museum Ca- 
talogues and by Mr. E. Doubleday. I have shown, however, that P. Bomulus is probably a 
dimorphic form of the female P.Pammon, and belongs to a distinct section of the genus*. 

The next pair, P. Theseus, Cr., and P. AntipTius, Eab., have been united as one species 
both by De Haan and in the British Museum Catalogues. The ordinary variety of P. 
Theseus found in Java almost as nearly resembles P. DipMliis, Esp., of the same country. 
The most interesting case, however, is the extreme female form of P. Memmn (P.Achates, 
Cr.) t, which has acquired the general form and markings of P. Coon, an insect which differs 
from the ordinary male P. Memnon, as much as any two species differ which can be chosen 
in this extensive and highly varied genus ; and, as if to show that this resemblance is not 
accidental, but is the result of law, when in India we find a species closely allied to 

* See Plate II. fig. 6. f See Plate I. fig. 4. 


iation wliicli increases the 


P Coon, but witli red instead of yellow spots (P. DouMedap, Wall.), the corresponding 
variety of P. Androgeus (P. Achates, Cram., 182, A, b,) has acquired exactly the same 
peculiarity of having red spots instead of yellow. Lastly, in the island of Timor, the 
female of P. (Enomaus (a species allied to P. Memnon) resembles so closely P. Idris 
(one of the Pol^doms-gvoii])), that the two, which were often seen flying together, could 
only be distinguished by a minute comparison after being captured. 

Tlic last six cases of mimicry are especially instructive, because they seem to indicate 
one of the processes by which dimorphic forms have been produced. "When, as in these 
cases, one sex differs much from the other, and varies greatly itself, it may happen that 
occasionally individual variations will occur having a distant resemblance to groups which 
are the objects of mimicry, and which it is therefore advantageous to resemble. Such 
a variety will have a better chance of preservation ; the individuals possessing it will be 
multiplied; and their accidental likeness to the favoured group will be rendered perma 
nent by hereditary transmission, and, each successive va: 
semblance being preserved, and all variations departing from the favoured typo having 
less chance of preservation, there will in time result those singular cases of two or more 
isolated and fixed forms bound together by that intimate relationship which constitutes 
them the sexes of a single species. The reason why the females are more subject to this 
kind of modification than the males is, probably, that their slower flight, when laden 


with eggs, and their exposure to attack while in the act of depositing their eggs upon 
leaves, render it especially advantageous for them to have some additional protection. 
This they at once obtain by acquiring a resemblance to other species which, from what- 
ever cause, enjoy a comparative immunity from persecution. 

■ This summary of the more interesting phenomena of variation presented by the eastern 
Papilionidse is, I think, sufficient to substantiate my position, that the Lopidoptcra are 
a group that offer especial facilities for such inquiries ; and it will also show that they 
have undergone an amount of special adaptive modification rarely equalled among the 
the more highly organized animals. And, among the Lepidoptera, the great and pre- 
eminently tropical families of Papilionidse and Danaidse seem to be those in which com- 
plicated adaptations to the surroundinp^ orgranic and inorganic universe have been most 

O --JJ,"— v^ "^v^ ^^^'^^Cl 

completely developed, offering in this respect a striking analogy to the equally extraor- 
dinary, though totally different, adaptations which present themselves in the Orchidecd, 
the only family of plants in which mimicry of other organisms appears to play any im- 
portant part, and the only one in which striking cases of polymorphism occur ; for such 
we must consider to be the male, female, and hermaphrodite forms of Catasetum tri- 
dentatim, which differ so greatly in form and structure that they were long considered 
to belong to three distinct genera. 

Arrangement and Geographical Distribution of the Malayan PapiHonidEe. 
Although the species of PapiUonid^e inhabiting the Malayan region are very numerous, 
they all belong to three out of the nine genera into which the family is divided. One of 
the rcmammg genera [Pkrycus) is restricted to Australia, and another {Teinoimlpiis) to the 
Himalayan Mountams, while no less than four {Parnassius, Doritis, Thais, and Scricintis) 
are confined to Southern Europe and to the mountain-ran-cs of the Pal^earctic redon. 



The genera Ornithoptera and Leptocircus are highly characteristic of Malayan onto- 
mology, but are uniform in character and of small extent. The genus Pcpilio, on the other 
hand, presents a great variety of forms, and is so richly represented in the Malay islands, 
that more than one-fourth of all the known species arc found there. It becomes ne- 
cessary, therefore, to divide this genus into natural groups before we can successfully 
study its geographical distribution. 

Owing principally to Dr. Ilorsfield's observations in Java, we are acquainted with a 
considerable number of the larvae of Papilios ; and these furnish good characters for the 
primary division of the genus into natural groups. The manner in which the hinder 
wings are plaited or folded back at the abdominal margin, the size of the anal valves, the 
structure of the antennse, and the form of the win<?s are also of much service, as well 

as the character of the flight and the style of coloration. 

divide the Malayan Papilios into four sections, and seventeen groups, as follows : 

Using these characters, I 

Genus Ornithoptera. 

a. Priamus-QYovi^. Black and green. 
c. Brookeanus-gronp. 

b. Pornpeus -group. Black and yellow 

Genus Papilio. 

1 s 

A. Larvae short, thick, with numerous fleshy tubercles ; purplish. 


Abdominal fold in 6 very large ; anal valves small, but swollen ; antennse mode- 
rate ; wings entire, or tailed : includes the Indian Philoxe^ius-gvou]^. 
b. (7(?o^?-group. Abdominal fold in 6 small; anal valves small, but swollen; antennte moderate ; 


c. PolydoruS'grou-p. Abdominal fold in 6 small, or none; anal valves small or obsolete, hairy; 

wungs tailed or entire. 
B. Larvae with third segment swollen, transversely or obliquely banded ; pupa much bent. Imago with 

abdominal margin in c? plaited, but not reflexed; body weak ; antcnuEe long; wings much 

dilated, often tailed. 

d. Ulysses-group. 

e. Perantlius-group. 1 Proteno?*- group (Indian) is somewhat intermediate between these, and is 

f. Memnon-group. 

g. Helenus-gr oup. 
i. P ammoTi'gr oup. 

nearest to the Now-group. 

h. Erect heus-group. 
k. Demolion- group. 

C. Larvae subcyhndrical, variously coloured. Imago with abdominal margin in 6 plaited, but not 

reflexed ; body weak ; antennae short, with a thick curved club ; wings entire, 
1. Brit honius-gr oup. Sexes alike, larva and puj^a something like those of P. Demolion. 
m. P ar a doa: a- group. Sexes different. 
n. D issimiliS'gr oup. Sexes alike; larva bright-coloured; pupa straight, cylindric. 

D. Larvae elongate, attenuate behind, and often bifid, with lateral and obhque pale stripes, green. 

Imago with the abdominal margin in J reflexed, woolly or hairy within ; anal valves small, 
hairy; antennae short, stout; body stout. 


Hind wings entire. 

p. Antiphat es-group. Hind wings much tailed (swallow-tails). 
q. Eurypylus-group. Hind wings elongate or tailed. 

Genus Leptocircus. 


makings in all, twenty distinct groups of Malayan Papilionidai. 

The first section of tlie genus Fapilio (A) comprises insects which, though differing 

considerably in structure, have much general resemblance. They all have a weak, low 




flight, frequent tlio most luxuriant forest-districts, seem to love the shade, and are the 
objects of mimicry by other Papilios. 

Section E consists of weak-bodied, large-winged insects 



and which, when resting on foliage, often expand the 

ith an irreg:ular wavering 


which the 

of the other sections rarely or never do. They are the most conspicuous and striking of 

of eastern Butterflies. 
Section C consists of much weaker and slow^er-flying insects, often resembling in their 

flight, as well as in their colours, species of Danaidte. 


Section D contains the strongest-bodied and most swift-flying of the genus. 

love sunlight, and frequent the borders of streams and the edges of puddles, where 
they gather together in swarms consisting of several species, greedily sucking up the 
moisture, and, when disturbed, circling round in the air, or flying high and with great 
strength and rapidity. 

In the foUowing Table I have arranged all the Malayan Papilionidae in what appears 
to me their most natural succession, and have exhibited their distribution in twenty-one 
columns of localities, extending from the Malay peninsula, on the north-west, to Woodlark 
Island, near New Guinea, on the south-east 
from the Austro-Malayan region ; 

connected by brackets 

The double line divides the Indo-Malayan 
and those islands which form natural zoological groups 















TaUe sliowincj the Distribution of the Malayan Papilionida). 


a. P/'iVo/itts-group. 

Priamiis, L. . , . 
Poseidon, Bh. . 
Croesus, Feld. . 

Tithonus, De Haan 

IJrviUiana, Guer. 
b. PojH^eus-group. 

Eemus, CV 

Helena, L 

Leda, Wall 

Pompous, Or. ... 
N'ephercus, G. B. G. 

Magellanus, Felcl. 
Criton, Feld. 

Plato, Wall .... 
Haliphron, Bd. 
Amphrisius, Cr. 

c. 5/'OoZ-eanrt -group. 
Broolicana, Wall 





Kox, Sw 

Noctis, Hew. 
Erebus, Wall 











Atjsieo-Malayan Ejsgiox, 














* • 




# — ■ 






• • 




■ • 





* • 

















I— I 
















• ■ 





























Table showing the Distribution of the Malayan Papilioiiidx {continued) 



a. iVbiT-group (continued) 
Varuna, White 

Semperi, Feld* . 

b. Coon-group. 
Neptunus, Ouer 

Coon^ Fah. 

c. PoIydoiniS'gTOMp. 

Polydorus, 7/. . 
Leodamas, WaU, 
DiphiluSj Esj)er 

Antiplius, Fab, . . 
Polyphontes, Bd 
Annge, Feld 

Liris, Godt. . . . . 

d. Ulysses -group. 

Ulysses, L 

Penelope, Wall. . 
Telegonus, Feld, , 
Telemachus, Mont 

e. PerdniJius -gron-p, 

Perauthus, Fah. . 
Pericles, Wall, . . . 

Philippus, WalL 
Macedon, Wall. * 
Brama, Guer. , , 
Dsfedalus, Feld. . . 

Blumei, Bd, . . 

Ajjuna, Horsf, 
£, Memnon-group . 

Memnon, L. , . . 

Androgens, Or. . 
Lampsacus, Bd. 
Priapns, Bd. . 

Emalthion, Huhn. 
Deiphontes, Wall. 

Deiphobus, L. . 
Ascalaphus, Bd. 
^nomaus, Godt 

g. Helenus-group. 

Severus, Or. 

Pertinax, Wall. 
Albinus, Wall. , 
Phsestus, Bd. . 
Helenus, L. . . . 

Hecuba, Wall, . 
Iswara, White , 
Hystaspes, Feld, 
Araspea, Feld. . 
Nephelufl, Bd, . 

h. PaTnmon-group. 

Pammon, L, 
Theseus, Cr, 
























Austro-Malatan" Region 



• « 



• • 





• • 


1 1 















« « 

« • 
















, I 













• • 










• • 


V • 
















• « 














■ « 




• • 













































Table showing the I) istribtdion of the Malay an Papilionidse {contmued). 

Indo -Malayan 



Alphenor, Gr. 
Nicanor, Wall 

Ambrax, Bd. . 
AmlDracia, Wall. 
Epirus, Wall. . 
Dunali, Montr. . 

i. EreciIi6us-grow^. 

Ormenus, Gu4r^ 
Pandion^ Wall. 

Tydeus, Feld. . 
Adrastus, Wdlh 
Gambrisins, Cr. 
Amphytrion, Cr, 

Euchenor, Guer. 
Godartiij Montr. 

k. DeTnoUon-'gTOMp. 

Demolion, Cr 
Gigoii; Wall. 

1, ErithoniiiS'gTOU'p. 
Erithonius, Cr. 

m. Pa ra^oora -group. 

Paradoxa, Zinh 

jEnigma, Wall. 
Caunus, Westw. 
Astina, Westw. 


Echidna, DeHaan 
Paephates, Westw. 

Veiovifl, Hew. . . . 
Encelades, Bd. . 
Deucalion, Bd. . 
Idaeoides, Hew. . 

Delessertii, GiiSr.. 
Dehaanii, Wall. . 

Lencothoe, Westw. 
Macareus, Godt. . , 
Stratocles, Feld. . , 

Thule, Wall. 

\w * 

p. 4w=f^i>^<€^-group. 

Antiphates, Cr. 
Euphrates, Feld. 
Androcles, Bd. 
Dorcus, I)e Haan 

Kheaus, ^d 

Aristaeus, Cr. 

Pannatu?, G. R. O 




Hipponous, Feld. 

f • 

« • 

Hemtsonii, Westw 

Dissimilis-grovLp . 














a • 


# • 

« • 










• « 









































« m 

1 1 






1 1 








Table showing the Distribution of the Malayan Papilionidse {cohtvutied). 

^apilio {continued). 







q. Eurypylus-gTOixp. 

Codrus, Or 

Melanthus, Feld 

Empedocles, Fah 

Payeni, Bd , . 

Sarpedon, L 

Miletus, Wall 

Inbo- Malayan 














AusTRo -Malayan Eegiox. 


• % 


WaUacei, Hew. . 
Bathycles, Zhik. 
Eurypylus, L. . 
Jason, Esp. . . . 

Telephus, Wall. 

jiEgistus, L. . . . 
Agamemnon, L. 


, Feld. 

(? Arycles, Bd.) 


Mages, Zinh. . . . 
Curiiua , Wall. . . . 
Decius, Feld. . . . 
Curius, Fab 

Totals : 







Papilio . . . . , 


• « 



• 9 













Species in each island 









« • 


21 29 





■ 9 






t ' 
































* * 






















3 2 


24 6 8 


Indo-Malayan Eegion. 









« * 



• 9 


« • 

• « 



• « 


« • 



II 1 
















3 5 






■ w 



- r -* 


Seventy- two, 

Austro-Malayan B«gibli, 



The exceeding richness of the Malayan region in th6ge fine insects is seen by com 

paring the numher of species found in the different tropical regions of the earth 


all Africa only 33 species of Papilio are known ; but as several are 



collections, we may raise their number to about 40 

In all tropical Asia there are at 

present described only 65 species, and I have seen in collections but two or three which 

have not yet been named 

In South America, south of Panama, there are 120 species 

._ about the same number as I make in the Malayan region; but the area of the two 
countries is very different ; for while South America (even excluding Patagonia) contains 
5,000,000 square nules, a line encircling the whole of the Malayan islands would only 

include an area 
1,000,000 square miles 

of 2,700,000 square miles, of which the land 

This superior richness is partly real and partly apparent 

would be about 


breaking up of a district into small isolated portions, as in an archipelago, seeiflS highly 
favourable to the segregation and perpetuation of local peculiarities in certain groups ; so 

E 2 




that a species which on a continent might have a wide range, and whose local forms if 

any, would be so connected together that it would be imi^ossible to separate them, may 

become by isolation reduced to a number of such clearly deiined and constant forms that 

wo are obliged to count them as species. From this point of view, therefore, the superior 

number of Malayan species may he considered as apparent only. Its true superiority is 

sliown, on the other hand, by the possession of three genera and twenty groups of Pa- 

pilionidse against a single genus and eight groups in South America, and also by the 

much greater average size of the Malayan species. In most other families, however, the 

reverse i§ the case, the South American NympJialidce , Satyrid(B, and ErycinidcB far 'sur- 

passing those of the East in number, variety, and beauty. 

The foUowing list, exhibiting the range and distribution of each group, wiU enable us 
to study more easily their internal and external relations 



Range of the Groups of Malayan Papilionida). 

group. Moluccas to Woodlark 

2. Pompeus-grou^. Himalayas to New Guinea (Celebes, maximum) 

3. Brookeana-gvon^, Sumatra and Borneo. 



North India, Java, and Philippines. 

5. Coon-group. North India to Java. 

6. Polydorus-^vou^. India to New Guinea and Padfic. 

7. Ulysses-gron^. Celebes to New Caledonia. 

8. Feranthus-group, 

9. Memnon-grou-p . 


d Moluccas (India, max 

Moluccas r.Tava. mav \- 

;roup. Africa and India to New Guinea, 
group. India to Pacific and Australia. 

12. Erechtheus-gvoni^. Celebes to Australia. 

13. DemoUon-grouip. India to Celebes. 

14. Erithonius-gronp. Africa, India, Australia. 

15. Par«^o^a-group. India to Java (Borneo, max ) 

16. Dissimilis-gToup. India to Timor (India, max.!.' 

7. Macareus 

18. Antiphates-gronp. Widely 

India to New Guinea. 


India to Australia. 


20. Leptocircus-^oMp. India to Celebes. 

limitation of gro^pITo tie Tndo X"' ' \ " ° ^""'^^ ^^^°P«' ^ ^--- ^he 
pelago, which !s so'weU mark d t ^r T "' ''"^^^-^^''^y- divisions of the archi- 

vol. iv. 172, and • Journal o the Eott p'' ' ?■ "f ' ^"^ ' "'°™='l '' ^-^'-^ ^-",' 

the Eoyal Geographical Society,' 1863, p. 230), is much less 



conspicuous in insects, hut is shown in some degree hy tlic Papilionidoe. The following, 
groups are either almost or entirely restricted to one portion of the Arcliipclngo : — 

Tndo-Malayan Uegion. Amtro-Malayan Tlegion. 

Nooc-gron^. Priamus-group. 

Coon-group. Ulysses-group. 

Macarcus-group (nearly). Erechtheus-grou-p. 

P ar adox a-grou-p . 

Dissimilis-grouip (nearly). 


Leptocircus (genus), 

TIlc remaining groups, which range over the whole archipelago, are, in many cases, 
insects of very powerful flight, or they frequent open places and the sea-beach, and are 
thus more likely to get blown from island to island. The fact that three such charac- 
teristic groups as those of Priamus, VlysseSy and ErccJdheus are strictly limited to the 
Australian region of the archipelago, while five other groups arc with equal strictness 
confined to the Indian region, is a strong corroboration of that division which has been 
founded almost entirely on the distribution of Mammalia and Birds. 

If the various Malayan islands have undergone recent changes of level, and if any of 
them have been more closely united within the period of existing species than they are 
now, we may expect to find indications of such changes in community of species between 
islands now widely separated ; while those islands which have long remained isolated would 
have had time to acquire peculiar forms by a slow and natural process of modification. 

An examination of the relations of the species of the adjacent islands will thus enable 
us to correct opinions formed from a mere consideration of their relative positions. For 
example, looking at a map of the archipelago, it is almost impossible to avoid the idea 
that Java and Sumatra have been recently united ; their present proximity is so great, and 
they have such an obvious resemblance in their volcanic structure. Yet there can be 
little doubt that this opinion is erroneous, and that Sumatra has had a more recent and 
more intimate connexion with Borneo than it has had with Java. This is strikingly shown 
by the mammals of these islands — very few of the species of Java and Sumatra being 
identical, while a considerable number are common to Sumatra and Borneo. The birds 
show a somewhat similar relationship ; and we shall find that the group of insects we are 
now treating of tells exactly the same tale. Thus : — 

Sumatra 21 sp. , ^^ , , ,, . , -, 

-r, „^ ^ 20 sp. common to both islands j 

Borneo 29 sp. ' ^ 

Sumatra 21 sp. . ^ - , x i • i i 

^ j- 11 sp. common to both islands ; 
J ava ••••■., 2ii sp. 

^ -P* 1 20 sp. common to both islands ; 
Java 27 sp. '^ ^ 

showing that both Sumatra and Java have a much closer relationship to Borneo than 
they have each other — a most singular and interesting result when we consider the wide 
separation of Borneo from them both, and its very diiferent structure. The evidence 


furnished by a single group of insects would have had hut littld weight on a point of such 
magnitude if standing alone ; hut coming as it does to confirm deductions drawn from 
whole classes of the higher animals, it must be admitted to have considerable value. 

We may determine in a similar manner the relations of the different Papuan Islands to 
New Guinea. Of thirteen species of Papilionidae obtained in the Aru Islands, five were also 
found in New Guinea, and eight not. Of nine species obtained at Waigiou, fiVe were New 
Guinea, and four not. The five species found at My sol were aU New Guinea species. 
Mysol, therefore, has closer relations to New Guinea than the other islands ; and this is 
corroborated by the distribution of the birds, of which I will only now give one instance. 
The Paradise Bird found in Mysol is the common New Guinea species, while the Ai'U 
Islands and Waigiou have each a species peculiar to themselves. 

The large island of Borneo, which contains more species of Papilionid^ than ^ny other 
in the archipelago, has nevertheless only two peculiar to itself; and it is quite possible, 
and even probable, that one of these may be found in Sumatra or Java. The last-named 
island has also two species peculiar to it ; Sumatra has not one, and the peninsula of 
Malacca only one. The identity of species is even greater than m birds or in most other 
groups of insects, and points very strongly to a recent connexion of the whole with each 
other and the continent. But when we pass to the next island (Celebes), separated from 
them by a strait not wider than that which divides them from each other, we have a strik- 
ing contrast ; for with a total number of species less than either Borneo or Java, no less 
than eighteen are absolutely restricted to it. Purther east, the large islands of Ceram 
and New Guinea have only three species peculiar to each, and Timor has five. We shaU 
have to look, not to single islands, but to whole groups, in order to obtain an amount of 
mdividuality comparable with that of Celebes. Por example, the extensive group com- 
prising the large islands of Java, Borneo, and Sumatra, with the peninsula of Malacca, 
possessmg altogether 45 species, has about 21, or less than half, peculiar to it • the 
merous group of the PMippines possess 21 species, of which 16 are peculiar; the seven 
chief islands of the Moluccas have 27, of which 12 are peculiar ; and the whole of the 
Papuan Islands, with an equal number of species, have 17 pecuHar. Comparable with 
the most isolated of these groups is Celebes, with its 24 species, of which the larc>"e pro- 
portion of 18 are peculiar. We see, therefore, that the opinion I have already expressed, 
m the papers before quoted, of the high degree of isolation and the remarkable distinctive 
features of this interesting island, is fully borne out by the examination of this .... 
cuous family of insects. A single straggling island, with a few smaU sateUitcs, it .. 
zooj^ogically of equal importance with extensive groups of islands many times as large as 
islets 'coll -^ Zl." r^ '"*" '' '^' archipelago, surrounded on every side with 

S the X 7 "1 . ^^"^ ^''"^'^ '"^^ """^'^ ^^^" *^ ^ff-d *^« gr^-t- 't facilities 
for the migration and mtercommunication of their respective production, it vet stands 

Sv to s^l^'' ?. ""' ^f '"' ^ ^'''''''' ^ ^^^ ^^- 1--% - the globe. 
Briefly to summarize these peculiarities, Celebes possesses three genera of mammals 

out of the very ^aU number which inhabit it) which are of ingXr ZTZ^^d 

forms, viz., 0,nop.Mecus. a tailless Ape allied to the Baboons; Ano.'. lllt^^^^^^ 






Antelope of obscxire affinities, but quite unlike anything else in tlic whole arcliix^elago or 
in India ; and BaUrusa, an altogether abnormal wild Pig. With a rather limited bird 
population, Celebes has an immense preponderance of species confined to it, and has also 
five remarkable genera {Meropogon, Streptocitta, Modes, Scissirosfrum, and JHegacepha- 
Ion) entirely restricted to its narrow limits, as well as two others {Prioniturus and Basl- 
lornis) which only range to a single island beyond it. 

Mr, Smith's ehiboratc tables of the distribution of Malayan Hymenoptera (see ' Proc. 
Jinn. Soc' Zool. vol. vii.) show that, out of the large number of 301 species collected in 
Celebes, 190 (or nearly two-thirds) were absolutely restricted to it, although Borneo, on 
one side, and the various islands of the Moluccas on the other, were equally well ex- 
plored by me ; and no less than twelve of the genera are not found in any other island of 
the archipelago. I have just shown in the present paper that, in the Papilionidai, it has 
far more species of its own than any other island, and a greater proportion of pecuUar 
species than many of the large groups of islands in the archipelago— and that it gives to 
a large number of the species and varieties which inhabit it, 1st, an increase of size, 
a:nd, 2nd, a peculiar modification in the form of the wings, which stamp upon the most 
dissimilar insects a mark distinctive of their common birth-place. 

What, I would ask, are we to do with phenomena such as these? Are we to rest 
content with that very simple, but at the same time very unsatisfying explanation, that 
aU these insects and other animals were created exactly as they are, and originally placed 
exactly where they are, by the inscrutable wiU of their Creator, and that we have nothing 
to do but to register the facts and wonder ? Was this single island selected for a fan- 
tastic display of creative power, merely to excite a child-like and unreasoning admii-a- 
tion ? Is aU this appearance of gradual modification by the action of natural causes— a 
modification the successive steps of which we can almost trace— aU delusive ? Is this 
harmony between the most diverse groups, all presenting analogous phenomena, and 
indicating a dependence upon physical changes of which we have independent evi- 
dence, aU false testimony ? If I could think so, the study of nature would have lost for 
me its greatest charm. I should feel as would the geologist, if you could convince liim 
that his interpretation of the earth's past history was all a delusion— that strata were 
never formed in the primeval ocean, and that the fossils he so carefuUy coUects and 
studies are no true record of a former living world, but were aU created just as they 
now are, and in the rocks where he now finds them. 

I must here express my own belief that none of these phenomena, however apparently 
isolated or insignificant, can ever stand alone— that not the wing of a butterfly can 
change in form, or vary in colour, except in harmony with, and as a part of, the grand 
march of nature. I believe, therefore, that all the curious phenomena I have just re- 
capitulated are immediately dependent on the last series of changes, organic and inor- 
ganic, in these regions; and as the phenomena presented by the island of Celebes differ 
from 'those of aU the surrounding islands, it can, I conceive, only be because the past 
history of Celebes has been to some extent unique and different from theirs. We must 
have much more evidence to determine exactly in what that difference has consisted. 
At present, I only see my way clear to one deduction, viz., that Celebes represents one 


of the oldest parts of the archipelago, that it has been formerly more completely isolated 
both from India and from Australia than it is now, and that, amid all the mutations it 
has undergone, a relic or substratum of the fauna and flora of some more ancient land 

has been here preserved to us. 

It is only since my return home, and since I have been able to compare the productions 
of Celebes side by side with those of the surrounding islands, that I have been fully im- 
pressed with their peculiarity, and the great interest that attaches to them. The plants 
and the reptiles are still almost unknown ; and it is to be hoped that some enterprising 
naturahst may soon devote himself to their study. The geology of the country would 
also be well worth exploring, and its recent fossils would be of especial interest as elu- 
cidating the changes which have led to its present . anomalous condition. This island 
stands, as it were, upon the boundary-line between two worlds. On one side is that 
ancient Australian fauna which preserves to the present day the facies of an early geolo- 
gical epoch ; on the other is the rich and varied fauna of Asia, which seems to contain, 
in every class and order, the most perfect and highly organized animals. Celebes has 
relations to both, yet strictly belongs to neither ; it possesses characteristics which are 
altogether its own ; and I am convinced that no single island upon the globe would so 
well repay a careful and detailed research into its past and present history. 

In the following catalogue of the Malayan species of Papilionidoe I have included those 
from Woodlark Island, collected by M. Montrouzier, as that island comes fairly within 
the limits of the archipelago ; while I exclude New Caledonia as belonging more to the 
Australian and Pacific fauna. I have given full particulars of the variation of the 
several species, and have described all new species, forms, varieties, and uudescribcd 
sexes. The distribution of each species is noted chiefly from my own observations*. As 
the full synonymy and references to almost every work on Lepidoptera are given in the 
British Museum List of Papilionidse, I have not thought it necessary to do more than 
to refer to a good figure and description in well-known works ; and I have quoted Bois- 
duval's ' Species General des Lepidopteres ' throughout. In all eases, however, where I 
have myself corrected the synonymy, or determined sexes which had been before im- 
properly located, I have given much fuller references. 

^ I have found it necessary to describe and name twenty new species, and to separate 
six or seven more which have been hitherto considered as varieties or sexes of other 
species. I have also described and separated twenty-five local forms or races, and 
twenty polymorphous forms or sexes, as well as several simple varieties . On the other 
hand, I have reduced fourteen species, which figure in some of our latest lists, to the 
rank of sexes or local or polymorphic forms of other species, i^or convenience of reference, 
I add a hst of these, with a reference to the page where will be found the reasons for 

not adopting them 

Ornithoptera Ardiideus, G. R. Gray, 

Gray,—0. Poseidon, Db. fvar 



Ornithoptera Amphimedon, Cr., 
Papilio llegemon, G. R. Gray, =P 

Gray,=0. Poseidon, Db. (2 


(Wall.) after the localities wLere I have found 




Papilio Melanides^ De Haan, 
Papilio RomuluSj Cr.j 

P. Theseus, Fab. ( ? form), p. 53. 
P. Pammon, Z, ($ form), p. 52- 

Papilio Rumaiizovia, Eschsch.^ =P. Emalthion, ITubn. (? form), p. 48 

Papilio Polytes, L., 
Papilio Orophanes, Bth^ 
Papilio Elyros, G. 7?. Gray^ 
Papilio Amanga, Bd.y 
Papilio Onesimus, Hewits.^ 
Papilio Druslus, Cr., 

P. Pammon, L., $, p* 51. 

P. Ambrax, Bcl^ $, p. 54. 

P. Alphenor, Cr. (? form), p. 53. 

P. Ormcnus, Gucr, ($ form), p, 55 

P. Ormenus, Guer. ($ form), p. 55 

P. Gambrisius, Cr.j $, p. 58. 

As tlie 

ement of the species of FajjiUo wliicli I have adopted iu this paper 

somewhat new, and I hope will be found to he more natural than those which have hccn 
l^reviously used, I here add lists of the Indian and Australian species arranged in the 

Those already included in my Malayan list will be indicated thus, (MaL), 

same manner 

and printed in italics. 

List of the PAPiLioxiDiE of the Indian Megion. 

1. Teinopalpus imperialis, Hope. 

2. Ornithoptera Darsius, G. R. G. (Ceylon) 

3. — ■ — Rhadamanthus, Bd, 

4. Pompeus^ Cr. (MaL). 

5. Amphrisius, Cn (Mai.). 

Papilio (Sect A). 
Noa: group. 

6. Papilio Varuna^ White (MaL) 

23. Papilio Elplienor, Dh. 

24. Rhetenor, Westw. 

Sakontala, Hewits 


Peranthus group. 
26. Papilio Crino, Fab. (Ceylon) 




Aidoneus, Db, 
Philoxenus, G. R, G. 
Polyceutes, Db. 
Dasarada, Moore. 
Ravana, Moore. 
Minereus, G. R, G. 
Icarius, Westw. 


Bootes, Westw. 
Janaka, Moore. 

Coon group. 

16. Papilio Doubledayi, Wall. 

Poly dor US group, 

17. Papilio Joplion, G. R. G. (Ceylon) 



Diphilus, Esp. (Mai.). 

- Alcinous, Klug. 

- Mencius, Feld. 

- Hector, L. 




Bianor, Cr. 
Polyctor, Bd. 

Ganesa, Db, 
Arcturus, Westw 

Paris, L. 

Palinurus, Fab. ? 
Krishna, Moore. 

Memnon group. 

34. Papilio AndrogeuSy Cr. (MaL). 

Polymnestor, Cr. (Ceylon). 

36. - 

- Demetrius, Cr. 

Helenus group. 

37. Papilio Helenus y L. (MaL). 

Chaon, Westw. 

Castor, Westw. 

Nephelus, Bd. (Mai*.) 


Papilio (Sect. B) 
Protenor group. 

22. Papilio ProtenoTj Cr 

Pammon group. 
41. Papilio Pammon, L. (Mai.) 

Bemolion group, 
42. Papilio DemoUon, Cr. (Mai.). 






Papilio (Sect. C). 
Erithonius group. 


43. PapUIo EriihoniuSy Cr. (Mai.) 

Antiphates group. 
56. Papilio Antiphates^ Cr. (Mai.), 



Faradoxa group. 
44. Papilio Telearchus, Hewits. 


Slateri^ Hewits. 



Agetes^ Westw. 
AnticrateSj Db. 
Orestesj Fah. 
Alebion, G. R. G. 
Glycerion^ G. R. G< 

Dissimilis group. 

46. Papilio dissimilis, L, 



PanopCj L. 
Lacedaemorij Fab 
Pollux^ Westv). 






Papilio (Sect. D). 
Macareus group. 

Ho Macareus, God. (Mai.] 

■ Leiicothoe, Westw. (Mai 
' Megarus, Westw. 

■ Agestor, G. R. G. 

- Epytides, Hewits. 

- Xenocles, Db. 

Eurypylus (/roup. 
62. Papilio Gyas, Westw. 

Evan, Db. 
Cloanthus, Westw. 
Sarpedon, L. (Mai.). 
Chiron, Wall. 
Jason, Esp. (Mai.). 
Agamemnon, L: (Mai.) 
Rama, Feld. (Mai.). 




4. Chinese species 
61. Indian species, 
4. Ceylon species. 

List of the PAPILIONID.E of the Australian Eegion. 




Ornithoptera [Priamus group) . 
lithoptera Poseidon, Db. (Mai 
Richmondia, G. R. G. 

Papilio (Sect. A). 

Polydorus group. 
b Leodamas, Wall. (Mai). 

Papilio (Sect. C). 
Erithonius group. 
13. Papilio Erithonius, Cr. (Mai.). 


Anactor group. 
14. Papilio Anactor, McL. 

Godartianus, Bd. (Pacific Islands) 

Papilio (Sect. B) 



6. Papilio Capaneus, Westw. 


Ilioneus, Don. 

Papilio (Sect. D). 

Antiphates group. 
15. Papilio Leosthenes, Db. 



Ulysses group. 

8. Papilio Ulyssinus, Westw. 


Montrouzieri, Bd. (New Caledonia) 



10. Papilio Canopus, Westw. 


eus group . 

Eurypylus group. 

17. Papilio Sarpedon, L. (Mai.). 

18. — 



- Gelon, Bd. (New Caledonia). 
Ljcaon, Westw, 


Macleayanus, Leach. 
Scottianus, Feld. (Ash Islands) 

22. Euiydus Cressida, Fab. 

U. Papilio Erectheus, Don. 


Amyntor, Bd. (New Caledonia) . 

6. Pacific Islands. 
16. Australia. 



Catalogue of Malayan VA.viLio^uy^E.. 

Oenithoptera (Boisd.). 



Tlie characters in tlie larva and puim wliich have been supposed to distinguish this 
genus from Papilio are erroneous, or at least do not exist in all the species. My own 
ohservations on 0. Foseidon show that the larva has no " external sheath " to the tho- 
racic tentacles, and that the suspending thread passes round the pupa, and is not " fas- 
tened on each side to a sHky tubercle." There remain therefore only the characters of 
the perfect insect, the most important of which are the anal yalves in the male. These 
are very large, ovate or rounded, coriaceous, and not hairy, and are furnished with pro- 
jecting points or spines (sometimes very conspicuous) which serve Fig. i. 
to attach the male more firmly to the female in cojmld. In 
several species I have observed, these points or hooks were buried 
in the protruded anal gland of the female, and thus effectually pre- 
vented the great weight of the insects causing them to separate upon 
suddenlv taking flight. The great strength and size of these insects, 

„,,. . ii'i 1 ;iA^,4.<,„ Anal valves of 0. JwMm«z«. 

the thick texture of theu- wmgs, then? long cm- red and stout an- 
tennse, their peculiar form, colom% and distribution, are the only other characters that 
separate them from Papilio. Though these may not perhaps be technically sufficient, I 
think it advisable and convenient to retain a genus so well known and long established.^ 
OrnitJioptera is pre-eminently a Malayan genus, seventeen species inhabiting the archi- 
pelago, one {BhaclamantJms, Bd.) India and China, one (Darsms, G. R. Gray) peculiar 
to Cejlon, one (Bichmondia, G. U. Gray) North Australia. 0. Victories, G. B. Gray, 
from some island east of New Guinea, should probably be included in the Malayan list ; 
and ^acus, Pelder, from an unknown locality. The foUowing arc the well-established 

Malayan species. 

a. Friamus group. 

1. Oenithoptera PEiAMrs, Linnseus. 

d. Papilio Priamus, L. ; Cram. Pap. Ex. t. 23. f. A, B; 

Go dart 

0. Priamus, 



1 - 

This may be at once distinguished from aU the aUied species with which it has been 
often confounded— in the male, by the more rounded and deeply scalloped hind wings, 
with larger black spots and a broader border, the upper wings ^ith no green on the 
median nervure or its branches, and the sooty patch extending only to the second median 
nervule ; in i^iQ female, by the very constant and peculiar light oUve-brown colour, the 
absence of any spots in the discoidal ceU of the upper wings, and the broad shaUow seal- 
lops of the hinder margin. 

Hab, Amboyna and Ceram, probably also Bouru {Wall). 

2. OuNiTHOPTERA PosEiDON, Doublcday. 

n. Poseidon, Db. Ann. of Nat. Hist. xvi. p. 173 j Vi 




The numerous specimens of Ornitliopt er a wMcli I obtained in yarious parts of IS'ew 
Guinea and the adjacent islands show so much instability of form, colouring, and even of 
neuration, no two individuals being exactly alike, that I am obliged to include them all 
in one variable species, to which I believe must also be referred O. Pronomns, G. E. 
Gray, from Cape York, 0. Eiipliorion, G. R. Gray, from North Australia, 0. Ai^chidem, 
G. E. Gray (ex Boisd.), erroneously said to be from Celebes, and O. Boischwalii, ]\Ion- 
trouzier, from "Woodlark Island. 

Var. a, Aru Islands ( Wall.). 0. Arruana, Peld. Lep. Frag. p. 2^. 

Individuals from this locality differ in the arrangement of the nervures ; in some the 
third subcostal nervure of the upper wings branches from the same point with the upper 
disco-cellular, in others considerably beyond it ; the points from which the subcostal ner- 
vures branch also vary. The amount of green colour on the median nervure and its 
branches varies. In some specimens there is a spot at the anal angle of lower wings be- 
neath, agreeing with 0. Pronojmis, G. H. Gray ; but this is generally wanting. 

Var. h, Dorey, Salwatty, south-west coast of New Guinea {Wall.). 

These agree very closely with 0. Poseidon, as figured by Westwood; they differ indivi- 
dually in the same manner as the last, and also in the length of the lower disco -cellular ner- 
vure on the under wings. They have generally no golden spots beneath the wings. They 
vary also in the outline of the under wings, the outer and anal angles being more acute 
in some specimens than in others. Some have the under winij^s of a uniform careen en- 
tirely without spots, while others have a range of black spots more or less fully developed. 

Var. c, Waigiou (Wall). Archideus, G. 11. Gray, 2. 

This agrees with the last ; but the male is of a more delicate green than any of tli6 
others, and has less of that colour on the median veins. On the under side there arc no 
golden spots. The whole surface has a golden tinge, and the central portion of the lower 
wmgs is tinged with amlDer-brown. 

The females of all the above vary extremely, much more even than the males, and from 
the same locality two specimens are rarely alike. The discoidal cell is in some specimens 
more than half occupied by a whitish patch, while in others there are only a few small 
spots. One of my specimens from Salwatty almost exactly agrees with that figured by 
Westwood (Cat. of Or. Ent. pi. 14) as from Cape York. One of the Waigiou specimens is 
the same as Arcliidens, G. E. G., figured by Boisduval (Voy. do I'Astrolabe, t. 4. f. 1, 2); 
and another, from New Guinea, differs very little from UupJiorion, G. K. G. (Brit. Hus. 
Cat. Lep. pt. 1. pi. 2. f. 3), from North Australia. 

From these facts I am led to conclude that we have here a variable form spread over 
an extensive area, and kept variable by the continual intercrossing of individuals, which 
would otherwise segregate into distinct and sharply defined races. The same area is 
inhabited by many species of birds common to all parts of it; and just as the birds of 
Leram and Amboyna are almost all distinct species from those of New Guinea, so do ^e 
hnd those islands inhabited by the Ornithoptera Priamns, a weU-marked and constant 
species, readily distinguishable in either sex from the inconstant forms of New Guinea 



proper. The same parallel liolcls in North Australia. Many New Guinea species of 
birds extend, with very slight variation, to the country ahout Cape York ; hut when we 
reach the Moreton Bay district all these have disappeared, and we find only true Austra- 
lian species. So the variable forms of 0. Poseidon reach Nortli Australia and Cape York, 
while in the Moreton Bay district we find the comparatively well-marked species 0. Hicli- 
moncUa. Similar causes, whether geographical or climatal, have thus produced an ana- 
logous distril^ution in these widely separated groups of animals. 

3. OiixiTHOPTERA Cecesus. Pcldcr 

Wien. Ent. Monats., Dec. 1859. 0, Croesus, G. R. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, 

p. 424. 

Hab. Batchian (Moluccas) {Wall). 

Local form, a. — Male : has the orange colour of the upper surface of a much deeper 

fiery-red hue ; on the under surface, the black spots of the lower wings are nearer the 
margin, and the yellow spots below them are entirely absent ; there is also a green line 
between the subcostal ner^Tire and the margin ; on the under surface of the fore wings 
the green patch in the discoidal cell extends to its base, and is reflexed in a narrow line 
along its upper edge. 

Female : differs still more from that sex in O. Crcesus ; the white markings on all the 
wings are so large as almost to fill up the spaces between the veins, the lower part of the 
discoidal cell in both upper and under wings being also occupied with a whitish patch ; 
the range of spots occupying the posterior margin are of a dusky yellow colour. 

Hab. Ternate (d), Gilolo (?) {Wall). 

This well-marked local form is no doubt peculiar to Gilolo and the small adjacent 
islands, as the original species is to Batchian. 

I was three months in the island of Batchian before I obtained a specimen of this fine 
insect, which I had seen once or twice only flying high in the air. I at length came 
upon it flying about a beautiful cinchonaceous shrub with white bracts and yellow 
flowers (MusscBnda, sp.) ; and having cleared a path round about, I visited the place every 
morning on my way to the forest, and once or twice a week had the satisfaction of cap- 
turing a fine male specimen of 0. Crcesus. The females were more plentiful and more 
easily caught. I afterwards sent out one of my men with a net every day to look after 
this insect only. He would stay out all day long, wandering up a broad rocky torrent, 

4 ■ 

where the males flew up and down occasionally or settled on the rocks which just ap- 
peared above the water. He generally brought me one, and sometimes even two or 
three specimens ; and thus, with those that I myself captured at the flowers, I secured 
a fine series of this richly coloured species. 

4. OrwNiTHOPTEEA TiTHONUs, Be Haan. 

O. Tithonus, De Haan, Verh. Nat. Gesch. Ned. t. 1. f. 1. 
Hab. S.W. Coast of New Guinea {Ley den Museum). 

This remarkable species must be very rare, as I never saw it in any part of the N 


Guinea district that I visited ; nor was it seen during the exploration, a few years ago, by 
a Dutch steamer which visited the part of the coast where the only specimen known was 
said to have been ohtaiaed. 

5, Ornithoptera Urvilliaka, Guerin. 

PapUio Urvilliana, Guer. Voy. de la Coquille, Lep. t. 13. f. 1^ 2;, <? . 
0. Urvilliana, Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 175. 
Hab. New Ireland {Paris Museum). 

h. J?omjpeus group. 

6. Orkithoptera Remus, Cramer. 

Papilio Remus, Cr. Pap. Ex. t. 135. f. A, t. 136. f. A ( $ ), t. 386. f. A, B ( c? ) ; Fab. Syst. Ent. iii. 1. p. 11< 
0. Remus, Bd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 176. Papilio Panthous c?, Clerck, Icon. t. 18 ($). 
Hab. Amboyna, Ceram, Gilolo, Morty Island, Sulla Island, Celebes {Wall.). 

The specimens above quoted agree well with Cramer's figures. The female from the 
Sulla Islands differs only in having more yellow towards the anal angle of the lower wings. 
The specimens figured by Cramer in pis. 10, 11, under the name of ^^ HypoUtus" seem 
to be a remarkable variety, in which the female has much of the character of the male. 
Messrs. Doubleday and G. R. Gray have adopted Tantlwus as the specific name of this 
insect ; but this name was first used by Linnseus for the female of Trimnus only, in the 
10th ed. of the ' Systema ISTaturas ' (1758). Clerck (in 1759) adopted the name, but sup- 
posed he had found the male in the female of Bemtis. Linnaeus, inMus. Lud. Ulric. (1764), 
and in the 12th ed. of the 'Systema Naturag ' (1766), adopts this error, so far as re- 
ferring to Clerck's two figures; but in both these works his description refers only to the 
female of P. JPriamuSi indicating that the supposed other sex (P. 'Remus) was not known 
to him personally. The name of JPmitlious must therefore altogether drop, it having been 
applied to this species only through a double error — first, that of LinnsBus, in supposing 
his Tantlious to be distinct from Triamus, and then that of Clerck, in thinking that a 
female Bemus was the male of the Linnean Tantlious, 

7. Ornithoptera Helena, Linnaeus. 

6 . P. Helena, Cram. Pap. Ex. t. 140. f. A,B. 0. Helena, Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 177. 
2 ' P. Amphimedon, Cram. Pap. Ex. t. 194. f. A. O. AmpMmedon, Boisd. Sp. Gen. p. 176. 
Hah. Amboyna and Ceram {Wall). 

The females from these localities are always sooty, with the spots and markings on the 
hinder wings of a dull buff-colour even in the freshest specimens. 

a. Local form Bmiruensls. — Male : exactly resembles the Amboyna specimens, except 
that the yellow patch is more variable in form and extent. 

Female : nearly black, and with the markings on the lower wings almost as pure and 
deep yellow as in the males : size a little smaHer than in the type. 

Hub, Bourn {Wall). 

h. Local form JPapnensis. —Female : sooty black, the two first l)ranchcs of the m^' 



costal nervure maro^iiied with whitisli near their oriarin : markinsrs of the lower winirs of 

J5X.X , xxxixijvxxi^o vyx vxiv^ ±Kjy,^± »' ^"^S 

the same tint of orange-yellow as is 0. Helena <?, but not so glossy 
Male not known. 

Hab. New Guinea, Salwatty {Wall.). 

c. Local form Celehens'is. — Male-, wings a little more pointed than in O. Helena; yel- 
low patch of lower wings extending nearer to the posterior margin, and bounded towards 
the abdominal margin by the first branch of the median nervure. Bcncatli, having the 
nervures between the discoidal cell and the outer border ashy -margined. 

Female not known. 

Hab. Macassar (Celebes) {Wall.). 

Hemarhs. — Of these three local modifications of 0. Helena^ the first is very distinct 
in the female, but not separable in the male sex. Of the second and third, only one 
sex is known ; and they may very probably prove to be well-marked species when more 
materials are obtained. 

8. Ornithoptera Led a, n. s. 

Male : upper wings elongate, triangular, glossy black, quite uniform and immaculate ; 
the outer margin delicately white-marked at the termination of the nervures. Lower 
wings yellow, as in the allied species, with a black border about the same width as in 
0. Pompeus on the outer and abdominal margins, narrower on the inner margin; the 
posterior scalloping of the yellow patch not so deep as in 0. Fompens, and having a 
spot at the anal angle connected more or less with the margin. 

The under surface differs from that of O. Fompeus by the ashy margins of the veins 
of the upper wings being entirely absent, and in having much less white on the outer 
edge. There are no submarginal spots except the anal one, much red at the base of the 
wings, and no black spots on the abdomen. 

Female : this sex varies very much, some having the upper wings immaculate, while 
others have the veins about the end of the discoidal cell broadly margined with whitish. 
The marginal series of spots on the lower wings vary as they do in O. Fompeus and 0. 
AmpJirisms. The best distinction from 0. Fompeus (?) seems to be the more elongated 
wings, the less crenellated margin, and the more produced outer angle of the lower wings. 
The yellow patch is also of a deeper colour both on the upper and under surfaces. 

Hab. Celebes (Macassar and Men ado) {Wall) 

9. Oenithopteija Pompetjs, Cramer. 

Minos, Cr. Pan. Ex. 1. 195, f. A ( $ ). P, Heliacon, 

Ent. Syst. 3. i. p. 19, GO. 
0. Heliacon, Bolsd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 178. 
Hab. Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Lombock {Wall.), India (var.). 

Femark.—ThG form that occurs in India, in its more elongate wings and darker 
colouring, approaches very closely to O. Bhadamanthm, 



10. OuNiTnoPTERA Nephereus, G. E. Gray. 

P, AslenonSj Eschscholtz^ Voy- Kotzebue^ t. 4* f. A, B, C, (nee Fab,). 
0. NephereuSy G. R. G.^ List of Lep. B. M. Papilionidae^ p, 6. 
Hub. Philippine Islands. 

Bemarh. — This is quite distinct from 0. HMdamantMs^ Bd., witli wliicli it lias gene 
rally been identified. 

11. Orxiteopteua MagellxVntjs, I'elder. 

0. Magellanus, Feld. Lep. Nov. Phil. p. 11. 
Hab. North of Luzon (Philippines). 

Mcmarh. — Tliis fine species has a heantiful opalescent glow on the lower wings when 
viewed oLliquely, 

face this outer 


12. Oenithoptera Chiton, Eelder. 

0. Criton, Feld. Lep, Fragm. p. 49. 

Hab. Batchian, Temate, Gilolo, Morty Island {Wall). 

13. Or.NiTHOPTE HA Plato, n. s. 

3Iale : resembles 0. Criton in the form and extent of the yellow patch, but the upper 
wings differ in having the outer half of a lighter tint ; on the under su 
half of the wing is of a light ash-colour. Abdomen almost wholly black beneath 
red patches at the base of the wings, or any red collar. 

Female unknown. 

Hab. Timor [Wall). 

Tliis is a very distinct species, though at first sight resembling several others. 

tained a single male specimen only. 

11. Oenithopteea Haliphrox, Boisduval. 

0. HaUphron, Bd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 181 (c?) ; Felder, Lep. Fragm. p. 37, Taf. ii. f. 2, 3 (c?. ?). 
Hab. Macassar (Celebes) {Wall). > \ = j 



15. Ohnithoptera Amphrisius, Cramer. 


Meth. ix. p. 27 

Hab. Malacca, Java, Borneo [Wall.). 

This may he readily distinguished from tlio allied species by the upper win-s in -^ 

male bemg yellow-marked, and by the absence of red spots at the base of the wings be 

neath m both se:s:fts. ° 


16. Ornithoptera Brookeana, Wallace. 

c. JBrookeana group. 


Trogon, V. Voll. Tijdschrift voor Ent. 18G0, p 69 pi G 
Hab. Borneo (Sarawak) («"<,«.), Sumatra (Lcyden Mnseum). ' 



Hemarks.—l have been in mucli doubt about the position of this remarkable species, 
and ^'as for some time inclined to place it among- the Papilios. It agree., however, far 
better with Omifhojylera in tlie form and stoutness of the win£rs. the lonir stout and 

o » ^ ^ o 

curved antennoe, the red collar and patches at the base of the ^ngs beneath, the abdo- 
minal fold, and the flight and general appearance. It is poAverfiil on the wing, and 
occasionally settles on the ground in damp sunny places. It iidiabits the interior of 
Xorth-west Borneo and the mountains of West Sumatra. The female is unknown. It 
is peculiar in the great length of the discoidal cell of the win£?s and its altoirelher 

,-,« „.^.. ^.^ ^^.^„ 

unique style of coloration, and must be considered as the type of a distinct group of 

genus Ornithoptei 


This is without doubt the finest and most remarkable genus of Diurnal Lepidopter 
About 3G0 species are now known, all, except ten, being tropical or subtropical. I ha^ 
given at p. 23 the characters of the sections and groups into which I divide the M 
layan species. 

Sectio:n" a. 

a. Nox group. 


17. Papilio Nox, SAA'ainson. 

P. Nox, S\v. Zooh 111. pi. 102; Horsf. Lep. Ins. E. I. C. pi. 1. f. 1; Bolsd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 277 
P. Ncesius, Zink. Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. xv. t. 14. f. 1. 
Hab. Java (<?,?) [Wall), Pcnang (d) [Brit. Mus.). 

IS. Papilio Noctis, Ilewitson. Tab. V. fig. 1 (c?)*. 

P. Noctis, Hewits. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1S59, p. 423, pi. 6G. f. 5 ( ?). 

Male : differs from the same sex of T. Nox by the broader apex of the fore wings, and 
by the hind Avings being more elongate, more glossy, and especially by the entire non- 
dcntated hinder margin. 

Hah. Borneo (Sarawak) [Wall.), (c?, ? Mus. nost.) 

19. Papilio Ekebus, Wallace. 

P. Nox, var., De Haan, Verb. Nat. Gesch. t. 5. f. 3 ( $ ). 
Hab. IMalacca [Wall.), Banjermasslng, Borneo [De Haan). 

Hemarl's. — I am somewhat doubtful of the species, the female only being knoAvn ; but 
it differs so strikin":h^ from the same sex of P. Nox and P. Noctis (the former of Avhich 
seems very constant), that I think it better to separate it in order to draAV attention to 
other specimens that may exist in collections. It differs from P. Nox (?) by its narrower 
and more elongate hind AAdngs, which are black, glossed Avith steel-blue ; the fore wings 
are black, with the veins beyond the cell clearly white-margined. Tlie loAvcr margin is 
also much less strongly dentated. 

of the same insect. 

VOL. xxr. 







20. Papilio Yaeuxa, White. 

$ . P. Varuna, Wh., Entomol 

Arc. Ent. pi. 66. f. 2. 
(?. P. Astoriouy Westw. Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. p. 37; Arc. Ent. pi. 66. f. 1 

Hah. Pulo Penang, Sylhet. 

Westvy. Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. p. 37. P. Chara. West 

21. Papilio Semperi, Pelder. 

P. Semperi, Feld. Lep. Nov. Philipp. pp. Ij 11. 
Ilab. Luzon, Philippines (d, ?). 

N.B. The Fhiloxenus group peculiar to India follows on after these. 

b. Coon group. 


22. Papilio Neptunus, Guerin. 

P. Neptunus, Guer. Deless. Voy. dans I'lnde, p. 69, t. 19 (P. Saturnus) 
Hub. Malacca, Borneo (J', $) [Wall.).. 


23. Papilio Cook, Pabricius, 

P. Coow, Fab. Ent. Syst. iii. 1. pp. 10, 27; Don. Ins. China, pi. 24. f. 1 ; Lucas, Lep. Ex. t. 6. f. 2 ; 

Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 201. 
Hab. Java, Sumatra [Wall.), Borneo [De Ilaan) . 

Remarks. — The specimens from Sumatra are constantly larger than those from Java. 
The Indian form, in which the markings are red instead of yellow, with other differences. 
I consider a distinct species, for which I propose the name of P. Douhledayiy after the 
late Mr. Edward Doubleday of the British Museum *. 


c. JPolydorus group. 

21. Papilio Polydoeus, Linnaeus. 

P. Polydorus, L. ; Clerck, Icon. t. 33. f. 3. P. Leobates, Relnw, Verh. Nat. Gesch. Zool. t. .6. f. 3 I 
Hab. Ceram, Matabello Island, Bouru, Batchian (<^, ?) [Wall). 

Local form or variety a. — The white markings on the fore wings forming a patch 
below the cell ; red spots on the hind wings nearer to the posterior margin and that 
next the anal angle larger. 

Hab. Ke Island, Aru Island (c?, ?) {fValL). 

* Papilio Doubledayi, "Wallace. (P. Coon, var., B. M. Cat.) 


Jhove : upper mngs as In P. Coon, but the base darker. Lower wings broader than in P. Coon ; the white spot 
m the cell toothed below, and divided by one or two faint blackish lines, cut off at the middle of the cell by the black 
triangular basal patch. The marginal spot next within the tail wanting ; the two anal spots, end of abdomen, and 

(which arc yellow in P. Coon) red; collar behhid the eyes and palpi (which are black m P. Coon] 

Beneath : base of lower wings broadly black ; white spots all much broader and rounder than in P. Coon ; sides of 
the thorax, end of the abdomen, and the marginal spots in the caudal and anal region red. 

also red. 


2 • Size about the same. 




25. Papilio Leodamas, n. s. Tab. V. fig. 2 (d). 

P. Pohjdorus, in Brit. Mus. List of Papilionidce, p. 10. 


Male. Above, glossy black, upper wings immaculate (tlio veins palc-ninrginetl in the 
female). Lower wings with a rounded white spot divided into six parts by fine ncrnircs, 
of wliicli the outermost and that in the cell are sometimes reduced to points ; marginal 
row of red spots obscured with black, and but faintly indicated. 

Ecneath, the white patch has a small red spot attached to the part next the anal angic 
and the marginal row of six red spots are clearly marked, that at the anal angle bcin 
twice the size of the rest, 
in the caudal region. 

■^ • 

Wings short, much rounded, scarcely or not at all produced 

Expanse of wings 3f in. to 4 in. 

Hab. New Guinea, Mysol (c?, $) {Wall.), Rockingham Bay (Australia), {Brit. Mus., ?) 

26. Papilio Diphilus, Esper. 

Gen. Lep. p. 2G7 

Hab. Java, Malacca {Wall.), Philippine Islands, India. 

RemarJcs. — The specimens from Manilla are larger, and the females paler-coloured, 
than those from other localities, all of which have slight characteristic peculiarities; 
but they also vary in the individuals from each locality, so that no perfect segregation 
of local forms has yet taken place. 

27. Papilio Aktiphus, Eabricius. 

P. Antij)hus, Fab. Syst. Ent. iii. I. pp. 10-28; Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 266. 
Hab. Sumatra, Borneo, Lombock, Java {Wall.), Philippine Islands. 

MernarTis .—ThQ Philippine form (P. Kotzebiiea, Eschsch.) is rather larger and of a more 
uniform glossy black than those from other localities. P. Thesev.s, Cram., has been 
erroneously sujoposed to be the female of this species, whereas it is the female of one of 
the JPmnmon group, belonging to a different section of the genus. De Haan figures 
P. Theseus as P. AnUphns $ , in Yerh. Nat. Gesch. t. 8. f. 2. As has been already pointed 
out, P. Tlieseus mimics this species. 

28. Papilio Poltphontes, Boisduval. 

P. Polyphonies, Bd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 268. P. Hegemon, G. R. G., List of Papilionidae in B. Mus. 
Hab. Celebes, Batchian, Morty Isl. {d, 2) {Wall). 

Remarks. —The markings vary from pure white to a smoky tint ; but otherwise all the 
specimens from the above localities agree. Pe Haan gives (Verh. Nat. Gesch. t. 8. f. 4) 

female of one of the Fammon group as P. Folypfiontes $ 

29. Papilio Ann^, Eelder. 





_ » 

30. Papilio Lims, Go dart. 

P. Liris, God. Enc. Mcth. iv. p. 72 ,• Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 26S j De Haan, Verb. Nat. Gesch. p. 38, t. 4. 

f. 3 (2). 


i/tti. Timor (?Fg//.), N.W. Australia {Brit. Mus.). 

HcmarJcs.- — ^The Australian specimens are smaller. The female of P. CEnomaus mimics 
this species, as has been already mentioned (p. 22). Both species were taken by myself 
on the same spot, and, though such large and conspicuous insects, they could never be 
distinguished without a close examination after capture. The female of this species 
differs very little from tlie male, being rather larger, with broader wings and less vivid 

Section B. 

d. Vhjsses group. 
81. Papilio Ulysses, Limifcus. 

P. Uhjsses, L., Cramer, Pap. Ex. 1. 121. f. A, B ( $ ),t. 122 A ( $ ). P. Biomedes, Bolsd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 202. 
Hab. Amboyna, Ceram (c?, $) [Wall). 

Bemarh. — ^The largest specimens of this glorious insect are found in the island of 
Amboyna, where it is rather common, hovering about the forest pathways. It sometimes 
visits the gardens in the town of Amboyna. 


32. Papilio Penelope, n. s. 

Male : rather smaller than P. XJlysses. Upper wings with six black cottony patches, 
and all separate from each other; whereas in P. Ulysses there are seven, and the four 
lo^\'er ones are always united at their margins. The blue colour tills the discoidal cell, 
and generally extends beyond it at the extremity ; the upper disco-cellular nervure not 
black-bordered as in P. Tllysses. Lower wings with the blue colour extendinj? further 
along the abdominal margin, and not quite so far towards the outer angle. 

Fc7nale : has the blue colour of the same form and extent as in P. Ulysses ? , but of the 
same bright tint as in the male ; the marginal lunules more deeply curved. 

Expanse of wings 5 inches. 

Hub. New Guinea, Waigiou, Aru Is. (c?, $) [Wall). 

llemarh.—K^ all the other forms closely allied to P. Ulysses have received names 
(Teletnachus, Montr., Chaiidoiri, Peld., Tclegonus, Peld., and Ulyssinus, Westw.), I have 
also given one to this form peculiar to New Guinea and the Papuan Islands, the distinc- 
tive characters of which, though very slight, seem sufficiently constant. 


n t 

33. Papilio Telegonls, Pelder. 

P. Telegomis, Feld. Lep. Fragm. p. 50. 
Hab, Batchian, Gilolo (c?, $) {Wall). 

HemarL-^A very distinct species, separated from P. Ulysses by the extent of the 

cottony patch on the upper wings, and by the ditferent form and colour of the blue 




31'. Papilio TelemaciiuSj Montrouzier. 

P. Telemackns, Mont. Ann. cle la Soc. d' Agriculture de Lyon, 1856, p. 395. 
Hab. Woodlark Isl. (S. E. of New Guinea). 

Eemark, — This is a small species (cxp. 4> in.), witli less Lluc on tlic lower wings. 

e. Pc ran thus group. 

35. Papilio PEHAXTiirs, Pabricius. 

P. Peranthus, Fab. Syst. Ent. iii. 1. p. 15; Don. Ins. China, pi. 26; Lucas, Lep. Ek. t. 12. f. 2; Boisd 

Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 203. 
Hab. Java, Lombock {Wall.). 

36. Papilio Pericles, n. sp. Tab. VI. fig. 1 ( d ). 

Wings more elongate, and upper wings more pointed, tlian in P. FerantJius. 

Above black, the basal half of a silvery bine, greenish towards the base of the costa, 
and purplish on the outer margin, where on the lower wings it shades off into separate 
scales. On the submedian and two lower branches of the median nervure are elongate 
black cottony patches as in P. Vlysscs, the lower ones joined at the base, the upper one 
separate ; above these the outer margin is of a brown black, with a few atoms of yellow 
and blue scales towards the apex ; the blue colour extends beyond the discoidal cell of 
the upper wings in a line parallel with the outer margin, on the lower wings it rounds 
away to the anal angle, and below it are five submarginal lunules of blue atoms, the 
outer one almost obsolete, and that next the tail largest and most deeply coloured. 

Thorax and body green. 

Beneath as in P. Temnthus, but the posterior range of lunules margined with bril- 
liant blue and orange brown. 

Expanse of wings 3^ inches. 

Hab. Timor (c?) {TVall.), 

37. Papilio Philipptjs, Wallace. Tab. VI. fig. 3. 

P. Peranthus, var. A, Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 204. 

Above : basal half of the wings of a rich green-blue, the rest black, with a triangular 
patch at the apex of the uppers, formed of green atoms 

situated between 

the lower wings six large submarginal lunules, the lowest of which sends out some 
green atoms along the tail. The black cottony spot is of a different form from that of 
P. Femnthm, the separate patches being only joined in the middle, and two of them 
extending along the nervures in a point nearly to the discoidal cell. 

Beneath brilliantly marked with lunules of buff, black, and blue. 

Expanse of winces 4^-5 inches. 

Hab. Moluccas {Wall.). 

Remarks.— -Mj specimen from Ceram is of a greener tinge, and the colour extends a 
little beyond the end of the discoidal cell ; that from Batchian is smaller, of a bluer 
tinge, and the colour of less extent. The species seems to be very rare. 


38. Papilio Macedon, Wallace. Tab. VI. fig. 2(<s). 

P. Peranthus, var. B., Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 204. 

BoisduyaFs description sufficiently shows tlie remarkable diiforences of form, size, and 
colouring wliicli this S23ecies presents, compared with that of which he considers it a 
variety. The female agrees with the male, except that the colours are a little less bril- 
liant, and the cottony patches of the fore wings are absent. 

Expanse of wings, ^ , 5 inches ; ? , 5-6 inches. 

Hah. Macassar^ Menado (Celebes) {WalL). 

39. Papilio Brama^ Guerin. 

P. Brama, Guer. Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 43, t. 1, f. 3, 4. P. Paiimirus, De Haan, Verb. Nat. Gesch. pp. 5, 29. 
Hub. Malacca^ Sumatra {Wall.). 


40. Papilio DyEDALUs, Pelder. 

P. D<2dalus, Feld. Lep. Nov. Philipp. p. 2 
Hab. Luzon (Philippine Islands). 

41. Papilio Blumei, Boisduval. Tab. VI. fig. 4 (^). 


P. BJumeij Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 206. 

Hah. Menado (Celebes) [Wall). « Amboyna," Bd., error of locality. 

^ Eemarh—Thi^ very fine species comes nearest to the last, but is of much 
size, and is conspicuous by its brilliantly coloured tails. 



42. Papilio Arjuna, Horsfield. 

P. Arjuna, Horsf. Cat. Lep. E, L Comp. pi. 1. f. 14 ; Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 209. P. Arjuna, var. fl., 


Mus. Cat. of Papilionidas, d. 17 

The Bornean form differs from that of Java by its larger size, and on the under surface 
by the three middle lunules being formed of a violet line only, with scarcely 


red beneath it, and by the orange-red lunules both at the anal and outer angles being 
divided (not margined) l^y a violet line. The scales sprinkled at the base of the lower 
wmgs are ^vhite and blue, and are neither so dense nor do they extend so far as the 
yellowish scales of the Java specimens. In aU these particulars the Sumatra specimens 
are somewhat mtermediate, but approach most to those of Borneo. This is one of the 
examples which show the isolation of Java, notwithstanding its proximity to Sumatra. 

f. Memnon group 


(N.B. The Protenor group of India is intermediate between this and the last group 
43. Papilio Memxon, Linnaeus. Tab. I. figs. 1 ( d ), 2, 3, 4 ( ? s). 






$ , 2ncl dimorphic form, P. Achates^ Cr. Pap. Ex. t. 243. A. 
Hub. Java, Sumatra {JValL). 

Local form a.- — Male : border of posterior wings bencatli narrow and of an asliy-Lluc 

Female : near P. Anceus, Cr., and P. Laomcdou, Or., but of an olivc-asliy colour. 

Hah. Borneo {Wall.). 

Local form h.—Male : band on under side of posterior wings ashy ; the spots large, 
with reddish-orange lunules between the two series, and below the four outer ones. 

Hah. Lombock {Wall.). 

HemarJcs. — The difference between the male and the" 2nd form of female is so great, 
both in form and colouring, that they could not have been imagined to be the same, had 
they not been bred from the same larvae. They have also been taken "hi coj)uld" l)y 
myself. Each form varies considerably, both individually and locally ; yet there are 
none intermediate between the two. I consider them, therefore, as presenting a fine 
instance of dimorphism ; and I also believe that the second form mimics P. Coo}i, for 
reasons which I have explained at p. 21. 

41. Papilio ANDROGErs, Cramer. 

e, P. Androgens, Cr. Pap. Ex. t. 91. f. A, B. 

?, 1st dimorphic form, P. Agenor, L., Cr. Pap. Ex. t. 32. f. A, B. 

$, 2nd dimorphic form, P. Achates, Cr. Pap. Ex. t. 182. f A, B ; P. Alcanor, Cr. Pap. Ex. t. 166, f. A. 

Hah. Malacca {Wall), India. 

Eemarks, — Ever since it was discovered that the insects figured by the old authors as 
P. Anceus, F. Agenor, P.Achates, &c. were varying females of P. Memnon and P. Andro- 
gens, the whole of these were very naturally concluded to belong to one varying species. 
An examination of many extensive collections, however, has convinced me that the con- 
tinental forms, on the one hand, and the insular ones, on the other, can be readily dis- 
tinguishedj and really form two very well-marked species. The red lunules at the anal 


beneath characterize all specimens from India {Androgens, Cr.), while these 

entirely absent in all the insular specimens {Memnon, Cr.) ; and the same characteristic 
difference can be traced in a greater or less degree throughout all the infinitely varying 
female specimens. My specimen from Malacca has a faint trace only on the upper sur- 
face of the characteristic red mark at the base of the anterior wings ; in other respects it 
resembles the continental individuals. This form mimics the Indian form of P. Coon 
(P. Douhledayi, Wall.). 

45. Papilio Lampsacus, Boisduval. 



46. Papilio Priapijs, Boisduval. 

P. Priapas, Bd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 190; 

Hab. Java {Boisd.), Sumatra {Raffles), Borneo {De Haan) 



47. Papilio Emalthiox, Hiibner. 


6 , Illades Emalihlon, Hiibn. Sammb Exot. ii. t. lly; P- Emalthion, Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 106; 

P. Florida)', Godt. Enc. Method, ix. p. SG9 ; P. Kmscusterina In Eschsch. Voy. Kotzebiie,t. 3. f. 5. 
$, 1st form, P. Emalthio)!, Cat. of Lep. Brit. Mus. pi. 5. f. 4. 
2, 2nd form, P. Pumanzovla, Eschsch. Voy. Kotz. t. 2. f . 4 ; P. Descombesl, Boisd. Sp. Gen. p. ID/ ; 

P. Floridor, 2 ■ Godt. Enc. Meth. ii. p. 809. 


Tiemarlcs. — I have do doubt wbatever that we bave hero aiioilier case of dimorpbism, 
and I tberefore unbcsitatingly place tbese supposed species under one name. Tbe male 
of P. UmaltUon very closely resembles tbe next species (P. Deipliontes), and tbe 2nd 
form of female (P. llmncmzovia, Escbscli.) as closely resembles the female of tbe same 
species ; so tbat tbcre can be no doubt that Godardt was rigbt in describing them as 
tbe sexes of bis P. Floridor. Tbe female figured in tbe Britisb Museum Catalogue is 
intermediate between these, but has more of tbe characters of the male ; and it is to be 


remarked tbat both these forms of female have arrived in Europe accompanied by the 
same male. I am therefore obliged to reduce by one the hitherto received species of 
Philippine Papilio s. 

48, Papilio Deiphontes, n. s. 

P. DeiphohuSf var. A., Bd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 201. 

c? . Above : exactly as in P. Deij^Iiobus, but having a small tooth only in place of the 
tail, and the posterior band of a clear ashy blue. 

Beneath : with the markings as in P. Emalthion, except that the red patch at the base 
of the upper wings is smaller. 

$ . Also tailless, but resembling in markings the same sex of P. Beiphohiis, the pale 
patch on the upper wings not extending into the discoidal cell. 

Expanse of wings, c?, 5 J inches; ?, 5|- inches. 

Hab. Batchian, Gilolo, Ternatc, Morty Lsl. [Wall). 











49. Papilio Deipiiobls, Linngeus. 

P. Deiphobus, L., Cramer, Pap. Ex. t. 181. f. A, B ; Donovan, Ins. Ind, pi. 17. f. 2 ; Lucas, Lep. Ex. t. 11 ; 

Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 200. 
2 , P. AIca)idor, Cr. Pap. Ex. t. 40. f. A, B. 
Hab. Ceram, Amboyna, Bouru (JVall.). 

Hemark.—A simple variety of both this and the last species frequently occurs, in which 
all the markings on the under side are ochre-yellow instead of red. ^ 


50. Papilio Ascalapiils, Boisduval. ' 

P. Ascalaphus, Bd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 200 ( c?) ; De Haan, Verb. Nat. Gesch. p. 26, t. 1. £. 2 ( ? ). { 

Hub. MLuado, Macassar (Celebes), Sulla lsl. {Wall.). I 

► -'■. 

51. Papilio (ExoMArs, Godardt. * 1 


P. (Enomans, Godt. Encyc. Meth. ix. p. 72 ; Boisd. Sp. Gen. L^p. p. 190; De Haan, Verb. Nat. Gesch. I 

p.24,t.4. f. l(c?),2($). 

Hab. Timor (d, $) {WalL). 








UemarJi, — As lias been already noticed (p. 22), the female of this sxiecies closely 
resembles P. Liris ?, in company with Avhich it was captured. 

g. Seleniis group. 


52. Papilio Seveeijs, Cramer. 

P. Severus, Cr. Pap. Ex. t. 227. f A, B (c?), t. 278. f. A, B (?) ; Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 212. 


Hab. Bouru, Cerairij Amboyna, Gilolo, Batchian, Aru Isl. [Wall.). 

JRemarJcs. — ^This species exhibits a large amount of simple variation, in the presence 
or absence of a pale patch on the uppers, in the brown submarginal marks on the lower 
wings, in the form and extent of the yellow band, and in the size of the specimens. The 
most extreme forms, as well as the intermediate ones, are often found in one locality and 


in company with each other, indicating that over the above range continual intermixture 
j)robably takes place, and thus prevents any one form from becoming specialized in a 
restricted area. The two following modifications of it, however, have acquired perfect 
stabiHty, each in a large island situated on the extreme limits of the species. I therefore 
consider them to be distinct, though the actual differences are but small. 

53. Papilio Pertinax, n. s. Tab. Y. fig. 4 (c?). 

Upper side : anterior wings rather more elongate and pointed than in P. Severus, dusky 
brown, with faint longitudinal rows of yellow scales in the cell, and with rather denser 
scales between the nervures beyond it; these are condensed into a narrow yellowish band 
parallel to the outer margin, and rather nearer to the cell than to it. Hind wings black, 
with three yellowish white subquadrate spots (the upper one smallest) situate between 
the outer angle and the discoidal nervule ; beyond these and continued to the anal angle 
are a few very faint and minute groups of scales. 

Tlnde}' side as above, but the transverse band on the upper wings is whiter, and on the 
lower wings are seven submarginal brownish-yeUow lunules, the middle ones least marked, 
and those at the outer and anal angles having above them a very small group of minute 
blue scales. 

The female is paler-coloured, with the markings rather more diffused, and has on 
the under side an imperfect ocellus at the anal angle, a row of faint brown lunules 
extending to the three white spots, and two irregular lunules of blue atoms below those 

next the abdominal marir 

Expanse of win^s, c? , 41 inches : ? , 5 inches 

O'^J ^ J ^4 

Hab. Macassar (Celebes) {fValL). 

HemarJc. — This species was rather abundant near Macassar, in woody places, and 
!ry constant in its markings and general aspect. 

54. Papilio ALBiNrs, n. s. Tab. V. fig. 5 (j). 
"V\ ings broader than in P. Severus^ costa less arched^ tail smaller, and the caudal mar- 
11 less produced. 
V'2^per side brown-black ; anterior Things with very faint horizontal lines of yellowish 





scales ill tlio cell ; apical portion of the ^ang more thickly powdered between the neryures, 
the powdering fading away towards the outer angle. Posterior wings with a large yel- 
lowish-white patch, commencing close to the anterior margin, widening in the middle so 
as to cross the end of the cell, and ending in a triangle with prolonged apex at the ahdo- 
minal margin ; the outer edge of this spot is regularly angulated and scaUoped ; two very 
faint hrown lunides occur next the anal angle ; and the outer margin is rather broadly 

white-edged between the dentations. 

Vndcr side : the anterior wings have distinct greyish lines of scales between the ner- 
Turcs in the apical region ; posterior wings not dotted with scales as in P. Severus, but 
with two or three single rows of scales in the ceU only ; the yellomsh band consisting of 
a lunule next the upper margin, followed by three rhomboidal spots notched below, of 
which the middle one is the largest, then a roundish spot and a small horizontal mark] 
a row of seven submarginal lunules, of which the three middle ones are smallest and 
nearly obsolete, and that at the anal angle much the largest and, with the whitish mar- 
ginal spot below it, forming an incomplete ocellus. 

Expanse of wings 3^3J inches. 

Hab. New Guinea (d) {Wall). 

55. Papilio Phestus, Guerin. 


P. Phestus, Guer. Voyage de la Coquille, t. 14. f. 2 ; Bd. Voy. de TAstrolabe, I. p. 41 j Sp. Gea. Lep. 

p. 212. 
Hab. New Guinea {Paris Museum), 

56. Papilio Helexus, Linngeus. 

P. Helemsj L. ; Cramer, Pap. Ex. 1. 153. f. A, B ; Lucas, Lep. Ex. t. 15. f. 2 ; Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 21L 
Hah. China {'' type," Cramer's figure). 

Local form a. Has more falcate win^-s and lon^^er tail ; the red marks at the anal 

angle beneath are dirided by a \dolet-white mark. 

Hab. North India. 

Local form h. Same form of wings as the last, but smaller ; the third and fourtn 
lunules from the anal angle beneath very small or quite absent. 

Hab. Java, Sumatra (Wall.). 

57. Papilio Hecuba, n. s. Tab. V. fig. 3 (c?). ' 

Upper wings falcate, and their outer margin much hollowed out, as in many of the 
Celebes butterflies. 

6 . Upper side : the outer half of the anterior wings of a fine cottony texture, as m 

P. Relenus, but more marked ; the red lunule at the anal angle wanting ; the rest as id 
P. Helemis. 

Tinder side : the lunules and ocelli are ochre-yellow instead of deep red, the two outer 
ones very small, the third almost obsolete, and the next two absent ; the anal ocellus is 

bordered with blue above, and adjoining it is a blue lunule in the place of the red one in 
P. HeJemis, . 



JJ2)]}er side of a browner colour 

two orange-brown ocelli at tbe anal angle 

Z^nde7' side : tbe lunules and ocelli all larger; the two intermediate ones entirely absent 
, in tbc male. 
Expanse of wings 5-|-5} iiiclies. 

Hub. Macassar, Menado (Celebes) {Wall.). 

58. Papilio Iswaka, White, 

P. iswara, White/Entora. 1842, p. 280; Doub. and Hew. Gen. of Diurn. Lep. pi. 2. f. 1 (?) 
Hab. Penang, Malacca, Singapore, Borneo (d", ?) [Wall.). 

59. Papilio Htstaspes, Pelder. 

P, HystaspeSy Feld. Lep. Nov. Philipp. p. 12. 
Hab. Luzon (Philippines). 

This is tlie Philippine form of P. Helenvs. 

60. Papilio Araspes^ Telder. 

,P. Araspes^ Feld. Knt. Fragm. p. ]7» 
Hab. Philippine Islands, 

This comes near to P. Isioara. 

61. Papilio Nepiieltjs3 BoisduvaL 

p. Ne^helus, Bd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 210; De Ilaan, Verb. Nat. Ges< 
Hab. Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo [S , ^) (Wall.), Assam {Brit. Mus 

h. F'ammon group. 
62. Papilio Pammon, Linn^us. Tab. II. figs. 1 ( d ), 3, 5, 6 ( § $ ) 

d', P. Pammon, L. ; Cram. Pap. Ex. t. 141. f. B; Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 
5, P. Polytes, L.; Cram. Pap. Ex. t. 265. f. A, B, C. 
Hab. Malacca. Sinjranore (Wall.). China. India. Cevlon. 


The continental specimens of JP. Tammon have all considerably developed tails in both 
sexes ; the insular specimens on the other hand, (which I treat as a separate species), 
have only a prominent tooth or very short tail in the males. The females also differ 

siderably, presenting an analogous but distinct series of forms 

In the true P. P 

mon the males are very constant ; but the females exist under three distinct forms, each 
of them presenting more or less numerous varieties, viz. : 

Istform of female. Tab. II. fig. 3. 

This exactly resembles the male, except in the possession of a distinct oceUus at the 
anal angle on the upper surface. Barely a variety occurs having in addition a submar- 
ginal row of red lunules, indicating a slight approximation towards some varieties of the 
second form. 


^ndfonn of female (P. Tolytes). Tab. II. fig. 5. 

This is by far the most common form of female. A variety of this rarely occurs, which 

IT 2 






wants the red patcli at the anal angle, and has the white patch formed of a row of spots 
all situated a little helow the discoidal cell. This is the nearest approach to the first 


3rcl form of female (P. Eomulus, Cram. Pap. Ex. t. 43. f. A ; P. Mutlus, Fab., Bois. 

Sp. G6n. p. 270; P. Hector 2, De Ilaan). Tab. II. %. 6. 

This not uncommon Indian butterfly I consider to be a third form of the female of 
P. 'Pammon. I was first led to suspect this by finding that no males of it are known 
(the male and female from Ceylon, noted in the British Museum List, I have ascertained 
to be both females), nor have I been able to find any after an examination of the chief 
collections in England. It is also to be observed that it has been received from no 
locality which is not also inhabited by P. Fammoji ; there is no other known Indian 
butterfly that can possibly be the other sex of it; and lastly, it agrees very closely with 
the second form of female (P. Polytes) in all its details of form, texture, and neuration; 
and though at first sight having a very different aspect, specimens are to be found which 
by a very slight modification could be changed so as to resemble that form. I am there- 
fore quite satisfied in my own mind that I am right in sinking this species into a form of 
P. Fammon. I have already stated my opinion that it mimics P. JScetor, with which, 
howxvcr, it has no afiinity. The resemblance was such as to induce De Haan to place it 
as the female of that species. 

C3. Papilio Theseus, Cramer. Tab. II. figs, 2, 4, 7 ( $ $ 

us 9,De Haan, Verb. Nat 

? ) ; Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 276 

P. Polyphonies 9. 

Brit. Mus. List. Pap. p. 12 

Melanides, De Haan, Verh. Nat. Gesch. t. 8. f. 3 ($). 

Male like P. Fammon c^, but smaller, and the tail alwavs reduced to a projecti 


Hab. Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Lombock, Timor {Wall.). 


Local form a. Much larger ; more falcate wimrs : a broad short tail 

^^x , x^vjiv^ iWi^^tltC »>lllg 

Hab. Macassar {Wall.) 

1st form of female. Tab. II. fig. 2. 

Like the male, but with a very slightly marked blue and red ocellus at the anal angle. 
Tliis is very rare in the islands. I found one specimen only in Timor, which I took "«'» 
CDf.uld " with a male almost exactly resembling it. 

2nd form of female (P. Folyphontes ?, De Haan). Tab. II. fig. 4.. 

Like the 2Ed form of P. Fammon $ ; but has the pale portion of the anterior wing of 
a much lighter colour, and not extending so far towards the base of the wing ; the white 
spot on the hind wings is more rounded, and has always a rather large portion within tte 
cell. This form is to some extent local, not existing, I believe, in Sumatra, where it is 
replaced by the next. 

Hah. Borneo, Java, Timor {Wall), 

Zrdform of female (P. Theseus, Cr. ; P. Antiphns $ , De Haan). Tab. II. fig. 7. 
This is weU characterized by the entire absence of the white spot from the hind wings- 



The red spots and lunules remain ; "but in some specimens only those in the anal region 
are yisihle, and these have a very close resemblance to T. AntipJiiis. This is also a local 
form, not occurring, I believe, in company with the last. 

Hah. Sumatra^ Lombock [fValL). 

'kthfonn of female (P. Melanides, De Ilaan, Yerh. Nat. Gesch. t. 8. f. 3). 
I consider this to be an isolated modification of P. Theseus, Cr., peculiar to Borneo. 
It possesses all the characteristics of a female of this species. 

Huh. Banjarmassing (Borneo) [Ley den Museum). 

N.B. The 2nd, 3rd, and 4th forms of 2 are all tailed, as in the females of P. JPammon. 

64 Papilio Alphexor, Cramer. 

P. Alphenor, Cr. Pap. Ex. t. 90. f. B ( $ ) ; Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 274 ( J, $ ) ; P. Ledehouria, Esclisch. 

Voy. Kotz. t. 3. f. 7. . 

This is very closely allied to P. Theseus. The male is larger, has the caudal tooth 
scarcely perceptible, and on the under side has white instead of red marginal lunulea. 
The female is tailed, much larger than P. Theseus $ form 2nd, from which it further 
differs by the white patch on the hind wings having the red markings blended with it, 
and more prominent. 

Hah. Celebes, Bouru, Amboyna, Ceram [Wall.], Philippine Islands. 

1st form of female (P. Z/edebourla, Eschsch.). 

Like the male, but with a broAvn tinge and an obscure anal lunule. This has been 
noticed only in the Philippine Islands. 

2ndfo7vn of female (P. Alpheno7\ Cr.). 
Distribution the same as the male. 

Zrdform of female (P. Elyros, G. B. Gray, B. M. List Pap. p. 26). 

The white patch on the lower wings reduced to a small spot, or quite absent. There 
are many varieties of this, showing very instructively how such isolated forms of female 
as occur in the two preceding species may have been produced by simple yariation fol- 
lowed by a "natural selection" of the forms best adapted to special conditions. 

Hah. Philippine Islands [B. M.) 

65. Papilio Kicaxor, !Felder, ' Voyage of the Novara,' pi- - • • ^- ^> ^• 

Male. Upper side :— like P. Alphenor 6 ; but the band of white spots is broader and 
more regular, and there is a row of four white submarginal lunules. 

Under side as in P. Ali^henor\ but the marginal spots of the upper wings, and the 
submarginal lunules of the lower wings, are larger and more distinct. 

Female quite tailless, like the male. Upper side :— like P. Alphenor $ ; but the 
rufous anal spots are much smaller, not forming an ocellus at the anal angle, and they 
do not join the white central patch. 

Under side, differs from P. Aljphenor in nearly the same manner as on the upper side. 

Hah. Batchian, Gilolo, Morty Island {Wall). 

Itemarl's.—'rhe absence of tails in the female, and the white submarginal lunules in the 


male, distingiiisli this at a glance from all its allies. It lias a comparatiyely restricted 

range, and is very constant in both sexes. The plate sent me by Dr. Felder is not num 

66. Papilio nirpoNors, Telder *. 

-P. HipponouSy FelcL Lep. Nov. Philipp. p. 12; P. Dironus^ B» M. List (no description) 
Hab, Luzonj Mindanao (Philippines). 


67. Papilio A^iBE AX, Boisduyal. 

P. Ambrax, Bd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 218; Voy. au Pole Sud, Lep. t. 1. f. 3, 4 (c?) ; De Haan, Verh. Nat. 

Gesch. t. 7. f. 2 ( $ ). P. Orophanes, Bolsd. Sp. Gen. p. 275 ( $ ). 
Hub. ]Mysol, Sahvatty, Dorey [Wall.]. 

IxemarTi. — I believe that two, if not three, well-marked forms or species have been 
mixed up under the name of JP. AmhraXj as I have endeavoured to show by the refer- 
ences. My specimens of the two sexes of each show a uniformity of character in each 

68. Papilio Ambracia, Wallace. 


■ * 

P. Ambrax, Bd. ; De Haan, Verh". Nat. Gesch. t. 7. f. 1 (c^). 

Male. Differs from JP. Amhrax, Bd., by the ashy-white patch at the apex of the ante- ' 

Tior wmgs. 

Female. Has a large, roundish, white patch on the anterior wings, extending from the 
discoidal cell to the hinder angle. The red lunules on the hind wings are smaller. Same 
size as P. Amhrax. 

Hub. y^B:i^ioM [6 , .9:) {Wall). . . 


69. Papilio Epieus, n. s; 

V 3fate. Above -.—anterior wings as in P. Amhrax ; posterior wings more elongate, the 
white band much narrower, notched behind at the ners'ures, with the portions between 
regularly rounded ; the part which crosses the cell is cut by black ner\Tires, and there is 
an oblique red mark at the anal angle. 

Beneath : — with a submarginal of seven lunules on the hinder wings, the one above the 
anal angle very large ; v, hcrcas the last two species have one small lunule only .beneath; 
at the anal angle. . 


Is probably that figured in * Voy. au Pole Sud,' Lep. 1. 1, f. 5, which 


bles most the female of P. Ambracia, but differs in the form of the white and red patches. 
It is said to be from " the coasts of New Guinea " ; but as the expedition touched at the 
Aru Islands, it is very probable that there is an error of locality, as I have ascertained 
to be very often the case in the indications furnished by these and other ' Voyages.' 

Hab. Am Islands {Wall.). 

_ * Having obtalneJ a specimen of this insect while these sheets are passing through the press, I find that It should 
have been placed next to P. Severus. 



70. Papilio DuxalIj Montroiizier. 


Ilah. Woodlark Island (S.E. of New Guinea). 

Hemark. — This seems closely allied to tlie last species. 

i. Erectlieus group. 
71. Papilio Ormexus, Guerin. Tab. III. figs. 2 ( J ), 1, 3, 4 ( $ $ ). 

P. Ormenus, Gu^r. Voy. de la Coquille, pi. 14. f. 3; Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lcp. p. 211. 
P. EredheuSj var.j Voy. au Pole Sud, Lep. t. 1. f. 1, 2. 

P. Amanga, Boisd. Sp. Gen. p. 216, $ (P. Oneslmus, Hew. Ex. Butt. Pap. iil. f. 8). 
Hab. WaigIou_, Aru Isl.j Ke Isl., Matabello and Goram Isl. {Wall.). 

This belongs to a remarkable group of Papilios inhabiting the Austro-Halayan region, 
and which are especially interesting as exhibiting a good instance of polymorphism, the 


females being of two or three distinct forms . 
The male in this species is characterized by the small amount of marking on the under 


1st form of female. Tab. III. fig. 1. 

Almost exactly intermediate between the male and the normal female, which resem- 


bles P. Erectheus $ . 

Upper side brown-black; a band of four whitish-yellow spots across the anterior 
wings beyond the cell, the upper one of the same size and position as in the male, the 
2nd and 3rd elongated towards the cell, the 4th rather shorter than the 3rd, and imme- 
diately beneath it. Posterior wings with a central patch of a pale sulphur-yellow just 
crossing the end of the cell, and separated below into five truncate lobes ; below this, and 
next the anal margin, arc two irregular blue lunules, with a red lunule at the anal angle 
and a smaller one lower down beneath the second blue lunule. 

Under side as aboye ; on the hind wings the upper half of the yellow patch is dusky, 
and there is a complete submarginal series of seven red lunules. 

Hab. Waiglou (a single specimen) [Wall). 

'2>ndform of female. Tab. III. fig. 3. 

^Resembles very closely P. Erectheiis ? ; but the white patch on the hind wings docs 
not cover so much of the cell, and the two middle lobes are much elongated posteriorly, 
and separated by wedge-shaped spaces ; the blue lunules are but slightly marked, and do 
not exceed two in number. 

Under side :— differs from P. Mrecthens in the white patch never reaching the anterior 
margin of the hind wings. In a specimen from "Waigiou, the four middle lunides are 
nearly white. This may be considered the typical form of female, as it occurs every- 
where in company with the male. 

^rdfomi of female {Amanga, Bd.). Tab. III. fig. 4. 

I have three specimens of this form from three of the localities in which the male 
occurs. They differ slightly from each other, but agree generally with the figure and 
description above quoted. An allied form of female (of the next species) was observed 


closely followed by two males of the ordinary form; they were watched for some time, 
the males hovering over the females in the manner usual hefore pairing ; and the three 
were then captured at one stroke of the net. This occurred three years after the captm-e 
of the specimen figured by Mr. Hewitson, and at once convinced me that these puzzHng 
specimens were an additional form of female to a well-known male. The fact that the 
only females known of an allied species (P. Tydeus) are intermediate between these forms 
confirms this determination. 

Ilah. Aru Island, Mysol, Goram Isl. {Wall) 

72. Papilio PAyDio:^, n. s. 

3Iale. Closely resembles P. Ormenus, but presents the following differences ; 

Upper side :— the band of spots across the fore wings is faintly marked, or more 
frequently quite absent ; the grey lines bordering the nervures at the apex are more dis- 
tinct ; on the hind wings," the first three indentations of the whitish patch are followed 
by faint powdered lunules of the same colour. 

Under side : — the aper of the fore wings is strongly marked with grey lines between 
the ner^nires, but has generally no spots ; on the hind wings there is a curved submargi- 
nal band of lunules across the winor, viz., at the anal angle a large irregular red lunulate 

spot with a blue and a grey mark above it — 2nd, a larger grey lunulc with an angular 
blue mark below it, and a red lunule nearer the margin — 3rd, a similar grey lunule and 
blue mark — Ith, a larger grey lunule, and a smaller blue mark with a faint red lumule 
below — 5th, a grey lunule and a faint blue dash below — 6th, a blue lunule with a faint 
grey mark above — 7th, a blue lunule with a very faint mark above it. These vary some- 
what in different specimens, but the whole series can always be traced. 

Ist form of female. 

Scarcely distinguishable from the typical female of the last species : the blue lumiles 
on the under surface form a complete series, almost as in P. JErectlicus $ . 

Hah. New Guinea, Salwatty, Mysol Island (with the male) (TValL). 

2nd form of female. 

Upper surface : — fore wings as in P. Onesimtis, Hew. ; hind wings yellowish white, a 
broad black border along the anterior, and a narrow one along the posterior margin, t^vo 
yellowish lunules near the outer angle, anal angle pale yellow, then an oblong black spot 
with a bluish mark in its upper part, followed by a second (half-obliterated) black spot. 

Under surface with the same markings ; but there are a series of six blue angulatea 
marks upon a black ground, the two intermediate ones being smaller and less distinct. 
Abdomen vellow : under side black. 

Hub. Borey (New Guinea) [Wall) 

HemarJcs. — This specimen was taken in company with two males, as before mentionea. 
An insect, described by M. Montrouzier as the female of his P. Godartii (from Woodlarli 
Island), agrees very closely with this, and is no doubt the female of the same species, or a 
closely allied one which he puts in his list as P. Ormemis. The fact, therefore, that this 
peculiar pale form of female Fcqnlio has been found in five islands, from no one of ^^ l^icli 



is a male insect known wliicli can be mated with it, exccj^t those of the Ormcmts-tovm 
(which always occur in the saine places), may, in conjunction with the observation already 
given of the comxianionship- of the two forms, be taken to prove that this is really a case 
of polymorphism. I believe also it will be found that these extreme departures from 
the typical form of a species are connected with mimetic resemblances and the safety of 
the individuals. We have already seen that the extreme forms of P. Memnon 2 and 
T. Fammon $ respectively resemble other species which from their habits and abun- 
dance seem to have some peculiar immunity from danger. In this case also there is a 
resemblance to quite a different family of butterflies, the Morphidse. In form, colora- 
tion, and general appearance these pale-coloured Pajpilios resemble species of the genus 
Drusilla ; and the same genus is also imitated by other butterflies — one of these, Mcla- 
mt'is Agondas $, having been actually confounded with Drusilla hioculata as the same 
species, so great is the resemblance. This fact of species of several genera imitating 
the Drusillas would indicate that they have some special immunities which make it 
advantageous to other insects to be mistaken for them ; and their habits confirm this 
opinion. They have all a very similar style of dress, and fly very slowly, low down in 
damp woods, often settling on the ground or on rotten wood ; and they are exceedingly 
abundant in individuals. Now these are the general characteristics of all groups which 
are the sul)jects of imitation ; and we may therefore presume, when we see forms depart- 
ing widely from the general appearance of their close relations, and resembling closely 
other groups with w^hich they have no affinity, that what we must call accidental vari- 
ations have been accumulated and rendered definite by natural selection for the protec- 
tion and benefit of those forms. 

73. Papilio Ttdeus, Eelder. Tab. IV. figs. 3 ( c? ), 2 ( ? ). 

P. Tydeus, Feld. Lep. Fragm. p. 52 (d). 

Female. — L'pper side dusky brown ; fore wings with the central portion below the 
cell nearly white ; hind winojs with the basal two-thirds white, with an irregular and 

obtusely dentated margin, and edged with ochre-yellow ;' the rest black, with a submargi- 
nal row of seven broad yellowish lunuies, and above those nearest the anal angle three 
irregular blue patches. 

Under side nearly as above ; the white space on the upper wings is more extensive 
and better defined ; the marginal lunuies are dilated so as to form a crenellated band, and 
the blue marks are increased to six or seven in number. Head and thorax dusky; 
abdomen yellowisli. 

Hah. Batchian, Morty Island {Wall), 

Femaj^k.—Tlie female, which seems to be of only one form in this species, is especially 
interesting as being allied to the pale-yellow form of P. Ormenus and P. JPandion. 

/4. Papilio Adrasits, n. s. Tab. IV. fig. 1 (?). 

Male. — Upper side, like P. Ormenus <S ; but has the band of the hind wings narrower, 
not crossing the cell, and more pointed towards the anal angle. 

TOL. xxy. 




Under side with a single red anal spot, and three blue lunules beyond it. 

Female. — Upper side brown black; anterior wings with the apical half browner, a 
whitish patch around the end of the cell, and an ovate spot within it ; posterior wings 
with a small central whitish patch more or less tinged with ochreous ; a submarginal row 
of very large deep -red lunules, that at the anal angle forming an irregular ocellus bor- 
dered above with pale blue, and a few blue atoms on the side of it. Indentations of 
all the wings broadly margined with ochreous. 

Under side : — the white patch of the anterior wings larger and well defined, and con- 
tinued by smaller and fainter patches to the outer angle ; posterior wings with the small 
central patch and marginal lunules as above, with the addition of a faint row of angu- 
latcd blue marks between them. 

"Wings elongated posteriorly, and somewhat angulated at the termination of the first 

median nervure. 

Expanse of wings, c?, 5 J inches ; $ , 6 inches. 

_ 1 

Hab. Banda Island {Wall.). 

Memarks. — This species is near P. Ormenus in the male, but approaches P. Gambri- 
8ms in the female, which differs from all others in this group by its dark colouring and 
the short narrow band on the hind wings. A male and two females were obtained in 
the small island of Banda. 

75. Papilio GAMBRisirs, Cramer. 

P. GambrisiuSj Cr. Pap. Ex. 1. 157- f. A, B (c?) ; Boisd. Sp. Gea. Lep. p. 213. 

P. Drusius, Cr. Pap. Ex.t. 229. f. A, t. 230. f. A ( $) ; Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 218. 

Hab. Amboyna, Ceram, Bouru [Wall.]. 

MemarJcs. — The males of this fine species are not uncommon in Ceram, ani in liot 
weather come down to the beach and settle on the wet sand. The females, however, are 
very rare; I obtained one in the mountainous forests of Ceram, and this is, I befieye, 
the only fine and perfect specimen now in Europe. 

Expanse of male 5^-6^^ inches, of female 7 inches. 

76. Papilio Amphitrion, Cramer. 

P. AmpUtrion, Cr. Pap. Ex. t. 7- f. A, B; Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 217. 
Hah. Celebes? 

Memarks. — The habitat of this rare species is doubtful. Cramer says, '' America 
Godart, "Amboyna;" but I believe its true locality will be found to be Celebes. I^ 
forms a transition to the next species. 

77. Papilio Etjchenoe, Guerin. 

Sp. Gen. Lep 

Female.— ^imil^T to the male ; but the markings are all of a dull ochre-yellow, and the 
second and thkd spots, reckoning from the inner margin of the upper wings, are ahnost 
entirely wanting. This sex is much rarer than the male. 

Hab. New Guinea, Aru laland, K6 Island (Wall). 



78. Papilio Godaetii, Moutrouzier. 

p. Godartii, Montr. Ann. Soc. d'Agric. de Lyon, 1856, p. 391. 
Ilah. AToodlark Island. 

Memarlc. — Closely allied to tlie last ; perhaps a variation only 

k. Det7ioUon group. 
79. Papilio Demoliox, Cramer. 

P. Demolion, Cr. Pap. Ex. t. 89. f. A, B ; P. Cresphonles, Fabr. ; Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lcp. p. 220. 
Hub. Java, Borneo, Sumatra, Singapore {Wall.), Moulmein [Brit. Mm.). 

80. Papilio Gigon, n. s. Tab. YII. fig. 6 ( $ ). 

"P. Gigon,^' List of Papilionidse in Brit. Mus. p. 27 (no description). 

* E 

Much larger than P. Demolmi; costal margin of the fore wings very much arched 
from the hase ; tail jproportionally shorter. 

Upper side : — markings as in P. Demolion, with the following difTerenccs. In the 
ccE of the fore wings are four longitudinal curved greyish-yello *v lines ; the yellow band 
begins higher on the abdominal margin, and curves outward toward the tip, where the 
spots are obliquely elongate, and the three last distinctly notched; on the hind wings 
the lunulate spots are much deeper and are rather further from the margin, and the two 

spots at the outer angle (often obsolete in P. Demolion) are large and well marked. 
Under side :■ — the markino-s resemble those of P. Demolion, but are stronger ; the band 

of silvery spots is much more sinuate, and possesses an additional lunule above the outer 
angle ; a patch of ochre-yellow covers the lower margin of the cell, extending a little 
along the nervures which radiate from it. 

Abdomen blackish, with numerous stripes and spots of pale yellow. 

Expanse of vrings 4f to 5 J inches. 

Hah. Celebes, Sulla Island [Wall). 


Bemark. — Tliis was regarded by Boisduval as a large variety of P. Demolio.i, (see Sp. 
Gen. Lep. p. 221) ; but it offers remarkable differences both in form and markings. 

1. Urithoniiis group. 

81. Papilio Erithonitjs, Cramer. 

P. Erithonius, Cr. Pap, Ex. t. 232. f. A, B. 

'tus, k abr. ; Don. Ins. China 


Local form a {Malay ami s),—ThQ two spots on the lower margin of the cell of the 
tind wings wanting; anal spots redder, and the ocellus at the outer angle darker: two 
spots in cell of fore wings, as in the type ; but in Flores specimens these approach so as 
ahnost to unite. 

Hab. Singapore, Flores {Wall), Manilla. 



Local form h {Sthenehis, Macleay). — A single large spot in the cell of the for 
le small detached spot on the margin of the cell of the hind wings. 

Hub. Goram Island {Wall.), Australia. 

Section C. 

m. Taradoxa group 

82. Papilio Paradoxa, Zinken. 

Zdima Paradoxa, Zink. Beitr. Ins. Java, t. 15. f. 9, 10. 
P. Paradoxtty Westw. Cab. Or. Ent. pi. 9. f. 1, l^-. 
Hah. Java (Wain. 

Local for 

P. Paradoxa, yar., Hew. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 422, pi. 67. f. 1 


Hab. Borneo {Wall). 

Local^ form 5.— Smaller ; intermediate in the markings between the Java and Borneo 

forms ; interior row of elongate marks on npper wings light blue, not descending to the 
outer angle. 

Hab. Sumatra [Wall.), 

Both sexes of this species closely resemble the corresponding sexes of Eu^plcea Mich- 
mm, Cr., which is very common in all the above-mentioned localities 

83. Papilio M 

Tab. YIL fig. 3(d) 

Size, form, and markings nearly the same as in P. Faradoxa. 

Above :— purplish black, without any gloss or silky reflexions ; a submarginal row of 
white spots on all the wings, more or less blue-edgcd on the upper wings, sometimes 
partially obsolete on the lower ones ; one or two spots at the end of the cell, and a row 
of SIX or seven elongate marks beyond it, bright blue. 

Ecneath, the submarginal row of white spots only. 

P. Faradoxa, var. A, Hewitson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 423, pi. 67. f. 3. 

I put this as the female of the above with some hesitation, as it was not captured in 
the same island. It agrees, however, in the entire absence of gloss, and in the peculiar 
elongation of the outer anffle of the lower wii 

Fema le 

b ....^o 

Hab. Malacca, Sumatra (d); Borneo (?) [Wall). 

Female variety '^-F. Faradoxa, var. B, Hewitson (Proc. Zool. Soc. pi. 66. f. 4), may 
be an extreme variation of this, but will more probably, when the male is discovered, 
prove to be a distinct species. 

84. Papilio CAUNrs, Westwood. 


Hab. Sumatra, Borneo {s , $) [Wall), Java {Leyden Mus.). 

Jiemar^s.--^^ 1,^,-^ 1,^^ ^j^.^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^^^ .^ represented ii 

iir. Westwood s figure. The female is of a brownish colour, with the same white mark 





the male, but witliout any blue tinge. This species is very like Himloea llh 

llinSy one of the most common butterflies in all the above-mentioned localitli^s. It 
n distinguishable from that insect on the wing, though it flics very slowly, like the 
ics it mimics. 

85. Papilio Astina, Yv'estwood. 

P. Astinaj Westw. Cab. Or. Ent. pL 9. f. 3 
Hab. Java [Brit. Mus. ex Coll. Horsf.). 

8G. Papilio Hewitsonii, Westwood. 

P. HewUsonii, Westw. Proc. Ent. Soc. 1864, p. 10. 

P. Slateri $j He\^'. Ex. Butt. Pap. pi, 4. f, 9 ; P. Comma, B. M. List of Papilionidoe (no description). 
Hah. Borneo (6) [Wall.). 

MemarJcs. — Tlie last two species should probably form a distinct group, on account of 
the peculiar elongation of the cell of the lower wings. They both resemble dark species 
of Euplcea, P. Slateri is a quite distinct species from North India, to which Mr. ITcwit- 


son referred the present species as the female. All the specimens kno^^Ti of both species 
are, however, males. 

n. Dlssiviilis group. 
87. Papilio Echidna, De Haan. 

P. Echidna, De Haan, Verh. Nat. Gesch. p. 42, t. 8. f. f> ; Clytia dissimilis, Sw. Zool. III. 2nd ser. pi. 130 j 

P. dissimilis, var,, Brit. Mus. List of Papilionidae. 
Hab. Timor (cJ, ?) [Wall.). 

Memarhs. — This species has been confounded with P. dissimilis, from wliicli it is very 
distinct, by the absence of the yellow marginal band beneath. It is also widely separated 
geographically from that species, which inhabits the continent of India only. The sexes 
are alike, as they are in P. dissimiUs. P. ^anope, L., which has been supposed to be its 
female, is a very distinct species, of which also both sexes exist in most collections. 

88. Papilio Palephates, Westwood. 

P. Palephates, Westw. Arc. Ent. pi. 79. f . 1 ; P. dissimilis, var. h, Brit. Mus. List of Papilionidae. 
Hah. Philippine Islands. 

Section D. 

o. Ma car ens group 

89. Papilio Yeioyis, Hewitson. 

P' Veiovis, Hew. Ex. Butt. Pap. pi. 7. f. 20 ( c? ). 
J^ab. Menado (Celebes) {"Coll. Hewitson."). 

Remark. — This fine new species has been recently received from Menado, and 
test placed in this group, near P. Encelades. 



90. Papilio Excelades, Eoisduval. 

P. Enceladesj Bd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 376 j H 
Hab. Macassar (Celebes) (Wall.). 

91. Papilio Deucalion, Boisduval. 

P. Deucalion, Bd. Sp. Gen. Le'p. p. 375 ; Hewitson, Ex. Butt. Pap. pi. 4. f. 11 ( $ ). 
Hab. Macassar, Menado (Celebes) [Wall.]. 


. Bemarks.— At Macassar I took only males of P. Micelades, and females of P. Deuca- 
lion at tlie same spot (a lialf-dry river-bed), and therefore conjectured that they might 
be sexes of one species, although so unlike. Some years afterwards, however, I took at 
Menado a fine male of P. Deucalion, which only differs in its rather smaller size and 
brighter colouring. 

92. Papilio TdxEOides, Hewitson. 

P. IdaoideSj Hew. Ex. Butt. Pap. pi. 1. f. 2. 




Bemar'k. — This singular species must closely resemble on the wing Sestia Zeuconoe. 
from the same islands. 

93. Papilio DelessepvTII, Gu6rin. 


P. Delessertiiy Guer. ; Deless, Souvenirs, t. 17* 
Hab. Pulo Penang [Hope Museum., Oxford), 

He mark. —This resembles the species of Hestia and Idceo])sis, from the same localitT 


and is intermediate in size. It has been confounded with the next. 

94. Papilio Dehaanii, Wallace. 

P. Laodocus, De Haan, Verb. Nat. Gesch. t. 8. f. 5 (nee Fab.) ; P. Melanides, Erichs. Archiv fiir Natur, 

1843 (nee De Haan, 1839). 


Hab. Malacca, Borneo [Wall.), Java {Ley den Mus.). 

Bemarks. — The Bornean specimens are rather larger, and have the yellow anal spot 
somewhat differently shaped. The two names which have been applied to this species 
ha\dng been preoccupied, I have named it after the first describer. 

95. Papilio Leucothob, West wood. 

P. Leucothoe, Westw. Arc. Ent. pi. 79- f . 3 ; P. Xenodes, var., Brit. Mus. List of Pap. 
Hab. Singapore, Malacca [Wall.), N. India. 


96. Papilio Macaeetjs, Godart. 

P. Macareus, Godt. Enc; Me'th, ix. pi. 76 -, Horsf. Desc. Cat. Lep. E. L C. pi. 5. f. 1 ; Boisd. Sp. Gen- 

Lep. p. 374. 

P. striatus, Zink. Beitr. Ins. Java, t. 14. f. 5. 

Hab. Malacca {Wall), Java [Horsfield), Borneo {Ley den Mus). 

This species closely resembles Danais Anlae, Cr., found in the same islands. 



97. Papilio Stratocles, Pelder. 

p. Stratodes, Feld. Lep. Nov. Philipp. p. 2. 
Uab. 3Iindanao (Philippines). 

98. PAriLio TniLE, n. s. Tab. YII. fig. 1 ( J ). 

Form of P. Macareiis, but smaller. 

Above : — brown-black, spotted and marked with grccnisli white ; a row of spots near 
the outer margin of all the wings, and on the upper wings a second row between the first 
and the end of the cell, three or four others close to the cell, and 5-7 irregularly placed 
in the cell ; the spot next the outer angle is double, and the two lower spots of the 
second row are continued indistinctly to the cell. The lower wings hare a mark at the 
end of the cell, and five elongated spots radiating from it between tbe nervures. 

Beneath : — brown, with the spots all whiter and more distinct. Neck with four wliite 
points ; abdomen dusky, with pale lines on the sides and beneath. 

Expanse of wings 3f inches. 

Hab. New Guinea {s) [Wall.). 

Variety or local form a. — Like the above, but with the discal spots of the lower wings 
united into a transverse band divided by fine nervures. 

Hah, Waigiou Island [6) {Wall), 

This species imitates JDanais sohrina, Bd., a New Guinea species. The figure repre- 
sents the upper surface of both forms of this insect. 

p. Antiphates group. 

99. Papilio Antiphates, Cramer. 


p. Pompilius, Fab. ; Lucas, Lep. Ex. t. 22. f. 1 j Godt. Enc. Method, ix. p. 49. 


Hab. Inrlin China la /^,«/iW 

Local form a.—Podalirius Fompilius, Sw. Zool. 111. 2nd ser. pi. 105. 

Hab. Malacca, Sumatra, Java, Borneo {TFalL). 

These differ from the type in the black apical portion not quite reaching the outer 
angle, and m the first and second bands on the upper wings not extendmg below the 
cell; The fourth band varies in extent, as does the amount of grey colouring in the 
caudal region. 

100. Papilio Eupheates, Eelder 



. List of Papilionidae (no description) 

101. Papilio Androcles, Boisduval. Tab. VII. fig. 5 ( j ) 

P- Androcles, Bd. Sp. Gen. Le'p. p. 279. 

I^ab. Macassar (Celebes) {Wall.). 



Jtemarhs. — I only met with tliis magnificent species on one occasion, on the banlv 


of a monntain-strcam and on the sands close to a waterfall. AVhen resting 
ground, the very long white tails are raised up at a considerahle angle, and i 

102. Papilio Dohcus, Do Ilaan. 

p. Dorcus^ De Ilaan, A^erh. Nat. Gcscli. Zool. t. 7- f- 4 
Ilah. Gorontalo (N. Celebes) {'^ Ley den Museum ^^). 

103. Papilio Eiiesus, BoiscTiivaL 

P. Wies^iSy Bd. Sp. Gen. L^p. p. 253. 

Hab. Macassar (Celebes) {Wall). ^^ Bengal/' the locality given by Boisduval; is erroneous 

104. Papilio Aeist^us, Cramer. 


p. Arisfcens, Cr. Pap. Ex. t. 318, f. E, F^ Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 252 
Hab. Ceram, Batchian [Wall.). 

105. Papilio Parmatus, G. E. Gray. 

P. Parmaius, G. R. Gray, Cat. Lcp. Ins. Brit. Mus. pi. 3. f. 2. 
Hab. Aru Islands, Waigiou {Wall.), Australia {Brit. Mus.). 

Hcmarks. — The Aru specimen agrees almost exactly with the type specimen in tlic 
British Museum. The Waigiou insect is rather darker on the under surface, and has tlie 
black markings more sharply defined. 

q. JEurypijliis group. 


106. Papilio Codels, Cramer. 

P. Codrus, Cr. Pap. Ex. t. 179. f. A, B; Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 228. 
Hal. Araboyna and Ceram {type) (J, ?) {Wall). 

Local form a {Gilolensis) . — Differs from the true P. Codrus in having alw 
additional somiovate spot below the submedian nervure, and in having a small 
spot on the anterior margin of the lower wings beneath : it is also rather smaller. 

Hab. Batchian and Gilolo (Wall.) 

Su])species b {Gelehensis).—¥ovQ wings in the male more attenuate, with the co 
margin more curved than in true P. Codrus ; tipper surface more green and glossy ; 
additional large quadrate spot on the inner margin of the fore winsfs. Under sm'face 


lighter broi^n, the whitish marks near the anal angle wanting ; a dark subtr 
band across the cell of the fore winces. Bather smaller than P. Codrus. 



Subspecies c {Pa]puensis),~-'R\ndi wings less elongate than in the true P. Codi 
macular band much broader, and reaching the inner margin of the upper wingSj 
lower portion divided by nervures only ; the band continued on the lower wings M 
means of an obscure white fascia. 



Boueatli, the greenish white band continues on to the lower wings, but gradually 
fades away after reaching the cell. .Expanse of wings 4 J inches. 

Hah. Walgiou, Aru Island {Wall). 

TxcmarJiS. — This approaches the next species. Subspecies h and c I consider to be 
really as distinct as many universally received species, differing in form and in several 
points of coloration. As, however, it is probable that there are forms in other islands 
which may present intermediate characters, I prefer retainiDg the whole under the old 

specific name. 

107. Papilio Mela^thus, Felder. 

P. Melanthus, Feld. Lep. Nov. Phillpp. p. 12 

Hab. Mindanao (Philippines). 

108. Papilio Empedocles, Eabricius. 

P. Empedocles, Fab. Ent. Syst. iii. 1. p. 70; Don. Ins. Ind. pi. 17. f. 1 ; Boisd. Sp. Gen. L^p. p. 229 
Hab. Borneo [Wall.). 

109. Papilio Payeni, Boisduval. 

P. Payeni, Bd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 235; Van der Hoeven, Tijd. von Nat. Gesch. v. t. 8, f. 1, 2, 6. 

Hab. Borneo [Wall.), Java [Van der Hoeven). 

HemarJcs.— This remarkable species has been placed by Boisduval in a group by itself. 
It, however, agrees very closely in habits and structure with this group, and can hardly, 
I think, be separated, though very abnormal in colouring. P. Uvan, Db., is a closely allied 
species from India ; and P. GyaSy Westw., from the same country, is also nearly related, 
though it has been hitherto placed in another section of the genus. 

110. Papilio Saepedox, Linnaeus. 


Chlorisses Sarpedon, Sw., Zool. 111. 2nd ser. pi. 89. 

Java (broader band) (Wall.) 

Local form a {Moluccensis, Cram. Pap. Ex. 1. 122. f. D, E).— Black, with the bands and 
pots rich blue. 

■lab. Ceram, Batchian, Gilolo, Bouru [Wall). (The Ceylon form closely resembles this.) 


111. Papilio Miletus, n. s. Tab. VII. fig. 2 (<?). 
^'ings larger and more falcate than in P. Sarpedon, costal margin abruptly curved 

near the base of the wing. 

Above, black ; macular band rich blue, very narrow, the spots on the upper wings all 
more or less rounded and separated by thick black bands ; the marginal lunules large and 
angularly bent. 

Beneath, the upper wings have a row of four pearly-white lunules from the outer 
angle ; and there is one of the same colour at the outer angle of the lower wings, which 




have also an additional red spot on the margin of the cell, below the first branch of the 
subcostal nervure. Expanse of wings 4f inches. 

Hab. Macassar and Menado (Celebes) [Wall.). 


llemarks .—1 have separated this species from all the other forms of F. Sarpedon, be. 
cause, while they differ in markings and colour only, this differs greatly in form as ^11 
as very strikingly in size, colour, and markings. I cannot conceive, therefore, wliy sucli 
a combmation of distinctive peculiarities should not entitle it to specific rank.' 

112. Papilio Wallacei, Hewitson. 

P. Wallacei, Hew. Ex. Butt., « Papilio,'* iii. f. 7. 
Hab. Aru Islands, Batchian [Wall). 

Bemarh-^\A^ isolated species is very rare : I obtained a single male specimen in eacli 
of the above localities in the virgin forest. 

113. Papilio Bathycles, Zinken. 

Hab. Java, Borneo, Malacca [Wall) 

Java, ^. 157, tab. 14. f. 6, 7j Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep 

J^m«rX^~The Indian form generally confounded with this I consider to be a very 
distmct species, for which I propose the name of P. Chvron, and add a description below* 

114. Papilio EuRYPVLrs, Linnaeus. 


Hab. Amboyna (type), Ceram, Bouru, Batchian, New Guinea [Wall.) 

BemarJc.-^Th^ male has the abdomen above and abdominal margin white; the/m«fe 


115. Papilio Jason, Esper. 

Hab. Malacca, Sumatra^ Borneo ((^, ?) [Wall) 

HemarJcs, — This 

P. Jason, L. ? P. Eurfpylus, var., Boisd. Sp. Geti. L 

species IS readily distinguished from P. Mirmkis by the abdomen 
above and the abdominal margin, being black in both sexes, by the smaUer size, more 
pomted upper wmgs, and by the lower wings having a narrower band and larger spots 

Papilio Chiron, n, s. 
p. Bathycles (partly), Brit. Mus. List of Papilionids. 

teJS""' ""■ ""'''*'' ^"''™- ^"'^ ™'«' "*" '"'"^'' ^' «'e tip ; hind wings considerably less elongate p.^ 

ueneatn, tne spots all separated by broad b ack ImM- *!.» «j,^^^,v„i ... , . , . . f . _ ^ ,,../.. 




Expanse of wings Siinclies- 



of a deeper green colour. On tlie under surface the marginal lunules, the cell-spots, and 
sub-basal stripe are all larger. 
Variety or dimorphic form a.—JEvemon, Bois. Sp. Gen. L6p. p. 231. 

Hab. Malacca, Java, Sumatra, Borneo {d , $). {Wall.) 

This may be a distinct species, but is more probably a case of dimorphism. The two 
forms are absolutely identical, except that the red spot at the base of the lower wings 
beneath, in P. Jason^ is constantly absent in P. Eveynon. 


116. Papilio Telephus, n. s. Tab. VII. fig. 4(d). 

Larger than P. Uurypijlus\ anterior wings more elon<?ated, with their costal marp:in 
abruptly curved near the base. 

Above, the four spots in the cell of the upper wings linear, of equal width, not in- 
creasing in thickness from the base outwear ds, as in P. Eurypylus ; the macular band 
narrower, nearly white on the lower wings ; abdomen and abdominal margin pure wlniv. 

Beneath, the red anal spot is not produced upwards along the abdominal margin, the 
pearly spots have a distinct dusky border, owing to their exceeding in size those on the 
upper surface. Expanse of wings 4J inches. 

Hah. Celebes [Wall). 

Hemarks. — This is a powerful species of very rapid flight, and difficult to capture. It 
comes about muddy places in the villages of South Celebes, and is also found abundantly 

at pools in the half-dry mountain- streams. I consider it quite distinct from all the allied 


117. Papilio iEGisTrs, Linn;3eus. 

P. ^gistusy L. ; Cram. Pap. Ex. t. 241. f. C, D; B( 
Hab, Ceram, Gilolo, Batchian, Aru Islands (Wall) 

118. Papilio Agamemnon, Linnaeus 

-i-xu. xd.rii.iu ii^GAMEMNON, XimuaeUS. 

P. Agamemnon, L.; Cram. Pap. Ex. 1. 106. f. C, D; Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 230. 

This species presents numerous slight modifications of form and marking, which seem 
hardly prominent enough to characterize as species, though tolerably constant in each 
locaHty. Type taHed. 

Hab. India, Manilla 

Local form a. Tail shorter ; wings rather pointed 

Hab. iimor, Flores [Wall). 

Local form h. Tail as in the last ; two outer rows of spots on the lower wings absent 

Rah. Ke Island {Wall). 

Local form c. Size small ; tail very short. 

Hah. Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo, Java {Wall). 

I^ocal form d. Wings much elongated, abruptly curved near the base ; tail very short 
ze large. 

tJab. Celebes {Wall.) 





Local form e. Broader and less sinuated wings, body large, tail very short. 

Ilah. Ceram, Bouru, Batchian {Wall.) . 

Local form/. Form of c, tail reduced to a tooth ; markings and spots well defined 

Hub. New Guinea, Aru Islands, Waigiou {Wall). 

119. Papilio Eama, Pelder. 

P. Rama, Feld. Lep. Nov. Mai. p. 1. P. Arycles, Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. p. 231 ? 

Hab, Malacca^ Sumatra [Wall). 

EemarJcs.—l have little doubt but this is tlie P. Arycles of BoisduvaL His descrip- 
tion, however, does not mention the distinctive character of the four large spots only 
in the discoidal cell ; I have therefore used Dr. ladder's name. 

Leptocircus, Swainson. 

This small but interesting genus differs somewhat from Fapilio in the neuration of 
the wings, but is best distinguished by the longitudinal fold and great elongation of the 
hiiid wings. The species frequent water, often settling on the edges of rills, or hovering 
over pools and rivulets in the sunshine. The few species known are all very closely 
allied, and might with equal propriety have been considered as local forms of one 
species. Three have been already described, and I have therefore thought it better to 
add one more, than to attempt to reduce those which have been generally accepted as 
species to a lower rank. 

120. Leptocircus Meges, Zinken. 

•P. Meges, Zink. Beitr. Ins. Java, p. 161, tab. 15. f. 8. Leptocircus Curius, Sw. Zool III. pi. 106; Boisd. 

Sp. Gen. pi. 7. f. 1, pi. 17. f. 3, p. 381. 
Hab. Java, Malacca (Wall.) . 

121. LEPTociRcrs Ctjrtiijs, n. s. 

Larger than Jj. Meges ; outer black margin broader, and apical nervures thicker ; bluisH 
band much narrower, of equal width on both wings, straight, abruptly narrow where it 
crosses the discoidal cell of the fore wings, and rounded at the inner margin so as to torm 
a small notch at the junction of the fore and hind wings. 

Under side with the band bluish silvery ; the three small bands on the anal margiii 
differing from those on L. Curius and L. Meges, the first being transverse, and not pro* 
duced obliquely to join the vertical band, the second small and nearly obsolete, the tmr 

at the anal angle transverse, very little curved, and sharply defined. 

Body beneath and base of all the wings greenish ashy. Expanse of wings lA'^ '^^^^^ 
Length, head to tip of tail 2^^ inches. 

Hah. Celebes {Wall). 


122. Leptocircus Decius, Felder. 

Z. Decius, Feld. Lep. Nov. Phllipp. p. 13. L. Corion^ G. R. Gray, List of Pap. in Brit. Mus. 
Hab. Philippine Islands. 



123. Leptocircus Curius, Eabricius. 





In referring to the species described by Dr. Peldcr, I have quoted from papers ^vhicll he 
has sent me, with distinct titles and separate paging, but which were all first published 
in the ' Wiener Entomologischen Monatschrift,' viz. "Lepidopterologische Fragmontc" 
(quoted as "Lep. Fragm."), published at intervals from June 1859 to August 18G0, 
" Lepidoptera Nova Malayica " (quoted as "Lep. Nov. Mai."), published in 18G0, and 
" Lepidoptera Nova a Dr. Carolo Semper in insulis Philippinis coUecta " (quoted as 
"Lep. Nov. Philipp."), published in 1861. It is to be regretted that the titles and 
paging of these separate papers were not made to correspond with the original publica- 
tion, so as to have made a more exact reference possible. 

I have also quoted Zinken's ' Beitrag zur Insccten-Pauna von Java * separated from 
the * Nova Acta Acad. Nat. Curios.' ; but in this case the pages and the numbering of 
the plates have been preserved as in the original work. 


Plate I. 

Represents the 



N.B. The left side of each 

figure shows the upper surface, and the right side the under surface of the same Insect. 
Fig. 1. A male, from Borneo (a slight local variety). 
Fig. 2. A female, from Java (a variety like P. AgenoVy Cr.) . 
Fig. 3. A female, from Sumatra (a variety near P. Anceus, Cr.). The last two are varieties of the 1st 

dimorphic form of female in this species. 

Fig. 4. A female, from Java (P. Achates, Cr.). 


Plate II. 

Represents the various forms oi Papilio Pammon (figs. 1, 3, 5, and 6) and P. Theseus (figs. 2, 4, and 7)- 

{See pages 6, 7, 51, 52, and 53.) N.B. The left side of each figure shows the upper surface^ 
and the right side the under surface of the same insect. 

Fig- 1. Papilio Pammon I a male, from Malacca. 

Fig. 3. The first form of female, closely resembling the male, from India. 

Fig. 5. The second form of female (P. Polytes, L.), from Singapore. This is the most common and widely 

distributed form of female, occurring everywhere with the male. 

^g- 6. The third form of female (P. Romulus, Cr.), from India. 



Fig. 2. Papilio Theseus, the first form of female, almost exactly resembling the male, from Timor. This 

form is very rare. 
Fiff. 4. The second form of female, from Timor. 

The third form of female (P. Theseus, Cr.), from Sumatra. The second and third forms of female 

seem about equally plentiful, but are generally confined to separate Islands. A fourth form of 




been figured, but could not b 

plate. (See pages 7 

Plate III, 


Represents the various forms of Papilio Ormenus (see pages 8, 55, and 56). N.B. The left side of each 

figure shows the upper surface, and the right side the under surface of the same insect. 

Fiff/2. A male, from the island of Goram. 

Flo* 1 Thp first form of female, from Waiffiou. 

Fig. 3. The second form of female^ from Waigiou, 

Fig. 4. The third form of female (P. Amanga, Bd.), from the island of Goram, 

Plate IV, 

Represents two species allied to Papilio Ormenus^ but whose females are not dimorphic (see pages 5? 

and 58). N.B. The left side of each figure shows the upper surface, and the right side the 

under surface of the same insect. 
Fig. 1. A female oi Papilio AdrastuSy peculiar to the island of Banda (see page 57). 
Fig. 3. Papilio Tydeus; a male, from Batchian. * 

Fig. 2s The female of Papilio TydeuSy exhibiting a single permanent form confined to a small group of 

islands (Batchian and Gilolo), intermediate between the two forms oi Papilio Ormenus ? which 

are represented on Plate III. figs. 3 and 4. 

Plate V. 

variation." N 




in the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London,' 1859, plate 66. fig. 5. 
Fig. 2. Paj)ilio Leodamas, male, from Mysol (see page 42). 
Fig. 3. Papilio Hecuba, male, from Celebes (see pages 16 and 50). 
Fig. 4. Papllo Pertinaa^j male, from Celebes (see page 49). 
Fig. 5. Papilio Albinus, male, from New Guinea fsee Dase 49"). 

Plate VI. 

Represents four species not before figured, belonging to the most brilliantly coloured group of Easterc 

Papilios, and illustrating local modifications of form. N.B. The right side shows the upp^f 


Fig. 1. Papilio Pericles, male, from Timor (see page 45). 
Fig. 2. Papil 

^ „ ). This species exhibits in a marked manner 
the strongly arched wings characteristic of those from Celebes, as contrasted with those repre- 



Celebes (see page 46). This also exhibits the arched 
le Moluccas (fig. 3). 



Plate VII. 


Represents six remarkable species of Papilio not before figured, N.B. Except in fig. 1, the right side 

shows the upper surface, and the left side the under surface of the same insect. 

Fig. 1. 


Fig. 3. 

The ri^-ht side represents the form found in New Guinea, the left side that obtained in AVaiglou, 
It resembles i>awaz5 sobrina^ Bd., uhich inhabits the same countries, and varies in a som<'^v]lat 
similar manner (see pages 20 and 63). 

ipilio JEnigmaj male, from Sumatra (see page GO). This species was named as above, from 
its puzzling resemblance to Papilio Paradoxa, which is found in the same districts. Both 


Miletus, male, from Celebes (see page 65). This species and the next exhibit 

\n a 

curved wins peculiar 

Figs. 5 and 6 represent species 

almost equally remarkable in this respect. 


Fig. 5. Papilio Androcles, male, from Celebes (see page 63), 
Fig. 6. Papilio Gigon, female, from Celebes (see page 59). 

Plate VIII. 

Illustrates, by comparative outlines of the anterior wings, the local modification of form in the Papilios 

of Celebes as compared with those of the suiToundlng islands. In each pair of outlines, the 
upper one represents a species peculiar to Celebes, while the one beneath it shows the most 
closely allied species or variety from any of the surrounding islands. (For details, see page IG.) 
The following are the names of the species : 

Fig. 1. Papilio Gigon, from Celebes j P. Demolion, from Java. 



Macedon. from Celebes : P. Peranthus 

Fig. 3. Paj)ilio Androcles, from Celebes ; P. Antiphates^ from Borneo. 
Fig. 4. Papilio Telephus^ from Celebes; P. Jason^ from Sumatra. 



p. Agamemnon, var., from Sumatra. 

Trans Linn SocVu 

Trans Linn. S oc. Vol.HCv' " 

Trans.Linn Soc.VolJ(XYTXe,3 


Trans LiNN.SocV 

- ■ . 

^ < 



^— ■ ■■-^- 

■^^ . 

-sSi'':'Vi'.n£ : v:r^ ui^'i, 




Trans Linn. Soc, Vol. XXV., Tab 5 


''"^^. id 

Inceiit Brooks .Sup 

Trans. Linn. S 


^•Ood ^^] 

TSncenL Broote.Imp 

Trans Linn Soc „ Yol . XXV ., Tab . 7. 

" ■**■ 


Vincent Brooks. Imp 

Trans. Linn. Soc.Yol XXV.,Tab 8. 




"Wncent Brooks , Irnp 

















PART II.— 1865. 


II. Monograph on the Anguillulidae, or Free Nematoids, Marine, Land, and Fresh- 

icater, icith Descriptions of 100 New Species. By H. Charlton Bastian, 3LA., 

M.B. Land.. F.L.S. 

page 73 

III. Description of some Neic and Bemarlahle Species of Aristolocliia from Western 

Tropical Africa. By Jos. D. Hooker, M.D., FB.S., V.B.L.S., ^ c. ... 185 

IV. On the Anatomy of Doridopsis, a Genus of the NudibrancUate MoUiisca. By Albany 

Hancock, F.L.S. 189 

V. A List of the Exogenous Blants found in the Anamallay Moimtains, in Southern 

India, with Descriptions of the New Species. By Capt. H. H. Eeddome, Officiating 
Conservator of Forests in the Madras Fresidency. Communicated by Dr. T. Tho:^i- 
SON, F.L.S 209 

I. 0/i Gnpidea, a New Genus of the Loasacea?, icith an account of some Feculiarities 

in the Structure of the Seeds in that Family. By John Miees, F.B.S. Sf L.S., Com- 
mend, Ord. Imp. Bras. Boscb 227 

• Supplementary Observations on the Sphserise of the Bookerian Ilerbarium. By 

Frederick Currey, M.A., F.B.S., Sec. L.S 239 

On the As7/mmetry of the Pleuronectid^, as elucidated by an Examination of the 
Skeleton in the Turbot, Halibut, and Plaice. By Ramsay H. Traquair, M.D., 

emonstrator of Anatomy in the JJniversity of Edinburgh. Communicated by Pro- 


fcssor HrxLEY, F.B.S. 8r L.S 


TY "n 

e^ription of some New Genera and Species of Tropical Legiiminosae. By George 
I^ENTHAAr Pro 1 J 1 & "^ . ^^^ 

THA:ii, F.L.S. . . ...... 29 




^^P ions of Fifty. two New Species of Pliasmid^, /ro»e the Collection of ]Mr. W. 

SON Salnders, ivith Bemarks on the Family. By Henry Walter Bates, 




jfonograj)?! on the AngmllulidDD, or Free Nematoids, Marine, Zand, and Fresli- 
i-^fer; icitli Descriptions of 100 New Species. By H. Charlton Bastian, 3r.A., 

}LB. loud., F.L.S. 

(Plates IX.-XIII.) 

Read December 1st, 1864. 

Of the Hclmintlis hitherto described, those belonging to the Nematode group far ex- 
ceed in number of species the representatives of either the Trcmatode or the Cestode 
orders, and, as far as onr present knowledge extends, they have also a wider distribution 
a? parasites amongst the various members of the animal, kingdom. Thus, commencing 
with the AcalepJicu, we find the so-called Nematoideum Cydippes taking up its residence 
in the substance of the body of one of our smaller jelly-fish, and thence onwards through 
higher and diverse types of animal life they are found, in more or less plurality, infesting 
rrprescntatives of all the principal orders and classes, till we come to man himself, who 
b the chosen habitat of no less than twelve species. Happily, however, whilst thus 
numerous and widely diffused, their effects are less pernicious and more seldom fatal 
than those rcsultmg from the presence of individuals of the Trcmatode or Cestode types 
in their various stages of development \ 

As regards the actual number of parasitic Kematoids at present known, it has been 
computed by Dr. Cobbold, in his recent work on ' Entozoa,' that these do not amount to 
more than about 550 distinct species ; and when I mention that within a space of fifteen 
months I have obtained from a few limited regions no less than 100 new species of free 
Nematoids, some idea may be formed of the numerical importance of this last 'group, 
- ^Qcernmg which, till within quite a recent period, our knowledge has been so vague 
and unsatisfactory. 

Bo^ellus^ more than two centuries ago, seems to have been the first to recognize and 
(b.a-ibc a member of this family ; and we must look, therefore, upon the so-caUed "Vinegar 
^4" whose discovery he announced, as the first known representative of this group of 
non-parasitic Nematoids to which I refer. The same animal was subsequently seen by 
^o^er, Hooke, Leeuwenhock, Baker, Spallanzani, and other pioneers of microscopical 
iBsearch, who soon found a companion for it in its near ally, the - Paste Eel." Then came 
"le discovery by Needham^ in 1743, of the wonderful Vihrio tritici and its young so 
•^ligely tenacious of Ufe ; and afterwards Otto MiiUer^ was followed in his recognition of 

As exceptions to this general rule, three Nematoids may be cited ^vhich are undouhtedlv most serious pests to the 



- -.^...., .. .uexr occurrence and the serious diseases to which they give rise : these are the 
Mrtiril! ""' ""^'"^ '' '" prevalent in the tropical parts of Asia and Africa; Scleroslomum duodenale, principally 

th m Egypt, and so common that Dr. Griesinger considers about one-fourth of the whole population suffer more 

«uaiion • V *-'^ "" fluorosis" (a malady that is frequently tatai;, aue lu tuc ^.^...... «. .^^.^ i^-.--^ 

' Oba J^^^ trichuiosis, in various parts of Germany more especially, 

• "»^croscop. Centur. ;, 165G. ^ jyjj^^ 99^ j^t. v. 7. * Animal. Infusoria. 4to. Ilamb. 1786. 






certain minute microscopic Nematoids found in fresh or salt water, and amonf^st C 
fervie, hj other naturalists, the principal of whom are Bory ^, Steinhuch^, Du«>es^ Ehreu. 
berg and Hemprich'*, Nordmann^ Dujardin^, Oken^, Qnatrefages^ Gruhe and Leudart' 
Diesing '^, Max Schnltze '\ Leidy '% Kiihn '% Carter '\ and Eberth '\ The labours, in tliii 
direction, of these scientific observers have resulted in the discovery of about eighty species 
of free Nematodes found in various parts of the world. It is, however, to the researches 
of Dujardin, Eberth, Carter, and Diesing that we have been principally indebted for oui 
knowledge of this group. Dujardin was the first who seemed to entertain compreliensive 
notions as to the extent and probable diffusion of these animals, and, besides the (E 

y of several new species, added more precise descriptions of them than the 



; Enoycl Mcth. 1824, p. 777, tab. iv. f. 20-23. ^ Naturforsch. xxviii. St. 233, taK v. 

Ann. de3 Sc naturelles, 1826, torn. ix. p. 225. ^ Symb. Phys., seu Icones et Descrip. Animal, evert. lS2v 

^ Lamarck s H^st. Nat. des Ann. .ans vert. 1840, torn. iii. p. 665. 

s 7 rV'' ^'^'^''^^''' (Suites u Bnffon), 1845, p. 230. 7 Lebrb. d. Natnrg. Zool. 1 . Abtheil. p. K'-^ 

Ann des Saences Nat. 1846, p. 131. . W^V.n..nn. Ar.biv. 184Q. Band i. PP. 157, 353. 

Systema nclminthum. Vindobono., 1851, vol. ii. p. 122. » Icones Zootomicee, Cams, tab. via. figs, l-^ 

» iTCr !?''• ^'- °^™'-^^^P^-^ -ol iii. (1856) pp. 135-152 (2 plates). 

- u" r T"^'«°^- ''''' '' -• P- 189. - Ann. of Nat. Hist. 1859, vol. Iv. pp. 28 and 98, pis. l-^' 

^^ Untersncb. uber Nematoden, mit neun Kupfertafeln. Leipzig. 1863. 

^ ^ nj attempt to recognize the species of these authors seems nuif.. bnnplp.. .Inc.. nftmntimes. no other anat^ 


ample white space 

form — occasi 

aw^o of twr ""f^ 'r\ ''™"=' "^'"' ""^ • '-«•' *-ft of *ls paper written before I ^'^ ^ 
graTh I fi„;t w ° ■ " "'^ *' ""' -'"'J™'' ''^- "'^ ='8^' (November 1864) of lus adnnraWe «o^ 

grapa. A nnd he ha^ anticipated me in « ft.x. .^ fk .__.-,. .'',.,..- . , . . , ..:T.,.flr^ the 


r^;;!"' °°"""' ™"'°' '"" ''^ '^"^'■'"'"'J » « «=W beset wia To 

" Sitzungsberlchte der Wiener Ak .demie 1861 l^.i r- 

of different 

^ Loc. cit. 

scant details concerning the anatomy of the earlier forms furnished by Otto MiiUer, 
Ehrcnberg, ITemprich ""^ and others. Carter, besides the discovery of ten new species, 
has contributed many interesting anatomical details ; and Eberth, in his recent valuable 
memoir '\ has added much to our knowledge of their anatomy, in addition to the descrliH 
tions and beautiful figures which he has given of twenty-three new species ; though he, like 
his predecessors, has tended to create great confusion in the nomenclat are, by describing 
under the same generic name species differing notably in the anatomical arrangement 
of important parts, as I sliaU hereafter endeavour to exijlain. It is by his writing?, 
rather than by special anatomical examinations of his own, that Piesing's name is asso- 
ciatcd with this group, since he has not only treated of them in his ' Systema,' but 
also has lately made the classification of the Nematodes, both free and parasitic, tbe 
subject of a special communication ^^ 

The writings of Carter aiforded the stimulus which induced me to inquke into this 
subject; for, like himself, having been interested in the anatomy of the DracunculvA \ 
my attention was arrested by his interesting paper on the « Microscopic PHarid* in tbe | 
Island of Bombay " ^, and my search for simHar free Kematoids in this country has been 














ardcd by tlie most gratifying results — more especially as, with the .exceptiou of the 

p etc" and " Vineo-ar Eels," the Vibrio tritici, and one or two unknown species always 

lluded to by the same name of Anguillula fluviatilis, no representatives of this group 

liive. I believe, yet been described as existing in Great Britain : hitherto the harvest 

has been with the continental naturalists, with Dr. Leidy in ximerica, and wdth our 

countryman Carter in India. 

As a result of my investigations, I am inclined to helieve that these free Nematodes 
\rill be found to constitute one of the most widely diffused and numerically ahundant 
groups in the whole animal kingdom, rivalling, in the first respect at least, the almost 
ubiaiiitous Diatomacese. A statement of some of the principal situations in which I have 
met mth these animals will best illustrate this proposition. Thus, beginning with the 
land- and freshwater-species, I have found them in all the specimens of soil examined, in 
moss, various species of lichen, about the roots of fungi \ also the roots of grasses, and 
l)etT\cen the sheaths of their leaves, amongst the mud of ponds and rivers, on the fresh- 
water Algae, amidst decaying liverworts and mosses, and on suhmerged aquatic plants- 
The maiine species exist in great abundance in the surface-mud of rivers and estuaries ^ 
in tlie sandj and amongst the small stony debris under the shelter of rocks, as well as in 
the tide-pools, where they swarm about the roots of the corallines and on some of the 
smaller and finer sea-weeds, especially those having a dingy appearance from the pre- 
sence of Diatomacess. And, lastly, two or three species I have found in the greatest 
abundance, as pseudo -parasites, within the substance of some of the softer sponges. So 
numerous are they in these latter situations, that it is rather surprising they should have 
so long escaped the attention of marine zoologists. Prom the transparency of their in- 
teguments, they are not only beautiful microscopical objects, but also admirably adapted 
for anatomical research ; and Dr. Eberth and myself have already worked out so many 
interesting structural details, that I have no doubt, should the investigation be foUowed 
«P by other observ^ers, the question of the anatomy and real affinities of the Nematoids, 
at present so doubtful, would be soon placed upon a satisfactory footing. 

The specimens I have examined have varied in length from -fo" to nearly f", almost aU 
the lai'ger forms bemg marine, though Dojylaimiis stafjnalis, Dujard., is about \" long, 
and far exceeds in size any of the other land or freshwater species I have met with. In 
tbeir various habitats individuals of aU ages maybe seen, from the young, immature and 
iion-sexual embryo just emerged from the g^^ or its parent, up to the adult condition ; 
and frequently the ova of species infesting a particular sea-weed may be seen attached 
to it. whilst the parent worms are gliding and twining, serpent-like, amongst its branches. 
7^ fact alone would induce one to believe that these animals are never parasites at any 
stage of their existence, even if this view w^ere not confirmed by the existence of ana- 

onucal peculiarities which seem to distinguish them as a group from the parasitic forms 

•bj^'"'''"^ ^^^^ ^cry successful in finding these animals on or in fungi, thougli Carter has discovered them in 
trunk 'Jf'' '* ^"""^^^ Pi-ojecting from the conceptacles of a large species of the genus XyJaria, >ro^^-ing on the decayed 

a tamarind-tree. (Trans, of Med. and Phvs. Soc. of Bomhay, 1861, App. p. 1 .) 

* * »^»«ttg piece. 

species existing, more or less abundantly 




in general. Since, hoiverer, tlie announcement of the discoTery of so many free \ 

toids is likely f o suggest to the minds of many the beHef that these arc identical irith 
the parasites, being merely the revelation of another stage of their life-history n-V 
Las hitherto been hidden from us, it seems desirable to bring forward some eyidenc "^ 
disprove such a supposition, and establish the claim of these minute creatures to a disTin t 
and independent place in the animal kingdom-and more especially so since precisi 
such a view has been taken by one of the principal writers on these free Nematodes Por 
at the conclusion of his paper before mentioned. Carter, spealdng of the uncertaintv still 
cxistmg with regard to the early history of the Dmcimculus, adds, " It remains a sub 
ject for future and interesting inquiry, but not more so than the still further elucidation 
of tl,e PdaridK generally, both free and parasitic; for when we consider that the former 
abound m species, and are spread in myi-iads probably all over the world, where l;hero is 
rcgc able matter for them to feed upon, in salt as well as in fresh water, in the sea and 
on the land, while the latter inhabit all animals, perhaps, more or less, down to tLe 
owcst worms; that many of the former' leave their habitat and vegetable food for a 
temporary rt^idenee in animals, to live thus on animal food, and that therefore tie Me 
oj Ihe pMcform may Ic originally derived from the free ones " ; for these, and other 
rmons, he says " these worms, at first apparently insignificant from their thread-like 
fom and scarcity, are seen to assume an importance in organic creation which caUs for 
a mu h more extended study of them than they have as yet received " (p. 112). 
mica L •! ™'I , 7'^^t%='ting this question, I iade a careful analysis of the aaato- 
S^ n e S'f'"? IT' ""'''' ^^ ^"j""^^°' ''^ ^^ ' ^^^'^^ ^at"^-<^lle ies Hclmintbes,' 

rfe tdS°" ^"*T' ~"'^'''*^"^ *'"^ ^"*^^'' -°* °-'y °° '''e««™t of the more com- 

-^ImIZIZ ^ "?. ^' ^''*' ''"* '^^^^ ^"^ '^<^^«>^^"«« to his extensive practicd 
wiTd to ^"*''"'''^' ^"'''°'' °' ""'' ^^^J'^^t- The result of this exammation 

Hl3l'^ *° '°"™'^'' "^<= ^^^ tte nearly constant combinat 


of several impor 

present in two o. ^aL throe^o^^^^^^^^ . "" '"' ^^ematodes^are only ,roMN^ 
l,..:„x.„. , , ^^"^^^P' *^^^^«f the parasitic genera. These r1i«ti^nf ohnmoi^v^ are 

furnishprl V.v +T.o i , » i-x«o.uxv; genera, xnese distinct characters an 

ter^4^ mtrol^ te ; . '""''''' genital organs,-the males having two equal sub- 

thTvi S?^ T" !i ^'*'' "■ "'*""' ^"^--^y P'--. -I^il^t the females have 

simple rZeV tiL Tl I. °" °™°'"' ^^'''^^ ^""^ '^^ -""e^^^d with I short and 
genera, in which, the feml! ,, .• ""ff '""f P*'""" *° *"^ arrangement being in a fe* 
the body fabout the Z ^ ^® ^'^'''' '""^te-^ ^°°ie way behind the middle of 

"torus x^iSnfab til rT"' '^ '^^ P"^**^™^ ""^''l)' the binder segment of the 
«tains itlTal^: foll^'^'^^^^'^P^^ (^^- X- %• 113), Vhilst the anterior segment 

anomalous forms. The anato f ^^*'\ '"* appendix containing the little-known or 

*he genera Tnchocenludvs nrnfr /^'^'^ "™aals included in his first section, comprising 

' Not ..riclv speaking Nc„,toid', 1 '''""""' '' ^^^'^^ ^'^tinct as regards the arrangement 

» «='itj- to a nearly alUed orjl.V ji„c™™n ' P ' p"''' '°" ™°^*'""'"g *<: Se™ra GorAV. ai,a >fo»<«, «< 

Xor. c//. p. 2. 




of tlic genital organs from that above mentioned ; those of his second, including Fllarla 
Splroptera, &c., are distingnished " par la presence de deux organes copulatoircs, oi 
TxJnis, megaux'' whilst of his third section, containing the genera StrongyluSj Lejytodcra 
j)lceUs, &c., the members of which do possess tAvo equal spicules, with orwitliout acces 
^ory pieces, the genus Leptodera is the only one affording also the character of a utcrui 
divided into two equal and opposite branches, with the vulva occupying a median position 
Tliis genus contains one species ^, the L. JlexiUs, found in the vas deferens of Llmaji 

cinereus. In his fourth section, comprising the Ascarldes, the members of the second 

}nus, AscarkUai including several species found in the intestines of birds, comply 
Avitli the requirements so far as the male intromittent organs and double uterus are con- 
eorncd, but differ by the presence of the three prominent cephalic lobes and the fihform 
ovaries characteristic of the genus Ascaris. In his fifth group, Dujardin places these 
free Xematodes together with certain other genera. The sixth section, containing Sclc- 
rodoma, Synyamus^ &c., contains only one genus, Angiostomum, having the before- 
mentioned arrangement of the male and female sexual organs; but the figures given 
by Dujardin of the only two species of this genus — one found in the lungs of Angtiis 
fmgilis 2, and the other in the intestine of a pulmonate Gasteropod — seem to indicate a 
totally different formation of the ovarian tubes. The individuals of the seventh and last 
section, including the genera Dacnitis, Ophiostomciy &c., are out of the question, from 
their not possessing a terminal mouth ; and those of the appendix do not comply with 
other conditions^. 

This evidence seems a sufficient warrant for the belief in the non-parasitic nature of 
the animals in question, since it could scarcely happen, if these forms were ever para- 

Lc, that they should not some of them— or, at all events, species of the same genera 
have been met with in this condition, so as to enable us to include in the same genus 
parasitic and non-parasitic types. To me, indeed, it seems clear that these free Kema- 
toids themselves, which can be detected in all stages of growth in external media, arc 
not likely, as a rule, to be capable of existing also as parasites. Then comes the question, 
are they as a group distinguished by any particular characters from the parasitic forms ? 
To which I think we are fairly entitled to return an answer in the affirmative, after the 
statements that have just been made, and from a consideration of other facts to be 
presently mentioned'^. So far, too, this is in accordance with the views held by the 

' Another and mucli larger species has since been found by Dr. Baird in the abdombal cavity of Siredoji mexicanus 
(Proc. Zool. Soc. 1858, p. 225, (Annulosa) pi. 52. f. 6, 7. 

^ This species, Angiostomum enfomelas, 1 have lately discovered, and have satisfied myself, not only that it docs 
not belong to any of the genera of free Nematodes at present known, but that it is distinguished from the members 
of this group generally by the form of Its ovaries and the extreme thinness of its integument. 

' The genus Odontobius being the only one concerning which there is any doubt, the nature of which will be 
explained in the systematic portion of this memoir. 

J It is true that a few of these free Nematodes have been found within the Intestines of other animals by Dujardm ; 
'"'t in all the cases related by him, their presence within the intestinal canal may be looked upon as accidental rather 
than necessary, they having been swallowed, as he suggests, by these animals either with or as food. Thus Borylaimus 
foffnalis was found by him In the intestine of the Carp. He has found species of the genus RhabdiUs withm the 
intestine of small slugs and of the common Frog (which, In Its turn, swallows the slug), as well as in the stomach of 
several fishes, and the general cavity of the body of the Earth-worm. It would be desirable to have additional obser- 




leading lielminthologists of the present day, who are almost all now disposed to h V 
that the parasitic jS"ematoids exist in an asexual condition within the body of ^ '^^ 
mediate host, before host and guest are swallowed by those animals destined to h "o * 
the sexuaUy mature Entozoa— the conditions essential to their development seen"""" 
necessitate this intermediate state, instead of that direct and continuous method of 
tion from the egg to the adult animal which I have recognized in aU the free N "'" 
todcs in their various habitats. Our knowledge of the life-history of the parasites is^ 
tremely defective ; but what we do know concerning the so-called Filaria pkcim Tn 
chma spiralis, and other immature Nematodes is confirmatory of this belief ' M„ ' 
over, in his recent work on " Entozoa," Dr. Cobbold, speaking of the Ascarides, 'reaa* 
In all situations where there is an abundant water-supply these parasites common; and it is well known that the lowlands of Holland and the kh 
districts of Sweden are eminently favourable to their existence. All this is expKcal* 
enough from what we now know respecting tho conditions which are essential for the 
paring of the W ; but, as I have before observed, it is almost certain that the hi 
body becomes mfested, not by the drinking of water which may contain the sexually 
— urc embryos, but by feeding upon the flesh of some quadruped, fish, or fow IwT 
happens to represent the so-called intermediate host " (p 313) 

brieflv'lMf r' T': " !^ '''^''"^^ °' '"^^ ^^"^^-^ °f «- group, to which I ^ 

fl t Pla e he r ff "" *'° ™" ' '''^' """'^ endeavouring ^o entor 

P I e f; ms " T' H ' "? «"''^' P-PO^-tional thickness than in the rec, 
yo^"- priced I-,"* «' "" ' '^"' " ' '^'"'''^ ''^'^--^ i- '^' --'^- "f -=> - 

CdrShTut di ^ev^ ^i r^' -T" r "°^* ''"''"'' "-^^^ ^''^'-^ '^ 

Lar.e and fewT .7 T T '' ''' *'"''" ^'"'^ Nematoids the ova are relatively very 

^l^l^^^^^^Z^^^^^^ber^he^n^ea^y countable, and, for the most part, seen in 

to enforce. In the 


f'Ti^.\. 1. , ^^^^^ numide." More 
( Recherches sur l'An»»;n,o„ j.. n. ^ "^^ 

chitinous integument efiFectuallj protectr^*^' .^"^' . ^.^ ^ ''' ?* ^^) "Po^ the young of the Fibrio tritici, that their 
Tliis was ascertained by experiments u on T V^ '""""^^ ^^^^^" *^^ alimentary canal of the cold-blooded animals. 
longing to the same genus as that in wh^Vtb 7^^°' ^^^ '^"'°°' *^^ Salamander, and a fish {Cyprinus auratus) he- 
I'estomac de ces animaux, soit s^ches so't , .f'"'^^"'"'' ^^^^ ^^^^d by Dujardin. Davaine says, " IngtWes dans 
%stif, sans avoir subi d'altc^ration • ' elles oT^ '^ ^'^^^ntes, les anguiUules de la nielle ont parcouru tout le tube 
—■- aou de la vie, dont elles n'ont par tlrd^^^^ ^^^ *=^acuc'es ou retrouve'es dans le rectum, prir^s de mouveinents, 

seems to afford a very probable explanaf ^^^/'"^''' ^!^ manifestations, aprJ;s avoir t'tc placodes dans I'cau pure." 


y ^'' wuc uuuy Ot tlie earth — "^-vuuiit lui liicii jjivuv*'*-^' 

It should be remembered, honerer th».. .1,""°™' ",' '"^""^"^ ^^ ""J"^'^'"' " "^ ^"'^ '•"'ida. as related by Carter, 
communie^te, rth ,he exterior by '„,ea,l If ^T ""^'^ "^ ""= ^y m these ammals is not a shut sac, 

. «S"»tal orgHB,... h ft,,^ Jbes oTlh: ''T '^ '"''^'" '^*'' ^^ »'• ™i™^ (P^- Trai-S. 1858, p-^^) 

i'lT t""''""- 'T''^ y™"B of this anil °T " ^°™"'' ^™^'°''' d'-dis Jilaria, D„j.), is tao» to eiit 

■"to .he abdominal earit, of tbel bost a^d ' ™* *^" '='^ *™"Sl' «"= Patent terminations of the tute 

^ """"^- """"Si" ">ese tubes, bto tCll •' 7'° ."'''* *^' ■»»•"' ^^ Nematoids n,ight also «>! th* 

abdommal cavity of both Mais and K.v,b„™ 






^' 1 





file within tlie genital tubes, though often occupying the whole width of the hody. Tliis 
is a condition of things quite in harmony with the several requirements of animals de- 
pendent upon such totally different conditions. The free Nematodes produce tlieir ova 
or yoang at once in that environment which they are destined to inhabit, whereas tlic 
parasitic progeny are subjected to a multiplicity of chances and contingencies before 
they meet with the necessary conditions suitable for their development : there must be 
many blanks in order to ensure a few prizes. It is but another instance of the harmony 
subsisting between the observed biological history of an organized being and the physical 
conditions to which it is subjected and surrounded; and the dilTerence in this respect 
between the two divisions of the order Nematoidea may not inaptly be compared to that 
existing between the predaceous cartilaginous fishes, on the one hand, and the ordinary 
osseous species on the other. We may note the same limited number of progeny in those 
forms whose young are most likely to survive, owing to their being produced viviparously 
or else with the q^^ enclosed in a coriaceous envelope, which, for additional security, 
becomes fixed by means of its tendrils to some rock or larger seaweed. Whilst the ova 
or young of such species may be numbered by units, for those of the majority of osseous 
fishes we may substitute, instead of units, millions or even billions. 

Then many of the free Nematoids, more especially of the marine species, are provided 
with such rudimentary sense-organs as would be useless to a parasite. These exist in 
the form of distinct, reddish, conical and circumscribed masses of pigment, with the 
addition occasionally of transparent lens-like bodies, situated on the anterior part of the 
oesophagus, which doubtless subserve the purpose of rudimentary visual organs. And, 
lastly, almost all the free Nematodes are furnished with a caudal sucker, most higlily 
developed in the marine species, to whom its utility is obvious, by enabling their smooth 
and polished bodies to adhere to the particular weeds which they infest^ whilst these 
are swayed to and fro by the currents of the flowing and receding tide. 

These various considerations lead me to believe that the free Nematoids constitute a 
group absolutely distinct from the parasitic forms ; and I have dwelt upon this point, not 
only because it has not been' enforced by previous writers, but also with the view of 
showing the untenability of the opposite hypothesis, advanced, perhaps somewhat hastily, 
^y a most accurate observer, and one whose opinions generally are so worthy of credit. 
On this account, too, it does not seem to me desirable to associate with these animals, as 
Dujardin has done in his fifth section, " Enopliens," the two parasitic genera, Passaluncs 
and Atractls—SLiid this not simply on the arbitrary ground of their being parasitic, but 
^causQ they neither of them comply with those structural conditions which were stated 

to obtam almost universally in the group in question. They appear to have been so 
placed by Dujardin, from the simple fact of their possessing a mouth armed with three 
teeth or jaws, which he took to be the typical character of this group, as shown by the 
name he applied to them. But a reference to the figures and descriptions of the species 
discovered by Dr. Eberth and myself wall show that this is a structure quite exceptional 
only met with in one or two genera, and therefore untenable as a family distinction. 
I^iesing, also, in his recent communication on the classification of the Nematoids, has 
associated with these animals certain parasitic genera ; and in this paper, as well as in his 



« Svf^tcma/ under Elireuberg's genus Anguilliila (which is characterized in sucli genei^ 
terms as to be perfectly capable of including the most diverse types) he places leveral 
species of minute Nematodes found in the intestines of insects, myriapods, and other 
nnimals, Aviiich were, for the most part, named by their original discoverers either Am. 
rides or Ouyurides. An examination of the extremely imperfect descriptions given br 
him, as well as of the figures by their original discoverers \ seem rather to confirm the 
former position assigned to them ; and from a consideration of the facts before mentioned 
I certainly shoidd not be disposed to place in the same genus parasitic and non-parasitic 
forms without more distinct evidence of their identity in anatomical details than wr m 
present possess 


Since the classification of the Nematoids generally is in such a confessedly unsj 
factory condition, it is quite impossible to indicate the precise position or affinitie 
these non-parasitic forms. It seems, however, most desirahle to retain for this 
the family name of AxGriLLrLiD^E, proposed by Gervais and A^an Beneden^, which 
not only generally suitable, but is also recommended by the fact of the most familiar 

first-discovered species having still retained for them the generic name of An- 



In the description of species and genera, and the arrangement of the former into the 
latter groups, an extreme amount of confusion prevails concerning almost all the forms 
hitlicrto discovered. This seems to have arisen partly from the meagre descriptions and 
mdefimte figures given, and partly, with more accurate and precise observers such as 
Eberth, from their not having definitely settled what should be looked upon as points of 
generic importance. Some of this confusion I hope to be able to clear up in the more 
special portion of this memoir, and also to indicate, as far as my observation has ex- 

I shaE 

^ the value of different anatomical peculiarities as glides to classification. 
Having thus sketched the history of our knowledge concerning this group of 
1 will now add a few detaHs regarding their structure, habits, and mode of life. . .--.. 
merely give a brief outline, however, of theii- anatomy, as I intend to make this the suh 
ject ol another communication. 

The iniegnment is mostly very transparent and hyaline in appearance, of a chitmous 
omposition, and presentmg sometimes transverse lines or dots, at others lonuitudinal 
mi kings , either alone or with transverse also ; whilst in the remainder the 

Z Ininr ^''f*!^ ^^'"' ^'^^^^ ^^ ^^™ ^^ ^^y kind. I have discovered n..^^- 
betweXr^ T ''"'^^' *^' integument, establishing a communication, apparcDtlv, 
These J f?'' r'""* '^^ ^^'' ^''''^'^' ^^teral and median lines of these anim.* 
...... r '^\'^^'^' ""^'y '''^''^^ in their number and arrana-ement in different 

and promise to throw considerable light upon the nature of the 


^ Sr::;s:r'"^'^ t «^^'"^-^-' -^- ^^- pp. 132-135. 

it has no resemblance to 1"ZZ f ^'*'^^' ^"'''"^ '"^ ^^' '"^''*^""' ^^ ^'^^^« orlentalls, and hare ascertabed tW 
from those oUnguilhla L r i ^''"^'^'^'^ ^* P'"^^^^^ Ivnowu. Its anatomical characters are totally distinct 
I^eidy (Smithson. Cent 1853 '' 46*^ '''""' ^''* *° ^^^'' '^ ^" ^ ^''^''''^ S^'^^"^ {Stre^fostoma), as was done by Dr. 


.* Zoologie Medicale 
inal muscubr bundles seen through an unstriated 








lines Avliich have so long been a puzzle to anatomists. I have also detected these 
cutaneous pores in several of tlie parasitic Nematoids. In many species the intei^'ument 
• provided with setae around the head, and more sparingly on otiier parts of the body ; 
occasionally it is developed into papilla} around the mouth ; and, besides the caudal 
sucker before alluded to, many of the males are furnished with a varying number uf 
ventral suckers. Ehrenberg records the fact of his having o])served Angutlhda recll- 
cauda cast its skin. I have seen evidences of the same thing in many species, nnd 
<:uspect that, during the period of growth of the free Nematodes, it is the rule. In some 
few species, the integument appears to be glutinous. Thus Onchola'imus vulgaris^ from 
marine mud, has always adhering to its surface minute particles of sand nnd Diatomacccc, 
and In one case I saw two or three Vortlcello'. In Spira 2^cirasiiifc'ra I have frequently 
found specimens of a stalked fan-shaped diatom, probably belonging to tlu; genus 
Echinellay as well as Vorticellce, attached to the integument. Some few species, too, of 
the f>'enus Chromaclora, from marine mud, have been found enclosed in a tube like that of 
the Sabella, composed of agglutinated sand-particles. 

The aUmentary canal commences w^ih a terminal rounded mouth, cither opening into 
a dilated pharyngeal cavity or communicating at once with the oesophagus. This latter 
is often distinctly muscular, and has sometimes a pretty equal calibre throughout, whilst 
at others it is provided with one or two rounded or oval muscular swellings. The 
posterior one is occasionally provided wdth a few horny plates in its centre, and has 
generally been described as a stomach, though, I think, erroneously, since it seems to 
perform none of the functions of a stomach : it is not a receptacle for food, and the 
swelling is due to an increased muscularity of the walls of the oesophagus at this point, 
rather than to a dilatation of its central cavity. The structure seems to me to partake 
more of the nature of a valvular apparatus, partly facilitating the swallowing of food, 
and partly preventing the regurgitation of the freely moving and fluid contents of the 
intestine proper, during the rapid movements of the animal. This oesophagus is divided 
by a well-marked constriction from the intestine, which continues nearly uniform in size 
throughout the remainder of its course, terminating by a curved anal cleft on the 
ventral surface of the body at a variable distance from the posterior extremity. It is 
made up of a central tube and a mesenteric envelope, between which is situated a 

uniform layer of cells, containing light or olive-coloured fat-particles, probably bavin 
a rudimentary hepatic function. The arrangement of these ceUs and their contained 
granules is sometimes so regular as to i?ive a distinctly tessellated appearance to the struc- 

O*-"-^"^ CV^ V- W, 

ture ; whilst, at others, the intestine merely appears covered with a layer of irregularly 
disposed fat-particles, the containing ceUs being invisible, and their contained particles 

not definitely aggregated. 

Some of the free Nematodes are viviparous ; but, as before stated, most are oviparous, 
the ova being large and proportionally few in number. In many species they are so 
large as singly to distend the body; and in Leiitosomatum figumtim I have measured 
one of this character of an elongated oval form, whose length was three times the 
breadth of the parent body. In Dorylaimus stagnaUs, Dujardin, however, they arc 
much smaller, admitting? two or even three abreast within the uterus. In most of the 




gnnera the uterus and ovaries are formed upon tlie same type ; and in tliose exeep. 
tional cases wlicrc the posterior segment remains undeveloped, it may still be seen m a 
rudimentary condition in tlie genus Tylelenchus (PL X. fig. 113), whilst in others little 
or no trace of it can be recognized in the adult animal. The male organs consist usually 
of a long tube proceeding from the junction of two elongated sacs or testicles, Trhich 
occupies the ventral aspect of the body, and terminates at the anal cleft, or, as in J/bs. 
IvjslcTa rnn 6 iffi( a and M. dly'imcta (PL IX. figs. 12, 13), a little anterior to it. In two 
spcclcs, M. omJnrjiia and Dtplogaster filiformis, I have failed to detect any homy intro, 
mittcnt spicules, whilst in the remainder I have always found two equal spicules, either 
ulonc or witli one, two, or four accessory pieces. 

The glandular and loater-vasciilar systems are so intimately connected with one 
another, that it seems best to include in the same notice what little I have ascertained 
concerning their relations. Tlie whole inner surface of the body is lined by a glandular 
substance, more highly developed in some species than in others, similar to what I 
described m the Guineaworm, and to what has been met with in some of the parasitic 
Kematoids by Eberth and other observers. In addition, in several species there ai-e 
one or two pyriform glandular masses connected with the vagina (PL XL fio-. U/ ; 
PL XIII. figs. 189, 192), and also others near the anal cleft (PL XI. fig. 143 ;■ PL XIIL 
fig. 220), which have already been observed by Eberth, and termed by him "vaginal" 
aiul " anal glands " respectively. He has also described and figured two or three elon- 
gated sacs proceeding from the posterior extremity of the body, and has termed them 
tail-glands (Schwanzdrilsefi) : these I had observed also, but, from the fact of their beinj 
most developed in those species in which the caudal sucker is largest, and from their 
not presenting the usual granular appearance of the other unmistakeable glands, I have 
always looked upon them rather as contractile sacs in some way connected with the 
operation of the sucker, and shall speak of them henceforth as sucher4uhes (PL XL figs. 
12G, 151). In nearly all the marine species, I have recognized a glandular excretory 
organ, ;opening by means of a long duct on the abdominal aspect of the oesophageal 
portion of the body (PL XL fig. 151 ; PL XIL fig. 164), but have found no stnictm'C 
precisely answermg to this in the land and freshwater species, though in four of these 
genera, Tylelenchus, Flectns, Apheleuchus, and Oephalobus—iho members of which all 
possess the same remarkable tenacity of life-a modification of the same organ e^identlv 
exists. In these genera I have failed hitherto to detect the entire structure, and have 
only succeeded m recognizing the curved, more slender, and rigid duct with which it 
emimates (PL X. figs. 79, 97, 104, 112). Two lateral cellular canals, essentially similar 
wTn ^T ''^" '' ^'^'^''^ ^^'' ^^ ^^'^ ^^^^ Nematoids, are met with, well 

totTo, '"^ '""'"'^ '^'''''' ^''^^"''^ ""^'"'^ ^^^^ t^^^ external medium I have been enabled 
pores ' r^r^"' communications by means of a variable number of integumental 

n tiiree of the four land and freshwater genera above mentioned I li^ve 

^^-X.!r.S;twh l'::i '^ ''^'''^'^ '' ^^^ -^-- -^ posteHor extremities ^^J 

considers and sneaks of th 7- ^ ^ ^'^'''^' mterpretatiou upon the appearances he oLserred, since be 

1 mem as skm-glauds (Eauidrusen), he, cit. n, 6. 











detected, instead of these canals, two lateral, clouble-ontlined, colourless vessels, souic- 
irhat similar to wliat I described in Dracimctdus\ and which are most ni)par(-!t in 
T^kknclins tritici. In this species, from their bein^ longer than the body, tlicy are 
\^'avy or even convoluted, and I have several times succeeded in isolating them com- 
pletely from other structures-. These seem to correspond to tlie axial vessels contained 
within the lateral lines ^ of Ascaris lumhricoides, A. mcgaJoccphalay and other parasitic 


I have met with no distinct traces of a nervous system in these animals, the only tiling 
vhich might be at all mistaken for a portion of such a system being the peculiar ring 

(also observed by Eberth) surrounding the oesophagus in some of the marine genera*, 
concerning the nature of which we have both arrived, independently, at the same con- 
clusion, that its connexions and structural peculiarities rather point to its afTmity with 
the glandular than the nervous system (PI. XI. tig. 12G). The absence of any traces of 
nervous filaments in connexion with the well-developed ocelli of so many cf the marine 
^^)ecics affords also strong negative evidence of the absence of such a system in the 

The muscles of the body seem to be, the same as in other Nematodes, composed of four 

longitudinal bundles, two dorsal and two ventral, with an interspace on either side. In 

neither free nor parasitic have I been able to recognize the circular fibres spoken of by 

some anatomists. 

Much difference exists as to the muscular power and activity of different species. 
The Dorylaimi and Tylelenchi, for instance, are very slow and tardy in their movements ; 
Si^hcerolaimus liirsutus is remarkable both for its activity and power ; whilst the different 
species of the genera Theristus and Tachylwdites are distinguished by rapidity of move- 
ment. The mode of locomotion of all is indeed most characteristic, being effected by 


eel-like undulations of the body, which at once distinguish these animals from the Na'i- 

' Linn. Trans, vol. xxiv. p. 1 13, pi. 21. fig. 26 5. 

* Althougli not yet detected, I have little doubt that similar vessels will be found to exist in the fourth and nearly 
allied genus CepJialohus. . 

* Since this paper was read, I have ascertained that not only the lateral lines, but also the mid ventral and dorsal 
lines of the two Ascarides above mentioned are only local developments in these situations of a fibro-ccllular lay(*r 
lining the whole internal surface of the chitinous integument, and separating it from the four great longitudinal 
muscles. These developments (occupying the muscular interspaces) differ notably from one another, inasmuch as 
those in the lateral regions, besides being much larger and more prominent than the dorsal and ventral cords, contain 
each a well-marTced axial vessel. Whether this vessel exists in all the Nematoids seems very doubtful, as in some of 
the parasitic, and in nearly all the free species, in which the lateral lines can be detected, they appear to be simple 

though I think we may fairly look 

npon these lateral Tines o/the free Nemltoids^as homologous with the lateral hues of the Ascarides, and consequently 
infer that they are also integral parts of a general subcutaneous cellular layer. In this cellular layer of .^. lumhricoides 
and A megalocepJtala I have also detected a series of delicate transverse vessels, mostly in pairs, extcndmg from the 
mid dorsal to the mid ventral line, and much more numerous on the right than on the left side of the body. These. 
1 fancy, open externally by means of minute pores through the integument, though hitherto I have been unable 
thoroughly to satisfy myself of the fact. . • 


^ly which h 






i ■ 

dhio!, with whom tliey are frequently associated, and also from the A7inpi;^» 

'">=""» generallv 

^ = 


Other movements of the aquatic species may be well seen if these animals are pL 

"•■'■'■ '■' '' es^amined by a low power of the microscope, when they may beX '" \ 

twiningr amongst the branches of the aquatic plants or algse which they frequent 1? 
gli,lin^^ movements suggesting a resemblance to tiny serpents, till the delusion is barii'! 
by a sudden change in their method of proceeding, when, anchoring themselves fi 
by means of their caudal sucker, they continue for some minutes swayin^ about witui 
g,-eatcst rapidity, darting their bodies hither and thither, and bending in°all di erfbn 

^^ aU respect to food, the free Nematodes seem to be almost exclusively veS, 
foedcrs. though a is not often easy to recognize anything definite within thS 
monta^ eanal-tbe usual contents being a kind of granular debris, and in et 


In individiials of the genera C y atliolaimus 


however, I have frequently seen the intestine filled with lar»e DiatomaceaT ZT'- ' of other genera I have occasionally made out a few celiro^^gr ^^^^^^^^^ 
of larire fat-dohulos nffpn c^m. .^ui.-... ^i,„ _• ^ ^* -^^i^ quantity 

a- -^""^ o 

hue ; but in the majority of £2 t^^ T T" '^'" '' ^ "^""^ "'^"^^^ 
^c XI .__ . , "^ ^ ^^ species the fat is colourless. I hnv^ -n^TTA,. ^n+ ... 

of these anim 

allow a particle of food ; but what they do take 

I have never yet 

appears to 

dilatation of the other 

g transverse 

habitually closed triquetrous canal of t 7 ' "'' dilatation of tl 

muscular fibres of which il H, "Esophagus, by means of the radiatin 

of fluid, with any particles that """l '°"'P°''''- ^'"^ '^V^^ dilatation causes an inrush 
oliierved air-bubbles and flinVl T^ /° ^™"* °^ *''*" ™°''*'i ' ^nd I have several times 

of what nature is the food t!l T ™V''' "'""- "'^ oesophagus in this way 

and C.„;,„,„,.... . lood taken by individuals of tbp ,../„,., 7,„...,,,..-....„ i 

and Ceph, lobvs, bavin 


JDorulaimiis, Tt/lcknch 

--j"""UOT«, navmo- a sharp exs ft —^ a^'^^i-j. jjwyunmiis, j.i/ifit:iK,''-< 

cannot say : it seems difficult t ' ^^''^''"^"^'^ commencement of the oesophagus, I 

were destined to nipr.» „„:_ , account for the presence of such a structure, unless it 

destined to pierce nnin, °^ ^^^ V^<^^<^yio^ of 

ic juices-.! !'!!„°™'l?'-7^S<^'''W« tfesues, and thu 

enable them to suck tlie 

3 J ^^^~~a supposition wh* 1 enaoie inem lo sut-jv i"- 

of the oesophageal canal in the J" ' '^"^^ ^""^^ ''''^ ''^^'' ^^ ^^^ thread-like dimensions 
in some of the free as well as the ^t'^''''^''''' ^^^^ '^"^^^^^^ gastric teeth met .ith 

parasitic Nematodes, in the terminal dilated portion of 


a lorn? time within thp i.^f^of; i i , "^ '^"^ ^^^® appears to remain 

phoscd into fat s th n,t t .' ^'""''"^ ^'°"'^^ '»"'' ^l"-*^* ^"t-l^ -<='-- 

«"d ; for with I;' a w^f b tf • '' "' ""^"''^ '*^^°™*'='l '" ''"^h fresh- and salt-water 
considered as liMe le thTn, '1' ""' '"^ *' Earthworm, the intestinal canal may le 

organic particles, rct^al .^n^ ^1^2^'^^^ 'T~ '^^"^^' ^°"^^^"^'" 
appetites, swallowing at mn/n™ ,?' ' ''°™^^" =""'' ^^^^ fastidious in their 

-ithin the alimenta;- tube ^iist theTTf "° *" "'="""•' ^""''"^^ "^'^ *° 
nothing but such ve^-etabl. w ^««atodes are selective from the first, taking 

of prehension seem C LteS "Tt T v"''"^"' '""'^ P"^-*'<="1^^ f"°^- ^Mr powei. ' 
taken partly by suction tl,; 1 '• i''''^"'''' ^^om what I have seen, that their food is ' 
habitunlwL!, " "'"' ""^ ^'""S effected by the sudden 













the oesopliagus, constitute also, I believe, in reality, a Talvular ajiparatus, probably con- 
nected "svitli this same process of suction. 

The power of repairing injuries possessed by tliese animals seems to be very low. In a 
specimen of Oncliolaimus mdgaris, the bead and oesophageal part of the body were iscvered 
from the remaining portion ; and during the three days that the pieces were observed, 
although both portions continued to move about with tolerable activity, not the sli<»-htcst 
attempt at repair was seen — no contraction even or closing up of tlic cut ends, snch as 
almost instantly occurs when a Ncils is similarly injured. The chitinous nature of the 
integument in the Nematoids almost precludes contraction, and nothing like circular 
muscles seems to exist. On another occasion I found the anterior half of an individual 
of the same species moving about freely a fortnight after section of its body, but present- 
ing no attempt at repair. Similar results have been arrived at with one or two other 
species, and with sections made in various parts of the liody. 

I have not yet obtained much positive information with regard to tlieir duration of 
existence, but, from what I have seen, suspect it rarely exceeds from six to ten months \ 
In MomncJms truncatus I have ascertained that in about two months the embryos had 
attained two-thirds of their adult size, and were only then beginning to emerge from 

their asexual condition, the very first rudiments of a genital apparatus being just per- 
ceptible. The rate of growth after this seems to be still slow and gradual ; and the 
females appear to die after the production of a single brood or batch of ova. Such is 
certainly the case with the Vibrio tritici ; and, as pointed out by Davaine^ the total 
duration of the active life of this animal is about nine or ten months. 

The different members of this group vary much as to their tenacity of life. As a rule 
they are frail and delicate, and do not recover even after a slight desiccation of five 
or SIX minutes, thus differing remarkably from what I have at present observed Avith 
members of the four land and freshwater genera, Tylelenclms^ JBlectuSj A2)JicIcjichus, 
and Cephalohtis : with all these there is a remarkable tenacity of life and power of 
recovery after what seems to be complete desiccation. This power of revivification, now so 
weU known to be possessed by the young of the Vibrio trltlcl,wSiS first ascertained by its 
discoverer, Turberville Needham, in 1743 ; and after Avards the same property was recog- 
nized by Spallanzani in certain species of minute Nematoids found in tufts of moss ; and 
a series of experiments were instituted by him with the view of estimating the extent 
of this power. These experiments have been repeated and extended in the most careful 
and conclusive manner by MM. Davaine^ Doyere", and Gavarret'^; and the remarkable 
advantages proved to be possessed by these minute animals have been erroneously sup- 
posed by most writers to be characteristic of the whole group*^. I hope to make more 
extended observations on this head, and to be able to point out more fully hereafter the 
particular genera in which this capability of resisting desiccation exists, with the ana- 

The period of those species capable of revivification is, of course, altogether a variable quantity ; and I spealc 
ojore particularly concerning the active life of the other members of the family. 
^ Recherches sur I'Anguillule du Ble nielle. Paris, 1857, ' ^oc, cit. pp. 39-61. 

*^ Ann. des Sc. Nat. 2' ser. t. xiv., xvii. & xviii. ' Itid. 4^ se'r. t. xi. p. 315. 

Davame's observations come very near to the truth in this respect (Ann, des Sc. Nat. ser. 4, 1858, torn. x. p. 335.) 


tlieir less fortunate allies. It 


tomicnl peculiarities wliieh distinguisli them from 
c«hcd fact that the ,oung of the so-ealled ^no tr^Uc^ are capable of resuming 
tS activity, by immersion in water, after having remained dormant ...thm their seed, 
ike U for ; period of twenty-seven years, sinee Baker was enabled to estabhsh this 
feet I nn with specimens given to him by Ts^eedham m 1744- and I have lately 
Iron Informed by one of the Pellows of this Society^ that he has succeeded m restorin 
them after ti period of "about twenty years," though it was stated by Eauer m his well- 
Ivtiown paper in the 'Philosophical Transactions' for 1822^ and by other observers, that 
from five to eight years was the limit; wliilst lately, in his valuable work on 'Entozoa/ 
i;r Cobbold has reported the period to be no more than » four or even five years." Tlicse 
disCTWncies depend doubtless to a certain extent upon the manner in which the iraU 
has been preserved during the interval, and upon certain differences in the hygrometrical 
conditions to which it has been subjected, just in the same way as seeds retain their 
power of germination for a variable period under the influence of different^ methods of 

I have been able to verify the observations of Spallanzani, Dujardin, 
and others, regarding the degree of vitality of the Nematodes found 
thou-h they do not in reality belong to the genus BhaMitis, as reported by Dnj 

but arc distinct forms, which I have included in the genera Tlectus and Aph 


tufts of 

And, more mmrellous still, I took, this summer, during the long-continued drought ol 
monllis from the top of a slate roof with a southern aspect, and fully exposed to the 
direct rays of the sim, a patch of the yellow lichen, Farmelia parietina, for the purpose 
of examination— though more with a view of making quite sure that there were no Kema- 
•toids In it than with the expectation of finding any— when, after placing a small portion 
with some water in a watch-glass, I was extremely surprised on looking at it with a 
lens about trro hours afterwards, to see forty or fifty of these little Nematodes in the full 
swing of life and activity. But with these other Nematoids of moss and lichen it is no! 
as with the Vibrio tritici, that this remarkable power is possessed only by young^ and 
immature individuals, since it is enjoyed also by adults having fully developed ova mthii 
them. I have found no Tepresentatives of these particular types in salt water ; and, ai 
■far as my experience goes, those found in this situation are all incapable of being revivea 
nfter having remained without water, on a slip of glass, for a few minutes. A statemeut 
apparently in direct opposition to this was made by Otto Mliller in his * Animalia InW' 
Boria.' THvo marine species, named by him Vibrio gordius and V. anguillula maruu 
respectively, were stated to revive after desiccation by the addition of spring water; uu 
since he docs not make any definite statements concerning the length of time cliin ; 
which the movements continued, I suspect that what he observed may be nothmg mo 
than what I have myself seen very frequently, namely, two or three tolerably brisJv co 
tractions immediately on the addition of the water, gradually becoming less marked, an 
finally ceasing altofrether in less than a minute. This effect I imasrine to be physica 


» Lettre de Xeedbam en rejonse du mcmoire de Koifredi, daus le Journ. de Phys. de l'Abl)e Rosier, t. v. p 

. 2'27, 



\V, IL Ince, Esq. 

3 « 

Microscopical Ohsemtions oa the Suspension of the Muscular Motion of the Vibrio tritici:' 




^hor than vital, and due to the rapid imbibition of water by the previously dried 


^ith respect to the Vibrio trltlcl, I may state that this year I succeeded in infectmg 

«!f5me wheat with young specimens taken from a gall several years old. As ray stock w as 
smnll the method follow^ed was that adopted by Bauer— that is to say, the placing some of 
the young Nematodes w^ithin the cleft of the seed, allowing them to dry in this situation, 
ind then consigning the seeds to the earth in the ordinary way. This was done in the 
end of Tebruary last, when eighty seeds so infected were sown in a box containing 
ordinary soil ; and on the 8th of July I discovered one plant evidently diseased 
extremely stunted, being only about five inches in height; and the whole specimen ^ 
drv and withered, with the exception of the small and abortive ear. This contained 
lieahhv florets, the diseased ones being about fourteen in number, each being composed 


slightly altered glumes and palese surrounding a gall of the usual size and ovoidal 

shape, instead of a germen. In confirmation of this view of the gall-like nature of 
growth, as ascertained by Davaine\ I may state that at the time when these bodies had 
attained their fuU size and maturity, the other healthy plants were only just flowering, 
the germens in them being minute and undeveloped. I am also able to testify to the 
probability of the correctness of Davaine's description of the precise method in which the 
disease is produced, and the young worms come in contact with the growing flower. 
Before his time the only observers who had attempted to explain the manner in which 
the young Vibrios reach the ear were Roffredi' and Bauer; and both these investi- 
gators imagined the little Nematodes obtained an entry to the vessels of the plant, and 
Tvere so transmitted to the germen. Bauer, indeed, whose paper, apart ii'om the special 
subject on which he wrote— namely, the degree of vitality of these animals—is full of 
maccuracies, and whose figure and description of the adult animal is utterly unlike the 
origkal, imagined that the young, found in what he considered to be the diseased grain, 
were the products of a third generation in this spot, the two others having taken place 
^ntliin the vessels of the stem of the plant during the progress of the animals towards the 
flower. But the real process, according to Davaine, seems to be this :— When the infected 
galls are sown together with healthy seeds^ the young in a week or so, accordmg to the 
degree of moisture of the soil, make their way out of the softened gall, and, diffusing 
themselves in all directions, some come at last into contact with the budding plant just 


' Davaine lias occasionally found a small abortive germen within the sanie floral envelopes with the gall ; and in- 
this case the crall is most likely to have been produced in one of the rudimentary scales, which would have gone to 
form a stamen. He believes it may be formed out of any of the scales belonging to the central parts of the tiower ;. 
and although, as a rule, all these parts participate in the formation of a single central gall, still occasionally as many 
as three growths of this l.ind develope within the same pair of ffhmellce. On one occasion he found a growth ot a 
rimHar nature, and with tlie same kind of contents, growing from one of the leaves of the wheat Atter this, addi- 
tional proof as to the nature of the growth is almost superfluous. All interested in this remarkable disease of wheat 
should consult M. Davaine's admirable memoir on the subject. 

Observations sur la Physique, t. v. p. 1, 1775. , . ^ i i.-u j a.. +%a 

' That the disease may be produced artificially, by placing the young within the cleft of a healthy seed, after a 
method of Bauer, I can have little doubt, after the result of my own experiment, thougli Davaine seems to be rather 
incredulous concerning this mode of its production (Joe. cit. p. 16). 



5»proutln- from the healthy seed, and then insert themselves between the sheaths of its 
leaves, gradually Av.n-king their way round till they come to the innermost of these, where 
they r("maui for a varial)le time, without increasing much in size, till the rudiment of the 
future cai- hegins to form. The length of time during which they remain in this situa- 
tion, and their degree of activity, depend ui^on the rai3idity of growth of the plant 
find 'tlie moisture of the season. The remainder of the process may be best described in 
Bavaine's own words ; he says :— " L'epi du hie, avant de paraitre au dehors, se forme 
et reste longtenips renfermd dans les gaines dcs dernieres feuilles. Les anguillulcs, 
lihrcs dans ccs gaines, le rencontrent et peuvent s'introduire entre les parties qm le 
composcnt. Tonv (^ue I'invasion des anguillulcs soit suivie de la production de la 
ult'lk', il faut que la rencontre ait lieu a une epoque tres-rapprochee de la formation de 
Trpi. Lorsque celui-ci n*a encore que quelques millimetres de longueur, que les paleoles, 
les ^tamiues et I'ovaire, ayant la forme d'ccailles, ne sont point distincts les uns des 
autres, ccs dcaillcs sont constituees par des cellules naissantes tres-moUes, pulpeuses, qui 
sc laissent pcnctrer facilemcnt, et c'est a cette epoque que les anguillules en contact 
avec l'epi determinent la production de la nielle, en s'introduisant dans leur parenchyme. 
]Mais, lorsque ccs 6eailles acquierent la forme des diverses parties qui constituent la fleur 
du hie, lorsque le pistil bifide devient distinct, les anguillules ne penetrent plus dans 
Icur parenchyme, trop consistant sans doute, et la 7iielle ne pent plus etre produite; 
c*cst un fait que j'ai constats par plusieurs experiences" (p. 18). This piercing and. 
occupation of a part of the rudimentary flower arrests its development, though it stimu- 
lates growtli. A gall-like body is more rapidly produced in the site which should have 
been occuj^icd by the germcn, whilst the young worms soon become perfectly developed 
males and females. These vary in number from two to ten or twelve in each gall, and, 
after producing an enormous number of ova containing fully formed young^whicli 
speedily li])erate themselves, though they afterwards undergo little change — themselves 
die and wither, at the time vrhen the gall begins to assume its characteristic purplish- 
brown or black appearance. 

In harmony with this method of infection of the wheat by the F'lb7^io tritici, as revealed 
by Davainc, I may state that in several grasses I have found diiferent species of these 
free Nematodes, lying between the inner sheaths of the leaves, near the bottom of tlie 
culm. In Festuca datior I met with no less than live species in this situation, belonging 
to the genera Dorylaimus, JJfononchus, and JPlectus ; and in the stalks of wheat and oats 
removed from stubble-fields I have frequently found specimens either of these genera or 
of HJiahlUis, AphelencJuis, or Cephalohus, In addition to a malady of oats and maize 


similar to that of the wheat, and said to be produced by the same animal, Steinhuch 
nearly a century ago, recognized a disease somewhat similar to the " pur]3les" in two of tbe 
bent-gvasses {Agrostis) ; and, from the frequent presence of these Xematoids in the situation 
named, I suspect such diseases of grass will be found more frequent, if specially looked 
after. As another instance of disease induced in plants by these animals may be men- 
tioned the discovery of Kuhn^ who has ascertained that a long-known and recognized 
disease of the common teasel [DIpsacus fuUonum) is owing to the presence of a number 

' N«*"^^-^^t. xxviii. S. 233, tab. t. . Zeitsch. fur wissen. ZooW. 1857. t. ix. p. ISO- 




f tliese minute Nematodes, wliicli gives some ^mrts of the flower a white filamentary 

rnnce. They seem to be endowed with the same tenacity of life as Tylelcnchus triticij 

({ from their correspondence in anatomical details, evidently belong to the same genus. 

■niiilst speaking of these parasites of vegetables, I may again mention the fact that two 

three of the most highly organized species of the free Nematoids I have met with, 

nil the specimens of which are provided with well-developed ocelli, have been found 

infestin"- some of the British marine Sponges. Although there can be no doubt of the 

animal nature of these latter, still the organization of Sponges is so peculiar that the 

conditions of existence of these minute Nematoids within their interstices may, on tl 

uliole be considered much more nearly allied to those of the non-parasitic Nematoic 

cneral than to those to which the parasitic forms are subjected within the various 

„ns of more highly developed members of the animal kingdom. There would seem 

be no more reason why these animals should be considered parasites on account of 

in the 




their habitat, than that those Annelids with which they are often associated 
Smngiadce should, for a like cause, be brought under the same designation 


The only two writers who have attempted to classify the free Nematoids are Dicsing 
and Eberth ; and since the opinions of both are so much entitled to respect, it will be only 
right for me to consider their respective schemes of classification, and point out, not 
only the nature of these schemes, but also in what way they appear to me to be defective. 

Diesing's most recent communication is to be found in a paper entitled " Revision der 
Nematoden"S in which he treats of the classification of the Nematoids generally. I shall, 
of course, confine my attention to what he has to say on the free Nematoids. These, 
with one or two other genera of a doubtful nature, he includes under two families, 
the distin-uishtn^ characters of which he considers to be the presence or absence of 

_ — "■"— o 

cirrhi or set^e around the mouth. His arrangement is as follows ; 

Family I. CiRRHOSTOMEA. Corpus capillare. Os terminale cirrhatum. Ocellata vel caeca. Penis 

Papilla suctoria caudalls nulla v. unica terminalis. Ani- 


malcula ut plurlmum microscopica. Aquarum dulcium vel mans incolae. 

* Ocellata. 

1. Phanoglene. 2. Enchehdium. 

** Cava. 

3. Pontonema. 4. Arablyura 

Family II. Axguillui^idka. Corpus capillare, Inerme vel armatum. Os terminale sessile, v m 
apice tubuli protractilis, inerme aut denticulatum, nudum vel papillis cinctum. Caeca, ranus ocellata. 
Penis haud vaginatus aut vagina dipetala inclusus. Papilla suctoria caudalis nulla vel umca ermmahs 
vel du^ marginales. Animalcula minora. Aquarum dulcium vel marls incol^, aut m animahbus varus 
endoparaslta, non nulla migratoria. 

* Odontostomata. Os dentatum. Caca vel ocellata. 

\ Ocellata. 
5. Enoplus. 

^ Sitzunosb. der Kals. Akad. dev Wissensch., xlii. Band, No. 28, p. 595. 




tt CcBca. 
6. Oncholaimus. 7- Dorylaimus. 8. Odontobius. 9, DipWaster 

** Anoplostomata. Os edentatiim. 
10. Dicelis. IL Anguillula. 12. Angiostomura. 13. Leptodera. 14. Isads 

Genera inquirenda. 
15. Phacelura. 16. Potamonema. 17. Nema. 

■ More extended observation has conyinced not only myself, but also Dr. Ebertli, tliat 
this character, derived from the presence or absence of cirrhi, selected by Diesin^ as a 
family distinction, is altogether too inconsistent and variable. Several of the 


placed by Diesing in that family the members of which are supposed by him to Iia\ 
no cirrhi contain species which are abundantly furnished with these appendages, such 
as Enoplus, Oncholaimus, and Odontohius ; and, moreover, their presence or absence 
not always a character of sufficient importance to be employed 



tmction. Pive of these genera too, Dicelis, Angiostonmm, Lejjtoclera, Isacis, and Fha 
cchtra, are composed of species which are not free Nematodes at all, but parasitic forms 
infesting various kinds of insects, mollusks, myriapods, &c., concerning which I liave 
already expressed my unwillingness to admit their identity with the free Nematoids till 
such a relation shall be fully established by a more accurate and precise knowledge of 
their anatomy than we at present possess. 

Dr. Ebcrth also rejects this arrangement of the free Nematoids by Diesing as unsatis- 
factory, and offers in its place a readjustment of his own. He divides them into two 
prmcipal fomihes, but is doubtful and uncertain about some genera, such as Dorj/laimns, 
Dijjlogastcr, I>hauoglene, and Tontonema, His main divisions are as follows ; 

1. Anguillulce. * 

a. Nematodes with an unarmed mouth, with a cylindrical cesophagus, and well-marked stomach; 
without tail-glands or ocelli; partly free and partly parasitic. 

6. JNematodes with an unarmed mouth and simple oesophagus, without stomach and without 


2. tfrofa to. Nematodes without well-defined stomach, partly with and partly without cirrhi around 

and"aU wLr "' "'*™' ""'"' *■"' ''™"''"' "'"■ ^'^^-^'^^^^ tail-glands. Habitat, fresl 
a. Apharyngea. 

Amhhjura. PhanogUne. Enchelidium. 
h. Pharyngca. 

* Caeca. Oncholaimus. Odontobius. 
** Ocellata. Enoplus. 

Ebortrhrs a ; " ! , Tf """ '''^'^^'^' peculiarities as were adopted by Diesin, 
species di orlTca bv h "t ' T"'^'''^^ '° ^^"^e aU the twenty-thr'^.e new marine 

discovered by hiaself under live of the old genera, with the result of greatly con- 















f "ino' the nomenclature, since I feel quite convincedj from an examination of the beau- 
tiful fio-ures he has given of these forms, that they cannot properly be included under 
less than from eight to twelve distinct genera. 

So far as my own experience goes, I feel assured that even now, with the accession of 
new forms brouo-ht to light by myself, it is altogether premature to attempt anything 
like a philosophical classification ; we are as yet but on the threshold of our knowledge 
of the multiplicity of types which will doubtless soon be revealed if the investigation 
is taken up by naturalists at home, and a fortiori if the subject enlists the atten- 
tion of scientific observers in various quarters of the globe. In this memoir I have 


accordino-ly not ventured upon what may be called a classification, though I liave care- 
fully drawn up tables presenting a differential analysis of the characters of those of the 
(^enera whose anatomical details are sufficiently known. This has been done principally 
with the view of assisting in the identification of the species already described. On look- 
in"" over these tables, one cannot but be struck with the fact of the almost universal dis- 
tiuctness of the land and freshwater from the marine types. In only one undoubted 
instance have I met with representatives of the same genus inhabiting both fresh and 
salt water {RhabdUis), since the marine species Monhystera ambigua and M. disjimcta, at 
present placed in this freshwater genus, will in all probability ultimately be found to 
belong to a distinct type, by virtue of certain anatomical peculiarities which distinguish 
them from other species of that genus in which they have been temporarily placed. 
One species of the freshwater genus Dori/laimus is also reported to have been found in 

salt water by Dujardin. 

The ventral gland, or excretory organ, does not appear to be so common in the fresh- 
water as in the marine genera ; and, as far as I have recognized it in the former, it presents 
certain structural peculiarities. The peculiar " oesophageal ring," too, I have only met 
with as unmis^akeably existing in some of the marine genera, and in these, curiously 
enough (though in this respect my experience appears to be contrary to that of Dr. 
Eberth), only amongst such as have either longitudinal or no perceptible striae of the 
integument, as I have never once met with it in any species presenting weU-marked trans- 
verse stri^. The ocelli are much more marked and more frequent in the marine species, 
though even the possession of such a well-marked appendage as this is not a character of 
constant generic importance. In the genera Monhystera, Cyatholaimns, and Chromadora, 
for instance, certain species are provided with ocelli, whilst others are without them ; 
and their presence or absence seems frequently to be connected with the nature of the 
liabitat. The degree of complexity of the male intromittent organs is also increased in 
the marine genera, since in these as many as two or even four accessory pieces may 
exist, whilst in the land and freshwater types the spicules are either solitary or provided 
^-ith one single, posterior, median accessory piece. The shape and number of these 
organs afi*ord excellent generic characters of a most constant kind, with the exception 
tliat occasionallv, in genera whose species have spicules only, representatives will be m et 
with presenting also a single posterior accessory piece. Such is the case in the genera 
Oncholamus, Comesoma, and 3Ionhystera, It may be, it is true, that this accessory 
piece exists in a membranous and undeveloped condition in the other species, and so is not 

N 2 


adily recognizable. Tlie exact structure of the pharynx and CBSopha^us the 


the intcgumental markings or striae, and the position and character of the duct f 
ventral gland seem to me the other characters which, from their constancy, shoul/r 
most relied upon in the construction of genera. The necessity of absolute accuracy "^ 
corning these details cannot be too strongly enforced, in view of the crude generalit? 
which have been offered by some preceding obseryers as specific descriptions, man Tf 
which are absolutely useless as a means of identification, and serve only to swell ^th 
number of synonyms and uselessly perplex subsequent workers in the same field of 

Pamily ANGUILLULID.E, Gervais & Van Beneden 

Free Nematoids 

Body cyhndrical, tapering more or less at either extremity In. 
tegument transparent, striated or plain; naked, or provided with papilla or set^"- tra- 
versed by ca^pmary pores ; shed and renewed at intervals. Caudal sucker mosth pre- 
sent. Glandular system well developed ; often single excretory organ in anterio L 

xte'or T" T'f ''"^ '^''"^^ ^^ "^^^^^ '^"^^'^ —unicatin. withVe 
xtenor, with or without a central channel: in others 

placed by distinct 

add h p>sn..nt ou antenor part of esophagus, with or without transpaxent lens-like 

reined „!. fT "'-^tr-^^^" ''' """"^^'""^ °f "^"^^'^ symmetrical uteri and short 

7,v?tl rr : '"""'" "'''' '^'"''•'^ °^ ''"'Jy ■' ^^-^ occasionally more poste- 

Zl^ ^°^*';"- "*-- segment and ovary undeveloped ; ova few. la.-ge : nJe, coa- 

Sn! " "^^ '""^'"^ ^'"^"'" *"^'=' --"^ t- «1"=>1 I'orny spicules, either alone o, 

more accessory pieces 


microscopical tZhl needle^thr^ ^"^^ capturing these animals I have found to consist in separating with ordinary 

of glass covered witl a thin stratuTof 7" 1 ^^^^1" "''"^'' ""'" """'^^ ^''^'^'''''' °" '^' '^'^''' '^ ' ^'l^^" ^"^ 
small mirror, when the lar.>er sner.V^ ^ T' • ^'"^ ^^'^ ''^^'' "P°" ^ ^^^^^ '""'^^^^ 0^' better still, upon a 

"taker's lens. They are hest cant d h ^ ^'J'^'S^^^^'^ with the naked eye, and the smaller with an ordinary watch- 

an ordinary quill pen, with its upperextr^em^fTlf 7 Z "^? '^' ^'^"'"'^ '^'''"^'^ °^ " ^'^'^''- ^ ^''' ^'"P^"' "^ 
be spread out with a little water infn t obhquely. In the case of marine or freshwater mud, it should 



lam i d It r1 I, • """un^ ammais. 

^'^cality (Broadmoor, Wokbghllo rZa^r'^ ^o^'^^d Fox, Esq., of Falmouth, for being able to pursue in this inland 
l»as abundantly supplied me It various ti'*' ^' .''°"'=''^'°S the marine Nematoids commenced at Falmouth, since he 

mes with mud, sand, and algee from the estuaries and tide-pools of that place. 
















* Integument plain, or with longitudinal markings. Ventral excretory gland wanting. 

\ Caudal sucker small. 
1 MoNHYSTERA. /w/e^Mmm/ With lateral circular mark anteriorly. OccZZms single, often absent. Pha- 
ryngeal cavity none. (Esophagus cylindrical. Uterus unsymmetrical. 

2. Trilobus. Pharyngeal cavity cup-shaped ; no teeth. (Esophagus having three lobes at tenninatlon. 

Males with well-developed suckers in middle line above anal cleft. 

3. MoNONCHUS. Pharyngeal cavity large, oval, having one upper /oo//t-hke projection. Canal of 

oesophagus indicated by three bright lines. 

tt Caudal sucker absent. 

4. IRONUS. Pharyngeal cavity small, long, and narrow. (Esophageal canal bounded by tJtree bright 


5. DoRYLAiMus. Spear exsertile, at commencement of oesophagus, whose canal is indicated by three 

bright lines. Males having oblique Integumental markings on posterior extremity, with or without 
. small median suckers above anal cleft. 

6. Anguillula. Pharyngeal cavity very small. (Esophagus having oval swelling at termination, con- 

taining a simple valvular apparatus. Uterus unsymmetrlcal. Spicules long and narrow. Acces- 
sory piece single, distinct. 

** Integument with transverse strips. Ventral excretory gland present or absent. 



.,,..A. SW« well marked. Pharyngeal camty none. CEsophagus with constricted portion at 

termmation. Three large pores through integument in anterior part of ventral region. 
8. D..LOGASTER. Stri. transverse and longitudinal. Pharyngeal c«ri(,_cup-shaped, «.th sma 1 horny 

plates at bottom, (Esophagus having large muse 
minute. Accessory portion of penis well marked. 

Sucker very 

9. Plectus. 


provided with a complex vdvular apparatus. Ventral glani kav,ng tw>sted duel apemng near rmi- 

^ .ST 

>/ oesophagus. Uterus syrametricaL 


.0. Ap„e...cHr,s. Spear simple, at commencement of ^sopl.agu,^ termma es . a large 

}f oesophagus. Uterus 

rounded muscular svvelHnf]r. 

unsyrametrical. Spicules simple, without accessory piece. 

. .„ .1-1 „<«,-orl tntlipin hfve a modification of the ventral 

' All the animals belonging to the genera having this m:irk aflixed to them n.^t a 

gland, and are endowed with a remarkahle tenacity of life. 


ft Caudal sucker absent. 

•11. Ckpiialobus. ^/nV ueil marked. i7.?«cf slightly bilobed. Pharyngeal cavity n 

n?^^...i. — „!,„..; iw,i n: i. • 7 ... . , _ ^ "One, 


or small 

•" ^ " """i^^^ »"»^^"i"r apparatus. r,„/,„, 

9/ (esophagus. Uterus unsymmetrical. 

Males having caudal alee. 

'IL^ Tylklkxchus. %ar with triJobed base, ffi^oy^^^^^* having a rounded muscular swell' v 

Its nnddle. Fe«/r«/ gland-opening opposite posterior part of oesophagus Uterus nn. '"' 
CaM^«/ «/^ narrow, unsupported. ' ^ i' ^ • ^^^''"^ unsymmetncal. 

1.?. Rharditis. >S'/ri« transverse and longitudinal. Pharyngeal cavity cv\m^nc^\ (F.. j . 

elongated s.e.H.,g at „.ad,e, with funded one at teLlation, luintT a 4 ! X: ^ 
paratus. Wer«.< sjmmctrical. C™&; «fe large, supported by rays. '"^ 



Spiczdes two, equal, solitary, or with one, two, or four accessory pieces Occasionally n ' i 

* Jnteyumcnl plain, or ivith longitudinal marUngs 

t f^picules solitary!, nr 'imfh » o.-^,./. ^.„^„.- 


,- n ' "s miei 101 aspect. Oce//« present or absent. >^^zW^^ Ion-, solitary 

piece. uns;)inmetncal. ^^^^^,/f5 solitary, or with a single accessor 

•7. Anticoma. Integument havincr a rmv nf ^ v 

none. T.^M^/^.^, two enu.l \l?^"f" '''^ "" ^"'^^^ ^"^ ^'^"^^^^ ^-^--' ^^^^« 
^18. Phvxoderm P7 %^^/^.^ solitary. ^w/m.n/«ry .r^.^ small. 

i^/.^.«/«., o.^a« sml'^"' ""'' '"^"- ^^^^^^ ^i^t-^*^ lateral. Spicules long, solitary. %- 


- ' ~:i--^' ^^^^ct,sury pieces. 
ly. -Leptosomatum. Pharynqeal c <7 

«-^/ony ^/cn^^^/ar o.y««, /^^o ZLr"'' .^''^^' '^''^'"''*' ^°'''^^' occasionally coalescing. Ex- 

small sucker-like prominence. 

''20. EXOPLUS. 

f head. Supplementary organ 


distinct from ^^^ZlZi^^^^ll^ ^^ ^^'^^ ^^P^^^te teeth or jaws. Ocelli not 

a« well as longitudinal strice, ^" ' ^ ^^^P^^U^al ring, and integumetit with delicate transverse 

at posterior extremity. Q:s^halaT^'^^?^^' ^^^^^^^^ enlarged behind pharynx and also 
. Aiw-u . "ff^a rmg{}). Anal glands large. Accessory pieces recuTYel 

All the animals belonging to th 
'^f^;;^ ^JJ^^^^^^^^^^ ""''^ '"^"^ '' '^'"^ ^^^^ ^ modification of the ventral 

provided .ith a suVpWnt'l^trn^^^ ^™° '^' ^'^^ ^ffi-ed to them are all distinguished by the males bein. 

The males of th. species belorfging to these thre 

ree genera present the common character of reflexed accessory pieces. 











** Integument with transverse strice or dots, (Esophageal W; 



J Uterus unsymmetricaL 

C22. Tachyhodites. Pharyngeal cavity absent. Two peculiar colourless bodies on dorsal surface near 

anterior extremity. Vaginal glands wanting. Accessory jneces recurved. 

C23. TiiERisTUS. Pharyngeal cavity hemispherical. Vaginal glands two, unequal. Accessory piece^f 



24. SPII.F.ROLAIMUS. Pharyngeal cavity large, somewhat spherical. (Esophageal canal bounded by 

Vaginal gland single, posterior. Spicules long, narrow, with a sino*le 

three longitudinal bands. 

posterior shield- shaped accessory piece. 


11 Uterus symmetricaL 

25. CoMESOMA. Integument having lateral circular depressions near bead. Pharyngeal cavity very 

small. Spicules long, narrow, with or without a very small posterior accessory piece. 

26. Spira. Integument having lateral, convex, circular prominences near head. Pharyngeal cavity none. 

(Esophagus having a slight rounded swelling posteriorly. Spicules stout, curved, with two accessory 
pieces. , 


•2/. Odoxtobius. Pharyngeal cavity none. Teeth doubtful Spicules stout, curved, with two accea^ 
sory pieces. 

tt Ocelli present or absent. 

28. Cyatuolaimus. Integument with transverse striae or rows of dots. Pharyngeal cavity cup- 
shaped, with longitudinal markings. (Esojyhagus cylindrical. Accessory pieces strong, four, in two 


Caudal sucker elongated, cylindrical. 

29. Spilophora. Integument with transverse rows of dots or striae. Pharyngeal cavity cup-shaped. 


longitudinal markings, and three processes extending backwards. Accessory pieces two, 

rather indistinct. Caudal sucker elongated, cylindrical. (Esophagus having well-marked swelling 

30. Chromadora. Integument with transverse and longitudinal striae. Pharyngeal cavity rather in- 
distinct, three cuneiform processes extending backwards and in contact. Accessory pieces two, 
strong, hooked. Caudal sucker elongated, pointed. 



31. AmblyurAj Hemprich and Ehrenberg. 

32. HemipsiluSj Quatrefages. 

33. PiiANOGLEXE^ Nordmann. 

34. PoNTOXEMA, Lcidy. 

35. PoTAMONEM A, Lcidy. 

36. Nema, Leidy. 

37. UrolabeSj Carter. 




Means pjsira*, Da]}- d\ • • • Phanoglene flustr^, XXXIII. 5 f. 

Tylelenchus agrostldis, XII. 6. 

Anffuillula afji'osiidis, Steinbuch ...... 


p-amineurum, Dicsing 

drpsaci, Kiihn Tylelenchus dlpsaci, XII. 5. 

Hnea, Grube Dorylairaus lineus, V. 12. 

hngn, LeUly Trilobus longus, II. 3. 

mucronatay Griibe Rhabditis mucronata, XIII. 6. 

^ tritki, Ehrcnberg Tylelenchus tritici, XII. 2. 

Enophin alteiuinlT.., Dicsing Oncholaimus attenuatus, XV. 7-. 

bioci'htiis, M. Schultzc Chromadora bloculata^ XXX. 8. 

coronatus, Eberth Leptosomatum coronatum, XIX. 6. 

crassimculuSj Dujardin Mononchus crassiusculus/ III. 8. 

ffra cil'is J ^h^vih Cyatholaimus gracilis, XXVIII. 6. 

ornatiLs, Eberth Symplocostoma ornatum, XIV. 4. 

rivalis, Dujardin Plectus rivalis, IX. 10. 

siibrotundus,'EhQTih Unchelidium subrotundum, XVI. 4. 

icHulcoUls, Eberth Symplocostoma tenuicolle, XIV. 2. 

tuberciifaivA, Eberth Phanoderma tuberculatum, XVIII. 3. 

Lmcola obtu steal, data.KoWAax Phanoglene obtusicaudata, XXXIII. 4. 

m^fl, KoUiker Phanoglene rosea, XXXIII. 3. 

Fieboldii, Kollikcr Enoplus Sieboldii, XX. 14. 

O^icholaimvs/ovcarum, Dn}^Yc\in Mononchus fovearum, III. 6. 

muscorwn, Dujardin Mononchus rauscorum, III. 7. 

Odonlobius acuminafo,, Ehevth Anticoma acuminata, XVII. 4. 

nanoffkne bacillala, I^hevth ....... Leptosomatum bacillatum, XIX. 4. 

lonffissima^mer^h Leptosomatum longissimum, XIX. 7- 

pu.Ma,^horth Leptosomatum punctatum, XIX. 2. 

- *«to/a, Eberth Leptosomatum subulatum, XIX. 8. 

Ji/uibdith acctiy'Dujsirdm ^^ 

guillula aceti, VI. 1. 

^ i"«««>, Dujardin Anguillula glutinis, VI. 2. 

— - /n/,«, D„jardin . Tylelenchus tritioi, XII. 2. 

Uroliibes harhnla, Carter . . o i ^ , , . v,^, . 

symplocostoma barbatum, XIV. 5. 

ocelala. Carter Chromadora ocellata, XXX. 9. 

palustris, Carter . . r\ ^ • i . ^r 

I'lt^i^ -11, . , • ■L'orylaimus palustris, V. 11. 

i^ibrto an cjmllula marina, UxxWcv . . . p,„. . '^^^^^ 

___^ / •/■ • o Pontonema marinum, XXXIII. 

trihcl Bauer 

Tylelenchus tritici, XII. 2. 

t The first figures rpf.r .n .1,. „..„.._ . described m the present memoir. 

4 » 



1. MOXHYSTEKA^ Bastian. 

Gen^ Char. J^odi/ mostly tapering considerably posteriorly. Caudal sucker small, somc- 
wliat pointed. Bitegument imstriated; setae very few; lateral circular mark on 
either side near anterior extremity. I'hcmjngcal camly none. (Esojiliagus miiform, 
cylindrical. Intestinal cells not tessellated.' Vtihct al30ut posterior tliird of body. 
Uterus unsymmetrical. Vimparous or oviparous. Spicules long and narrow. Ac- 

cessory piece, when present, single, small. Ocellus single, often absent. 

In all probability, tbe two species wbicb I baA^e named Jf. disjvnda and 3L amligua 
will hereafter be found to belong to a distinct genus ; but, not baring seen the females of 
either, I was unwilling to describe tliem apart, and bare therefore placed them tem- 
porarily in that genus to which they seemed to be the most nearly allied. 

1. M. sTAGXALis, n. sp. (Plate IX. figs. 9-11.) 

Female^ length yj", breadth -^ Jo"- 

External Characters. — Body opaque-white in part, tapering considerably at extremities, 
especially towards the posterior, which is long and filiform. Head truncated, having a 
circlet of 4-6 short set^e. Integument plain. 

(Esophagus about -gtli of whole length. Intestine narrowed where encroached upon by 
genital tube, but widening considerably behind vulva. Anus y^" from posterior ex- 
tremity. Vulva behind commencement of posterior third of body. Viviparous ; youn 
mimerous. Ocellus bright red, on sheath of oesophagus. 

Male, length ^'', breadth 4^4''. Anus yj^'' from posterior extremity. Spicules 
long. Accessory piece small, somewhat triangular. Spermatozoa lia"V'ing slight vibra- 
tile movements, of an elongated oval form, Toi5o" lo^o- 

Sah. Mud from ponds, Palmouth and Easthampstead. 


2. M 

sp. (Plate IX. figs. 1, 2.) 

Eemale, length ^'\ breadth yj/'. 

External Characters. — Body scarcely tapering at all anteriorly, but abruptly behind 
vulva, and then gradually narrowing so as to terminate with a filiform extremity and 
minute pointed sucker. Head truncate, provided with 2-1' short seta3. Integument 

(Esophagus Jth of total length. Intestinal cells containing rather large dark-coloured 
particles, having indistinctly tessellated arrangement. Anus yjj' from posterior ex- 
tremity. F«Jr« about commencement of posterior third of body. 

Male, not seen. 

^(^h. In moss, Palmouth. 

- •■ 

3. M. EiYL^AHis, n. sp. (Plate IX. figs. 3, 4.) 
^ale, length -^V, breadth ^^'\ 

* Three exceptions to t\\\s,—ItJiahditls marina, Monhystera amligua, and M. disjuncfa being marine, and fouuJ 

amongst the sand of tide-pools. 



uofos, single, and varipa, the uterus 




Kvternctl Characters. — Body tapering slightly anteriorly, but gradually to a 
posteriorly. Head truncate ; no setae. 


(Emplwgus \i\i of total lengtli. Intestine rather thinly covered with fat-partides 
Anns -^j^' from posterior extremity. Spicules slightly enlarged at upjier extremities 

Teniale^ not seen. 

Hah. Sandy mud from stream, Falmouth. 

4. ^r. LONGTrvxTDATA, u. sp. (Plate IX. figs. 5, 6 

Female, lemrth -A-", breadth 

1 " 


Kcternal Characters. — Body tapering slightly anteriorly, more considerably beliind 
Tulva, and terminating in a very long filiforni extremity. Head truncate; no set^e. 

(Esophagus about Jth of total length. Intestine rather thinly covered with fat-par- 
f icles, having indistinct tessellation. Anus -f/' from posterior extremity. Vulva near 
middle of body. Uterus unsymmetrical. 

Male, not seen. 


Hub. Fine sedimentary sand, pond, Tunbridge Wells. 



M. FiLiroRiiis, n. sp. (Plate IX. figs. 1, 8.) 
Female, length ^'', breadth j^'\ 
External Characters. 




Body long and narrow, scarcely tapering at all anteriorly, kt g 
behind vulva, and thence onwards, so as to terminate in a Ions filiforni extre- 

mity. Head truncate : no set^e 


^ (Esophagus jth of total length. Intestine sparingly covered with fat -particles. Anm \ 

T60 ' from posterior extremity. Viilva considerably behind middle of body. . ^ 

Male, not seen. 

Hah. About liverwort, from pier of bridge just above water-level, river Blackwater 
6. M. DisjTjNCTA, n. sp. (Plate IX. figs. 12, 13.) 

Jfa/6% length Jjj", breadth ^ " 

External Characters. -Bo^j tapering slightly anteriorly, and also gradually to a point 
posteriorly. Terminal sucker smaU; another large and prominent in the mid-ventral 
^cgion, -njoo rom posterior extremity. Head rounded ; no set^. Integument plain, 
having a circular depression on each side of head -^ " « ^ 



^!Z7't "f" ""y '"'""' '""^''1- ®'"'i'^«^» about ith of total length. Mestke 
Sk /^ M r '"^\^''^' °f ^ valvular apparatus occupying its commencemeni, 

arSir^ ttf.^T^'rff P"*'- --^ ^y -y large cell, apparently 
scBintPlv 1 " r ^ ^""^ posterior extremity. Genital duct opening 

tTr? iliT- T '^"'- ^^'"'''' "^ '''^^ «1««' ^ligMly curved, ^" in length, with 




Female, not 


Sai. Marine, in sand from tide-pool, Palmouth. 








7. :M. AMBiGrA, n. sp. (Plate IX. figs. 14, 15.) 

jllale, length -^'\ breadth 4 Jo • . 

Ejcteimal Characters. — Body narrowing gradually anteriorly, but tapering to a point 
abruptly behind orifice of genital tube. Sucker small, pointed. Head obtusely rounded, 
naked. Integument plain, having circular depressions on each side of head t^" ^ 

(Esophagus about |^th of total length. Intestine having a kind of spbiiictcr, with 

traces of a valvular apparatus at commencement ; otherwise covered with very large cells 

appearing in two rows, and containing rather light -coloured particles. Amis 2^" from 

posterior extremity. Genital tube containing very large and distinct granular cells, 

opening two" above anus. No spicules visible either there or at anal cleft. 

Female, not seen. . . 

Eab. Marine, in sand from tide-pool, Palmouth, 

2. TEILOBUS^ Bastian. 

Anguillulay Leidy, 

Gen. Qb.x^. Body tapering considerably posteriorly. Caudal sucher small. Integ 

plain, or with longitudinal striae; setae scarce. Tharyngeal cavity rather large, 
cup-shaped. Teeth none. (Esophagus cylindrical, having three lobes at tcrmina- 
tion. Intestinal cells having pale-coloured fat-particles, more or less distinctly 
tessellated. Fhlva about middle of body. Uterus bifid, segments symmetrical. 
Spicules solitary. Males having well-developed ventral suckers. Movements mode- 
rately active, frequently coiling when touched. 

1. T. GEACiLis, n. sp. (Plate IX. figs. 20-22.) 

Female, length -A7". breadth 

1 '' 

3_ 2 5 uAt^ciuuii 26 3 

External Characters.— Bodj pale white, tapering slightly anteriorly, and graduaUy 

g to a point posteriorly. Head bkmtly rounded, provided wiih 4r-6 stout, short 

setae. Integument rather thick, but very transparent, with longitudinal striae ttjooU 

:Bharyngeal cavity distinct, cup-shaped. (Esophagus Jth of total length, having three 
oval lobes at termination, each about ^^ir" lon^f. Intestinal cells containing ahnost 

colouiiess fat-particles, not having distinct tessellation. Anus jk" f^'O^^ posterior ex- 
tremity. Vulva rather anterior to middle of body; whole of uterus and ovaries very 
readily seen. . . 

Male much smaller than female, length ^", breadth -^". Anus '-^" from posterior 


extremity. Spicules solitary, segments narrow, nearly straight, about -^^ in leng 
Transverse stride, as well as longitudinal, for some distance above the genitj^l cleft of 
niale; also in mid- ventral region a row of six large saccuH (suckers), in two sets of throe, 

each sacculus about 2^" deep. 
-2«&. About the roots of Huppia manfima from brackish water, Palmouth. 

* rpels, three, and Xoflos, a lohe. 



2. T. PELLUCTDUS, n. sp. (Plate IX. figs. 23, 24.) 

1"' l^^^^All. 1 " 

Female, lensrtli ^ , breadth 

j^Lix 9 , i^iv.tii.ini 222 

Mvten/al C/frf meters. — Body white, tapering slightly anteriorly, more considerall- 
posteriorly, where it terminates in a rather long filiform extremity, with a minute points 


nicker. Head truncate, provided with four short, spreading setae. Integument tran 
parent ; no strlie visil)le. 

Pharyngeal eavity cup-shaped. (Esophagus about Jth of total length, having three 
ix-au-shaped lobes at termination, each about 5^" long. Intestine well covered witli 
light-coloured fat-particles tessellated in arrangement. Anus -^'' from posterior extre- 
mity. Vxilm slightly anterior to middle of body ; genital organs very visible. 

Male, not seen, 

^ llah. Mud bottom of ponds, Palmouth. Has a habit of coiling itself into a 
circle when touched. 

3. T. LONGI'S. 


AmjmlMa longa, Leidy, Proceed, of Acad, of Philad. v. p. 225. 

" Body cylindrical, translucent, colourless. Mouth round ; buccal cavity inverted, cam- 
panulate ; oesophagus and intestine cyHndrical, equal in diameter, the former -^' lon^. 

"Jcm«?e, 2 to 3 lines long; anteriorly ^^ broad, middle ^'\ TaU narrow, acute, 
Trr to ,V long from anus. 

''Male, \\ to 2 lines long, posteriorly dilated, obtusely rounded, curved, with three 
slight tubercular thickenings of the integument ventrally ; ^" broad, at middle ^" 
broad. Penis a curved spiculum, -4^" Ion 


JTalj Found in very great abundance, wrigglin- about the sui'face of soft mud 

stagnant ditches in the neighbourhood of Philadelphia 

3. MONONCHUS^ Bastian. 


Oncholaimus, Dujardin ; Enojihs ?, Dujardin. 

Gen- Chak i?,,rfy tapering to a point posteriorly. Caudal sucker smaU, not pointed. 

.rlT77 ^ .", °' ''"'' '""g't^'li'i^l sti-iiB; no seta.; papiUa. present or ateeBt 
aoimd the month. I>!,arp,ffeal cavUy large, oval, having one hook or tooth-like 

iZTv , "^'^'' ''"■^'''- ^'op^^m'^ cylindrical, canal indicated by three 

on l,t lines ; transverse muscular fibres not distinct. Intestine well covered 

LaU„n r. , ■ , ^" *"" ^''^"^' segments symmetrical. Spkulcs ? 

X.fe „Z e.aah very mdistmct, having a slightly cellular appearance. MovemeBts 

vhfcr:f LTl WeT/° '": -"^^ ^"^ '^■^ ^enus 0.cMai>nns two distinct types, 

Iv IL r f "f «*«'°'^'l' are exclusively denizens of fresh and salt water ^ 

^pectively. Since he has described '"Z.'"'"'''^ "^'^^^'^'^^ «t Ir''^'' ^"^^ ^«« ' ■" 

re retained the old generic ^11.' ''^''^"^^^^^^"^ ^^ ^^^ W^'^l ^F^''^ 

generic name vuth a more hmited definition fnr thn .-mimals 


' /.oros, SiVc, raid S,,^,,, „ ji„„i. 




tlus tvpe, whilst I have transferred the freshwater memhers to my new genus 3Io 
dins. The species of this latter genus differ from those of the former in having 

pliarrngeal hook only instead of three ; in having the head sometimes furnished Avith 
papilloc, hut never, as far as I have seen, with setae ; hy the different structure of the 
ccsophagus, and absence of the peculiar oesophageal ring ; and, lastly, hy the compara- 
tively undeveloped condition of the caudal sucker and its appendages. 

The males of this genus must he cither very minute or very scarce ; for though I 
liave seen nearly one hundred female representatives of the different species, I have 
never met with a single specimen of the opposite sex. 

1. M. TRUXCATUS, n. sp. (Plate IX. figs. 25, 26.) 
Female, length yf", breadth ^ 

1 " 

External Characters. — Body tapering slightly anteriorly, hut more considerably pos- 
teriorly. Head truncate ; no papillae. Integument with longitudinal striae, tmuj" apart. 

Tliaryngeal cavity oval, -^\^" in length, with a single hook projecting from upper 
surface. Q^sojjhagns about Jth of total length. Intestinal cells with light-coloured 
particles, having distinctly tessellated arrangement. Anus ixo" fi'om posterior extre- 
mity. Vulva slightly posterior to middle of body. Lateral canals broad, very indis- 
tinct, only recognizable behind intestine ; no cells apparent — merely a few light-coloured 
scattered granules. 

Malej not seen. 

Hah. Small pool amidst decaying moss and liverwort, Falmouth. 

2. M. PAPiLLATrs, n. sp. (Plate IX. figs. 27, 28.) 

Female, length ^", l)readth .^ o" 

External Characters. — Body opaque-white in colour, tapering slightly anteriorly, but 

gi-adually to a point posteriorly. Head truncate; mouth surrounded by four well- 
marked papiUae. Intesfument with longitudinal striae, about juouo" apart. 

Fharyngeal cavity a little removed from anterior extremity, proportionally rather 
small, yL" long; tooth single. (Esophagus Jth of total length. Intestinal cells con- 
taining yellowish-coloured granules. Anus xJir" fi'o^ posterior extremity. Vulva at 
commencement of posterior third of body. Uterus bifid. 

Male, not seen. ' * . 

UaJ), Between the sheaths of the leaves, at the lower part of culm of Festuca elutior, 
Broadmoor, Berks. 

3. 'IL MACROSTOMA, n. sp. (Plate IX. figs. 29, 30.) 
Female, length -^'\ breadth ^x". 

FJxternal Characters.—Boclj tapering very slightly towards head, more considerably 
posteriorly, where it is filiform for a short distance. Head obtusely rounded, with two 
papillae, uj^per and low^er. Intea-ument with loni^itudmal sti 

j3,.uxixv.xa.i. ,,^.x. — o 

Pharyngeal cavity large, -^" long ; hook single, rrnu)" lo^S- (Esophagus about ith 

of total length ; very slightly increased in size posteriorly, where also there 




rcrgeiice of the bright lines representing the lumen. 

Anus y}y" from posterior extremity. Vulva at middle of body. 

MaUy not seen. 

Hah. Small freshwater pool, in 

Intestinal cells well marked. 


y ground, amidst decaying moss and live 


4. M. TUNBEiDGEXsis, n. sp. (Plate IX. figs. 31, 32 

Female, len 




External CM} 



1 '' 


ely tapering at all anteriorly 

pt quite at the 

emity, opposite the pharyngeal cavity, where it becomes suddenly diminished 

posteriorly it narrows rather abruptly behind 
filiform extremity. Head small, rounded ; no papillae 



and then terminates in a curved 
Integument having lonmtudinal 

laryngeal cavity elongated, somewhat narrow^ed in the middle 



pUyns ith of total length, uniform 




Intestinal cells containing yellowish-coloured 

1 -^ 


granides, and having a tessellated arrangement. An 
Vulva slightly posterior to middle of body. 
Hale J not seen. 


; Ilab. In fine sedimentary sand of small pond, Tunbridge Wells 

5. M. CEiSTATUs, n. sp. (Plate IX. figs. 33, U.) 
Female (immature), length J^", breadth 
External Characters 

from posterior extremi 

1 " 




Body tapering very slightly anteriorly, but more consideraUy 
where it gradually narrows to a point, and is 


dorsal siirface with an integumental prolongation or crista, w^hose -reatest breadtli 



Head truncate, provided with 

mental stria) invisible 
Fharynfjeal cavity lar_ 
rd and ^th of total length, unifor 

a minute papilla above and below 




al, with 


hook-like projection. (Esophagus between 

ntestinal cells not distinctly tessellated) 


from posterior extremity. Vulva consider 


containing small pale granules 
ably posterior to the middle of body 

Male, not seen. 

Hah. In moss, Palmouth. 

G. M. rovEAHTJM. 

'Onckolamus forcaru,n, Dujard. Hist. Nat. des Helminthes, p. 2 

tuIcaKw' " '"tt°" '°" ^"^^^ ^°"S que large ; tete un peu angu. 
nie.. a^aut du milieu; ocsophage long de 0«"-37 

tete un peu anguleuse 

# I / 


Femelle longue de 2-5, large de 0—075 
ant uae meme longueur de 0—011 dans si 

queue amincfc, asscz long 




moitid, et terminee par 

1 'TT • 

Nunn^oids that wrcLXyTutmlt^ f.' '^''™''' '^ """^ ''^'"^'^ ' ^"*^ ^' '^ ^^^ tlie first example of one of the free 
''bere it ^as found as a specific appellatil'''"'''''''"'' ^^ ""'' '"'' ^'^ ^^^^' ^ ^^'' '''^''''^ '^' °^"^^ '^ '^' ^ 


















k , 



de ventouse (?) ; anus a 0"*"-18 de rextremit6 ; vulve situde au milieu de la Ion 


cueur ; uterus dirise en deux "branches oppos(5es, contcnant une scule serie d'oeufs. 
" Je I'ai trouTc a Bennes, au mois de Septembrc, dans un fosse rcinj)li par les 
pluviales, et contenant des Branchipiis, divers Entomost races, des hjrdatidcs ct dcs 


7. M. MrscoEUM. 

Oncholaimus muscorum, Dujard, Hist. Nat. des HelmintheS; p. 237. 

"Corps trente-deux fois aussi long que large; tete rendue anguleuse par six ou huit 
pnpillcs oppos6es, large de 0'"'"-046; cavitc buccale ovale, arm^e de trois pieces longi^ 
tiidinales arqu6es, dont une seule porte une forte dent en avant du milieu, tandis que 
les deux autres sont finement denticulees ou en peigne ; oesophage long de O'^'^'SS, large 

dc O'^-O^. 

"Femelle longue de 2"""*56, large de 0'"'"-08; queue amincie, recourbdc cncrocliet; 
anus a 0'"'"-ll de I'extremite; vulve saillante, situee au tiers posterieur de la lorgueur; 
ceufs longs de 0"^™'035. 

" II a ete trouve assez abondamment a Paris par mon ami M. Doyere, en 1839, dans 
les touffcs de mousses {Bryum) des allees du Jardin des Plantes. 

" J'ai depuis lors, en Janvier 1844, trouve a Rcnnes des Oncliolaimcs prcsque scm- 
WaWes dans I'intestin des Gasterosteus Icevis, qui probablement les avaient avales avec 
d'autrcs vers. lis sont longs de l™™-6, large de 0'"'"-09, avec la tete large de O'"'°-046, et 
la cavite buccale egalement longue de 0'°™'046 


8. M. CEAssiTJScrLrs. 


"Corps long de 0™°^-60 a (?), large de 0™'"-026 a(?), Adngt-trois fois seulement aussi 
long que large ; tete large de O-^'^'OIS, lierissee de quelques soies roides ; bouclie montrant 
Tine armure interne ; oesophage musculeux, epais, long de 0"'"^-112, large de 0"^°^-02. 

"Femelle a queue allongee, amincie pen a pen; anus a 0'""^'12 de rextrcmite; vulve 
situee vers le tiers posterieur. 

" J'ai trouve dans I'eau de la Yilaine, h Kennes, cet Hebnintbe, qui pourrait bien ap- 
partenir a un autre genre— a rOncbolaime ou au Sclcrostome, car il parait avoir une 
cavite buccale distincte." 

As it seems very doubtful to wbat genus this species really belongs, I have merely 
acted upon the suggestion of Dujardin, as expressed above, by transferring it to this 
group, in which are included the freshwater representatives of his genus Oncholaimus. 

4. IR0:N^USS Bastian. 

Gen. Chae. Bod^ long and narrow, tapering at extremities. Caudal sucker absent! 

Integument with delicate longitudinal markings ; cephalic setse present. Tharyn- 
geal camty long and narrow, having three small, moveable, rounded projections 

' From etpo,., a dissembler, on account of its habits of straightening itself and remaimns still for a short time, as if 
oead, when touched. ' 



commencement. (EsopJiagiis cylindrical, canal indicated by three brio-lif r 

muscular fibres not distinct. Intestine moderately well cover 1 •; 

Lepatic cells containing light-coloured fat-particles indistinctly aggreo-ated r 
about the middle of the body. Vterus bifid, segments symmetrical. Sp 
Lateral canals ? Movements very sluggish. 

I. IGXAVUS, n. sp. (PL IX. figs. 34 a, 34 h.) 
Female i length -j^", breadth 

1 ** 


External CJi 

Eody long and slender, tapering very gradually at botli extre. 


mities, till, at the posterior, it terminates in a long filiform portion. Head 
rounded, provided with a circle of four very short setse. Integument ha^ 
imperceptible longitudinal striae, about sttJoo" apart. 

Pharyngeal cavity long and narrow, having three small, rounded, valve-like plate 
near commencement. (Esophagus Jth of total length. Intestinal cells containino" li-ht 
coloured, non-tessellated particles. Amis j^^" from posterior extremity. Vidm sliih 
anterior to the middle of body. "" ' 

3I(fle, not 

Hah. Stagnant water of Easthampstead Plain, amongst Diatom 


Alg:c; also about the decaying submerged leaves of a species of Myriophyllum from tie 

lake, Sandhurst 

5. DORYLAIMUS, Dujardin. 


Urolahes, Carter; Anguillula, Grube. 


GEy. Crar. Body sometimes blunt and rounded, sometimes filiform posteriorh 

sucker absent. Integument having longitudinal marldn-s, more or less visible 


w,x*.»^VLXiiCiX IXiclXiYlXi- 


of mmute pores on each side of bodj ; setaj none ; cephalic papilla preseil 
■ Tliunjnx indistinct, but somewhat cup-shaped, having a long, horn; 
and JioUmr exsertile spear projecting into and through it, which is renewed tweor 
oitener dimng the period of growth. (Esophagm having the posterior half, or one 
fi W,' TvT"^. '*'' ' '^'''^ ^^^^'^^^^^ by three bright lines ; transverse muscnto 

,,-,Xr , -^"^'"'"'^ '"•'^^^y ^^'^'l «»^^i-'='l with hepatic cells containing fat- 

par ices having a tessellated arrangement. VMva about the middle of bodv. Vim 

times 77 I ^^■^"^'^t^al. Spiordes solitaiy, glaive-shaped; males having so* 
iho nM- ' ,™ " °^ ^''"''''' '■''"''•='l ^"'^ci's in mid line above anal cleft, anl 
tiuetl^ ceUular ' "^ *' ^"^^S™"^*' ^-^^'^^1 """"'^ well developed and & 

in mud from the hH /^ "'^ '""^ *'''^' ^°™ ^'I"«^i 1 1^^^^'e met with so abundantly 
marine reprosentat.Vp T!,, ^'''^"■'^*'-''' P°«ds. Dujardin also appears to have found a 
enoush. thp f„„,. I f „ , S*^"""'- *°°Sh I have seaj-ched for such in vain. Curiously 

lough, the form which V i Z ° '■ '^^"^''^ searched for such in vain. Uui'iou- 

ndonbtedly a memh^v -.f tr' *'''"''' ^' ^^P^'^^l "^ his provisional genus W-o^ii^ 
uAcr amongst these 7t ,! ,'•?"' ^"''^^"^'^^'^ i and, from the absence of the candal 

o these, Its habits would probably not be of the nature indicated by 















Carter's generic name. Carter is inclined to believe that this Vrolahes palustris may be 
the antecedent condition of the Dracunculus, or Guinea-worm, which is so prevalent as a 
parasite in the island of Bombay. But my investigations have almost convinced me tliat 
this is impossible, and principally for a reason which also occarrcd to Mr. Carter, but of 
the precise importance of which he does not seem to have been a^^ are. Tie knew that 
the integument of the Dracuncuhis presented transverse striai (most easily recognizable 
in the young}, but could not succeed in demonstrating such stri;e in TI. palustris : to 
him its integument appeared plain. 1 have since ascertained that the integument in 
Dori/laimus stagnalis and others of the same genus not only has no transverse striaj, but 
is undoubtedly furnished with longitudinal ones ' ; and all my experience goes to prove 
that the nature of the integumental markings affords a constant character, not only of 
specific, but even of generic importance. Independently of tliis, tliere is the difficulty 
that no horny spear, such as exists in JJ. palustris, can be detected in the DracimculuSf 
and also the fact that nothing answering to the peculiar lateral sacculi discovered 
by myself 2 in the young Guinea-worms can be recognized in this, or has yet been found 
in any other species of Nematode, so far as I am aware, with the exception of Dicclis 
filaria, Dujardin. I may state, however, that from what I have seen of the anatomy of 


the Bracunculus and other members of the Nematoid order, I feel quite disposed to 
believe that its afiinities are with these free Nematodes, and fully expect that one day 
this will be an established fact. I cannot but consider the step w^hich Dr. Cobbold has 
taken in his recent work, of placing the Guinea-worm amongst the GordiidiP, and 
constituting these a mere family of the order Nematoidea, as altogether a retrograde 
movement, and one almost in direct opposition to the existing state of our knowledge 

We are much indebted to Carter for his descriptions of the male and female 
genital organs of U. palustris, as well as for his account of the development of the 
spermatozoa. There appears to be no other representative of this genus Dorylaimiis 
amongst the ten species described by him — five of which were marine, and five from 
fresh water. 

In all the Borylaimi examined, wiiich had not yet attained their full development, I 
observed a second and somewhat larger spear a short distance behind the one in situ, and 
contained within the w^alls of the oesophagus. In due time this moves upwards in some 
obscure way, and finally displaces the other, just as the deciduous is replaced by the 


' It is from my observations on the anatomy of D. stagnalis that I have become perfectly convinced that the integu- 
ment does present longitudinal, but no transverse markinga. In this species I have frequently examined portions of 
integument freed from all other structures. But in the members of some other genera of free Nematolds not pre- 
senting transverse striae, I am in many cases doubtful whether the integument is perfectly plain or has longitudinal 
markings— and this not only on account of the greater difficulty of recognizing such striae, but also from the danger 


of confoundinsr 

this structure. 


* Transactions of the Linnean Society, vol. xxiv. pi. 22. figs. 57-60. 

• Nearly all the anatomical details of Bracunculus, so far as they are known, are in harmony with those of many 
typical Nematoids, whilst they differ considerably from those stated to obtam amongst the Gordiida. And if we 
»nay rely upon existing information, the difference as regards important anatomical characters is infinitely greater 
•>etween these animals and the Nematoids generally than between any two of the families composing this latter order. 





permanent tooth. It is not the whole of the rigid spear, however, that is renewed 
this manner, Lut only what appears to he the anterior half of it. 

1. B. STAGX.VLis, Dujardin. (Plate IX. figs. 35-37.) 

Dujardln, Hist, dcs Ilclminthes, p. 231, pi. Hi. fig. C. 


Female. Lcngtli J", breadth ttt"- 

External Characters. — Eody dark-coloured, tapering gradually anteriorly, but mor 
flh I- up tly posteriorly, where it terminates in a j^ointed filiform extremity. Head truncate 
no pajpilho. Integument thick, with longitudinal markings yo^' apart ; lateral pore 
easily recognizable, and about j^rs"" apart. 


Spear -^" long. Oesophagus Jth of total length, posterior half enlarged. Intestinal 
cells having a tessellated arrangement, and containing dark-olive-coloured fat-particles. 
Posterior portion of intestine for about 3^" narrower, and very scantily covered witli 
cells and granules. Anus -^' from posterior extremity. Vulva slightly anterior to 
middle of body. Ova lying two or three abreast, within uterus. 

2rnle. Lensrth ¥. breadth -r*^". 

t>''" 5 3 "^iV^ClVJ-UiX J2 g 

(Esophaxjtis proportionally longer than in the female. Anus q^" from posterior ex- 
trcmity. Spicules solitary, ^fo" long. Oblique integumental striae well-marked. 

Unh. Mud from freshwater ponds, Ealmouth ; and New Cross, Kent. 

Individuals of this species were found by Dujardin in the stomachs of the Carp 
{Cuprhms carpio) and of Gasterosteus Iwvis; which specimens, he conjectures, had been 
swallowed accidentally by these voracious fish. 

2. D. Caeteei', n. sp. (Plate IX. figs. 38-40.) 
Female. Length ^/, breadth ^". 

External Characters.~]ioi{j tapering towards either extremity, especially posteriorly, 
where it is acuminated. Head truncate ; no papilljB. Integument thick. 

Spear -^^^' long. (Esophagus about ^th of total length. Jlepatic or intestinal cells 
wcU marked. Anus ■^" from posterior extremity. Vulm in the middle of body 
Ova large. 

Male, same size as female. 

(Esophagus longer. Spicules rh" long by j^" broad. Oblique markings of integu- 
mcnt for some distance above spicules ; also 8-11 minute suckers communicating with 
corresponding slanting channels through the integument, about r^" apart, in the mid- 
ventral region. 

Hab. Stagnant water, with decaying liverwort and moss : Talmouth. 

3. D. OBTrsiCAUDATUS, n. sp. (Plate IX. figs. 41, 42.) 
Female. Length i", breadth j^". 

External Characters.-Bodj tapering considerably for some distance from anterior 
extremity, but not at aU posteriorly, where it is blunt and rounded. Head truncate, 





marked off by a constriction from tlie rest of the body. Integument witli longitudinal 

1 " 

stria) Toioo apart. 

Spear -^-5' long. (Esophagus about ith of total length ; anterior half narrow, posterior 
much wider. Intestinal cells not having tessellated arranwment, but well filled with 
rather small fat-particles. Anus ^-^' from posterior extremity. Vulva slightly posterior 
to middle of body. 

IlaJe not seen. 

Eab. Amidst rich mould and decaying leaves, from a damp and shady wood, Pabnouth. 

4. D. TENUICATJDATUS, n. sp. (Plate IX. figs. 43, M.) 

Female. Length Y4-", breadth 3-g-o". 

External Characters, — Body tapering very gradually anteriorly, but rapidly behind anal 
cleft, where it terminates in a long filiform extremity. Head truncate, furnished with 
two small papillae. Integument with longitudinal markings. 

Spear ^q" long. (Esophagus about |th of total length, posterior half enlarged. Intes 
lal cells well marked. Anus yoo" fi'om posterior extremity. Vulva slightly posterio] 
the middle of body. 

Male not seen. 

Hah. Eine sandy mud from pond, Tunbridge Wells. 

5. D. miTici, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 45-47 
Female. Leno'th -A-", breadth 

1 // 


Fxternal Characters. — Body white, tapering very slightly anteriorly, and not at all 
posteriorly, where it is blunt and rounded. Head bluntly rounded, marked off" by a con- 
striction ; no papillae. Intcgumental markings not apparent. 

Spear ■^\^' long. (Esophagus rather less than |rd of total length, posterior half en- 
larged. Intestinal cells having a tessellated arrangement, and containing light-coloured 
fat-particles. Anus -gjg" from posterior extremity. Vulva slightly posterior to middle 
of body ; segments of uterus very short, extending only about jij" on either side of 



1 If 


Male. Length -^", breadth 

(Esophagus much shorter than in female. Anus roW ^^m posterior extremity. 
Spicules ^y long. Suckers 9, mid-ventral, the first being 4J0" above anus, and the 
others being equidistant and -^^" apart. 

Sab. About the roots of wheat growing in a sandy soil, and also between the lower 

sHeaths of its leaves : Broadmoor, Berks. 


6- D. FiLiPOEMis, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 48, 49.) 

Female. Length -^V'^ breadth -^y. 

I^xlernal Characters.—Bodj very long and slender, tapering only slightly anteriorly, 
^nt considerably posteriorly, where it terminates in a fine point. Head truncate ; no 
papiUse. Integumental markings not visible. 

"^^ -Eh" long. (Esophagus ^th of total length, posterior tliird enlarged. Intes- 



tinal cells not distinctly tessellated, and containing light-coloured fat-particles. Anus 
jIj" from posterior extremity. Vnlva in the middle of body. 

Jf'fc not seen. 

Had. ^V'dh Dlatomneefs, on the decaying lower leaves o^ Myriophyllum verticUlatum 

from pond, ling -hot. 

7. D. I'DLYBLASTU-S n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 50, 51.) 

Male. Length ■^", breadth -5^". 

Edlernal Charffclers.—^odij long and thread-like, tapering but very slightly at either 
exlicnilfy. Head roimded; no papilla). 

Sprar j-i!i} 0" long. (Esophagus |th of total length ; posterior half enlarged. Intestimd 
cells inodorately developed, and containing light-coloured fat-particles. Anus yf^" from 
po<;terior extremity. 

Spicules 3 J a" long. SiicJcers 16-20, in mid- ventral region, commencing at jjy" above 
anus, and occiijiying a space of about -gyo". 

Female not seen. 

JT<(1). TTith TyJelenchus Davaineii, from moss coating a large boulder in freshwater 
stream, Palmouth. 

8. 1). PAPiLLATUS, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 52, 53.) 

Female. Leni>'th -tV"j breadth 

1 '' 

J,. .1 10 J "iv^"vxiii 22 2 

External Characters. — Body opaque-white, tapering gradually anteriorly, but not 


posteriorly, wlicre it is blunt and rounded. Head truncate, provided with a coronet of 
six large papilla). Integument with longitudinal striae tchfo" apart. 

Six'c^' Too" long. GEsophagiis \i\i of total length, gradually widening posteriorly. 
FiUcstlnal cells abundant, tessellated, containing light- olive-coloured particles. Anus -^y 
from posterior extremity. Vulva near the commencement of middle third of body. 
Uterus symmetrical. Lateral cell-canals very distinct, owing to their contained granules 
being of a li^ht olive-colom'. 

o "' " "to 

Movements very sluggish. 
Male not seen. 

Ilob. Between the lower sheaths of the leaves of the Giant Fescue {Festuca 

Broadmoor, Berks. 


0. D. TORPiDijs, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 54-56.) 
Female. Length tV", breadth O^". 

Fxtemal Characters.~--Bo^y tapering graduaUy anteriorly, but more suddenly at 
posterior extremity, which is acuminated. Head truncate, provided with four small 
cmcial papiH^. Integumental markings not apparent. 

^^ear ^ J " long. (Esophagus about ^th of total length ; posterior half enlarged. > 

p^T v't 1 ^^'""^ ^ tesseUated arrangement. Anm ^" from posterior extremity. 

Vulva slightly posterior to middle of body 



2Iale. Length -^'^ breadth 5^0". (Esopliagus shorter. A^ius -^" from posterior 
extremltv. Spicules -^'' long. Suckers none. 
Sab. Same as last species. 

10. J). INERS, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 57-59.) 

Female. Length -3^", breadth ^5". 
' External Characters, — Body tapering slightly anteriorly, but suddenly towards pos- 
terior extremity, which is acuminated. Head bluntly rounded. Integumental mark. 
inijs not visible. 

^^car Yh^' long. (Esopliagus Jth of total length, posterior third enlarged. Intestinal 
cells not well marked, and containing light- coloured granules. Anus jj-j" from pos- 
terior extremity. Vulva at middle of body. 

1 " ■i.^^^.ui, 1 " 

Male. Lenarth iV"? breadth 

^\J1X 18 , l,yj.VClU.UiX 5QQ 

(Esopliagus only half as long as that of female. Amis 4^" from posterior extremity. 
Spicules -j^-g" long. Suckers 5, mid-ventral, commencing about -3-g^" above anus ; dis- 
tance between first two i_qqq \ between the others gradually increasing. 

Eah. Same as that of Z>. polyhlastus. 



Urolabes paluslris, Carter, Ann. of Nat. Hist. lS59j 3 ser. vol. iv. p. 33, pi. ii. figs. 7, 9. 

" Female. Length (max.) J", breadth -^W' Linear, cylindrical, smooth, white or 
colourless, unstriated transversely, gradually diminishing towards the head, which is 
obtuse and terminated by a distinct labiate portion, furnished with at least two, if not 
four, indistinct papillae ; diminishing abruptly towards the tail, which is attenuated and 
^vhip-like. Jlouth in the centre of the anterior extremity. Vulva a little in front of the 
middle of the body. Amis at the root of the tail." , . , ^' (Esophagus commencing 
with a cup-like or buccal cavity, into the posterior part of which projects a sharp -pointed, 
horny, narrow tube (fig. 11 d), which is continued backwards in a straight line to the 

intestine, and is exsertile at the oral orifice." 

" Male the same as the female, but smaller, and with the tail truncated almost close 
to the anus," 

" Sab. Presh water, in tanks and dirty drains wherever there is vegetable matter, 
mud, and putrescency, and in the gelatinous algse during the ' rains :' Island of Bombay." 

12. D. LiNEA, Biesing. 


d. Naturg. Zool. i. Abtheil. 192. 

Wiedemann's Arch., 1849, i. 367-368, tab. vii. figs. 15-17 ; Diesing, Syst 


^orylaimus linear Diesing, SItzungsber. der kals. Akad. der Wissen. xlii. Bd. p. 626. 

" Corptts intestino nigro percursum utrin^ue parum attenuatum, antice truncatum, 
margine paulo incrassato. Cauda subulata, fere -fy longitudinis corporis. Apertura 

genitalis feminea subcentralis supera. Longit. fern. 2-8'", crassit. ad 

«crD__ -1 ..... , . . -. -I J 4.,.„^+/, T-?ort 


CEsophagus postice bulbosus, denticulo solummodo retracto 

^ah. In fondo aquarum cum Scenuride varUgata, baud raro Dorpati."— (?rw5e 




13. D. MAiiiNUS, Dujardin. 


Hist. Nat. dcs Helminth, p. 231, pi. iii. fig. D. 

« Corps bhmc, long do 3""", large de 0"'°-125 ; rapport de la longueur a la largeur 21; 
stylet protractile, continue par nn long tube flexible et par le canal triquetre de I'ceso- 

phngr; tegument lissc. 

" Femcllc :iyaut la queue longue, effilee, la vulve au milieu de la longueur, et les ceufs 

oblongs, longs de 0"""-07 ; largcs de 0'"'^-027. 

" Je I'ai irouv6 dans I'eau de mer, parmi les algues, a I'Orieut." 

6. ANGUILLULA, Ehrenberg. 

ludrio, V.ulkr ; AscariSj Goeze; Rhabditis, Jyujardin. 


Gen. CiiAU. 13ody long, narrow, and tapering at extremities. Caudal sucker absent. 

Intc(jumcnt thin, presenting neither transverse nor longitudinal markings ; setae 
none (?) ; papilluj none (?). Pharyngeal camtij very minute. (Esophagus cylindrical, 
with rounded swelling posteriorly containing a simple horny valvular apparatus. 
Intestine sparingly covered with large colourless granules, presenting no appearance 
of tessellation; distinct cells not recognizable. Vulva posterior to the middle of 
body. Uterus unsymmetrical. Oviparous or viviparous. Spicules long, narrow, 
curved. Accessory piece single, posterior, somewhat fan-shaped. Ventral gland 
wanting. Floating gland-cells abundant. Lateral canals not recognizable. 

[Movements active. 

Under the old imperfectly defined genus Anguillula have been ranged, from time to 
time by various observers, the most heterogeneous types ; but the name has become so 
familiar, and to some extent distinctive of these free Nematoids, that I have thought it 
better to retain it with a limited signification, than to cast it aside altogether. This 

I have accordingly done, taking as a type A 

this appears to 

been so regarded by Ehrenberg, and modifying the general terms in which he formerly 
described the genus by the substitution of more exact statements, founded on the ana- 


tomical characters of that species \ This will undoubtedly exclude many of the other 
forms hitherto located in this genus, and amongst them the so-called Anguillula tritici, 
wliich I have now placed, with other allied species, in the new genus Tylelenchis. 
Several of the species also that I have (from ignorance of their real characters) still 
retained under this generic name will, I have little doubt, have to be weeded out by 
subsequent observers, and transferred to other genera as more precise information is 
obtained concerning their anatomy. 

I have already expressed my reluctance to assent to Diesing*s arrangement when he 
places in this genus many parasitic forms found in beetles, myriapods, and other animals. 
Some of these species, which, in his ' Systema Helminthum,' Diesing had included in the 


> I am iuJebted to the kindness of Dr. Davaine for the opportunity I have had of examining these animals myself. 
Before ohtaining a supply from him, I had in vain endeavoured to procure them. They are much less frequent thatt 
is generally imagined, at all events in England ; and this may he due in great measure to the adulteration of our 
Vinegar with sulphuric acid. 



genus Anguilhda, he has now, in his more recent ' Revision dcr Xematoden/ transferred 


Isacis of Lesp6s ; whilst he includes, as suhscctions of the former 

certain other of these parasitic forms, mostly discovered by Dr. Leidy, of Philadelphia, 
and placed hy him, rightly enough, in distinct ^Qn^v^Streptostoma, Thclasloma, and 

For Biany of the descriptions and references concerning old species placed in this and 
other genera I have freely availed myself of Diesing's admirable work. 

1. A. ACETi, Ehrenberg. (PL X. figs. 59^59<^.) 

Borellus,' Obs. Microscop. Centur. 7» 1656. 

Power, Microsc. Obs. 38. 

Hook, Microsc. i. 2, tab. i. 

Joblot, Obs. Micr. i. 2, tab. i. 

Leeuwenhoek, Phil. Trans. 1676, p. 65G. 

Cellius, apud Bakerum, ii. 250 (vivipara). 

Backer, Micr. tab. x. 8, 9 j Micr. Expl. 81, tab. v. 10. 

Frankische Samml. iv. 277? figs. g-o. 

Goeze, Naturf. i. St. 1-53, et xviii. St. 38, tab. iii. 12-19.— Idem in Bonnet's Organis. Korp. 59. 
Spallanzani, Opus. Phys. i. 83. 

75, Mar^, tab. i. fiff. 5 : 1776, Janv., 51, et Mars 


Chaos redlvivmiy Linne, Syst. Nat. 1326 (aceti). 
Vibrio angmUula, a. Angmllula aceti, Miiller, An 
VWrio aceti, Bory, in Enc^xl. Meth. 1824, p. 788, 


Infus. 63, tab. ix. 1-11. — Idem, in Naturf. xix. St, 162. 
. iv. 16. — Duges, in Ann. des Sc. Nat.ix. 225, tab. xlvii. 
De Blainville, in Diet, des Sc. Nat. hdi. 573 et Iviii. 70. 



1849. — Idem, Bullet, de Moscou 



232-256, tab. vi. (cura anatom. et de evolut.). 
Angmllula aceti, Ehrenberg, Infusionsth. 82. 
Leidj, in Proc. Acad. Philad. viii. (1856) 48. 
Hogg, Pop. Sc. Review, Jan. 1863, p. 216, pi. x. 
Diesing, Sjst. Helminth, ii. p. 128 ; et Sitzungsb. ais. Akad., Bd. xlii., No. 28, p. 627 

Temale (size very variable). Length -^\ breadth 5^ 

'External Characters. — Body white, much obscured by colourless granules within 
integument ; long and narrow, tapering very much posteriorly, and terminating in a Ion 
pointed extremity. Head rounded, unarmed. Integument thin, showing no striae. 

Pharyngeal camtij very minute, cup-shaped. (Esophagus ^th of total length, having a 
rounded swelling at termination, containing valvular apparatus. Intestine covered with 
coarse colourless granules ; no sort of tessellation. Anus io" fi'^m posterior extremity. 
Eulm somewhat posterior to middle of body. Jlterus unsymmetrical. Small floating 
ghnd-cells numerous in cavity of body. 

Male. Length ^", breadth ^'\ 

Esophagus ith of total length. Anus -j^" from posterior extremity. Spicules narrow, 
^jmg a double curve, y^^-" long. Accessory piece about Jrd as long as spicules, rather 
^ick externally, but expanding inwards into a thinner fan-shaped portion. 


" HaL. In f8ecn)us iiceti {Borellus, JfiiUer, &c.) ; in aceto commnui cerevisiae et ymi, 
m aqua cum farina, in aqna cocta, et in fecibns cerevisiae, Moscovise {Czernai/) ; in aceto 
e pomis parato, frequenter Philadelpliise {Lekly)'^ 


" Xota 1. Larvas muscaj cujusdam (Mosilli cellarii ?) in aceto oLvias cum Iiac specie 
confundit Spallanzani (Microsc. Eeobacht. 176). 
" Nota 2. PruLabiliter e Mosilli cellarii intestinis in acetum translata."— Diesin^. 

If the drawings are accurate (Pop. Sc. Eev. Jan. 1863) of the animal discovered^ by 
Mr. Jahcz ICogg, about portions of the common truffle left for some days moistened with 
vinegar, I am rather inclined to believe that this will prove to be a distinct species, and 
not the real A. accti, since it differs in several respects, more especially as regards 
the male spicules, from the animals examined by myself, concerning which there can be 
little doubt, seeing that they swarm in a specimen of pure vinegar, kindly sent to me by 
M. Davaine. 

2. A. GLUTixis, Ehrenberg. 

Aale im Kleisfer, LccJermuller, Microsc. 33, tab. xvii. 1. — Buffon, Allgem. Hist. d. Natur, i. 2. ISi. 
Martini, Allgem. Gcsch. d. Natur, i. 412.— Backer, Microsc. Expl. 82.— Schrank, Beitr. WJ. 
Lcske, Naturg. i. 559. — Goeze, in Naturf. ix. St. ; 

— Goeze, in Naturf. ix. St. I77j ^ab. iv. 17-19. 
Chaos redivivum, Linn^, Syst. Nat. 1326 (in glutine bibliopegorum). 
Anguille de la Colle, Rozier, Obs. 1775, Mars, tab. i. 4, et 1776, Mars, 383. 
Vibrio anyulllula, /3. Anyidllula glutinis, Miiller, Anim. Infus. 64, tab. ix. 1^4. 
Vibrio jlutinis, Bory, in Encycl. Meth. 1824, p. 780.— Duges, in Annal. des Sc. Nat. ix. 225, tab. xlvii. 4, 10, 

11, 20, 21 $ , tab. xlvii. 22-25 bis, 26, 27, 30, 31, 33, 37, 38, 40, 41 $ , 42, 43 <S .— Blainville,; in Diet. 

des Sc. Nat. xh'ii. 53, et xlviii. 71- 
Angnilhda glutinis, Ehrenberg, Infusionsth. 82. 

Mabditis ghitinis, Dujardin, Hist. Nat. des Helmlntbes, 243.— Leidy, in Proceed. Acad. Philad'. viii, 
(1856) 49. 

" Corps filiforme, assez epais, long de I'^^-GS ; vingt fois environ aussi long que large, 
amincie en arrifere et termine par une pointe fine allongee ; vulve situee au tiers poste- 
rieur; coufs grands (dc 0'"'"-09) a coque membraneuse et contenant un embryon replie." 


" Hah. In glutine farinse {Baker, Miiller, &c.) ; in glutine tritici, secalis, tragacantlii, 
etc., frequenter Philadelphite [Leidy):'— Diesing. 

In the paper before alluded to, Mr. Hogg seems to doubt the fact of any specific differ- 
ence) existing between this form and Anguillula aceti ; but, from the descriptions of 
Dujardin, there appears to be a great discrepancy in the comparative dimensions of tlie 

Tlius, speaking of AngiiiUula accti, he reports it as, " trcnte a quarante-cinq fois 
aussi long que large," and so making the body much narrower than in A. glutinis. M. Pa- 
vame believes them to be distinct species, and says, in a letter lately received, " P'api'es 
quclques recherches que j'ai faites, il y a quelques ann^es, je pense que les vers de la 
coUe de p^te viennent de la terre, ou elles vivent normalement dans les grains ou dans 
les racmes qui contiennent de la fecule." 

All my attempts to procure these animals in ordinary wheaten paste have been unsuc- 
cessful, though I have taken every precaution to ensui^e the purity of the flour. 




3. A. FLUViATiLis, Hemprich & Elirenberg. 

ferskoands Aal, Strackker, In Nye Samml. of Dansk. ViJ. Selsk. S 

? Corculum vermicido simile, Linne, Amoen. Acad, (mundus invis.). 

Y'dji-io anf/uillula^y. AnguUMa fluviatiUs, Miiller, Anim. Infusor. 65 

vel incertaj vel ad Anguillulam tritici aut Lumbrici pertinent.) 


fluviatilis ,V>OYy , in Encycl. Meth. 1824, p. 7/7, tab. iv. 20^23.— Idem in Diet. Class, delist. Nat. 

xvi. 5S6 (les Oxyurldes), tab. v. A, 39. 
lillula fluviatilis, Ilempricli et Ehrenbe: 


3Iuin villa in Diet, des Sc. Nat. Ivii. .537, et Iviii. 71. 
Symb. Phys. Pliytoz. Entoz. tab. ii. 8 et 13 {libyca). — Eh- 

renberg, Organ. Syst. u. geogr. Verb. d. Infusionstli. 1830, pp. 10, 15, G8, 105, tab. vii. 5 ; ejus In- 
fusionsth. 82. — Dujardin, Hist. Nat. des Helminthes, 244.— Dicsing, Syst. Helminth, ii. 130. 

" Cauda recta brevi conica, subulata, baseos crassitie triplo quadruplove longior. 
Longit. i-J'"." — Diesing. 

" Corpus subtilissime transverse striolatum, siibanuulatiim. Tubus cibarius bine ore 
illinc auo terminatus, simplex, cum strictura cardiaca. Os tcrminalc, anus ad cauda) 
basim lateralis. Peminarum apertura genitalis in medio corpore. Uterus bicornis. 
Ova ovata. Eoetus maturus bis complicatus. [Feminse maribus majores. Maris penis sim- 
plex nee vaginatus. Ita in speciminibus Berolinensibus." — Ehrenhcrg, Symb. Phys. I. c. 

" Ilab. In aqua dulci in Dania (0. F. MilUer). — Inter Confervas, in aqua Oascos Jovis 
Hammonis Siwse, noc non pagi Tor in Arabia. — In Sibiria prope Tobolsk, in montibus 


altaicis prope Semimogorsk et propo Borolinum (JShreiiherg).^^ — Dicsing. 

The few definite characters given above, such as '^corpus subtilissime transverse strio- 
latum" and "uterus bicornis," seem pretty positively to indicate that this species does 
not in reality belong to the genus Anguillula. Any free Nematodes other than the 
"paste-" or "vinegar-eels," or the TyleJenchiis fnticl, which have been accidentally met 
vith or referred to by most English writers hitherto, have been provided with the con- 
venient name of. Anguillula fluviatiUs \ so that the altogether doubtful animal to which 
this cognomen rightly belongs has been invested with a pseudo-popularity for which, in 
all probability, it could make but little valid claim. It may perhaps belong to the genus 
J^lediis, judging from the characters above mentioned, as well as the abundance and 
wide distribution of the animals of this type. 

4. A. INFLESA, Hemprich & Ehrenberg. 

Anguillula inflexa, Hemprich et Ehrenberg, Symb. Phys. Phytoz. Entoz. tab. i. 12 {Vibrio fiuviatiUs 
mVoficw*) .—Dujardin, Hist. Nat. des Helminthes, 244.— Diesing, Syst. Helminth, ii. 131. 

" Cauda longiore subulata, maris inflexa, baseos crassitie plus decuplo longiore, cor- 
poris fere octavam partem ^quante. Longit. mar. \-^"y crassit. ^"; fem. \-M\ 

crassit. •^". 

" Hah. Inter Confervas aqua? Nili in provincia Dongola Nubia? eandcm formam cepissc 
iiionet eel. Ehrenberg, quam serius in aqua salsa prope Petropawlofsk in Sibiria et 

prope Berolinum reperiit." 

o- A. COLUBEE, Hemprich & Ehrenberg. 

Vibrio coluber, Miiller, Anim. Infus. 62, tab. vlii. 16-18 

Anguillula coluber, Hem 

Helm. 244.^Die3ing, Syst. Helminth, ii. 131. 

Symb. Phys. Phytoz. Entoz.— Dujardin, Hist. Nat. des 




» Cauda inflexa, longissima, corporis quarta parte longiore. Longit 

" JIab. In aqua fluviatili in Dania, rarissime (0. F. Milller) ; prope Berolinum {Eliren- 



C. A. RECTICAIJDA, Ilcmpricli & Ehrenberg. 

AnguUliila rccticunda, Ilcmprich & Ehrenberg, Symb. Phys. Phytoz. Entoz.— Dujardin, Hist. Nat. des 

Helm. 1M. — Dicsing, Syst. Helminth, ii. 131. 

" Cauda recta, longissiina, corporis quintain sextamve partem sequans. Longit " 

" Hah. In aqua prope Bcrolinum [Mrenberg)" 

*' Cclcb. Ehrenberg individua cutem exuere vidit, quod in Vihrione anguillula pariter 
obsei-va\ Issc Mailer et Roffredi asserunt," 

' 7. A. DOXGOLANA, Ilcmprich & Ehrenberg. 

An//uillula dongolana, Hemprich & Ehrenberg, Symb. Phys. Phytoz. Entoz. tab. i. 13 {Vibrio dongo- 

lajius). — Dujardin, Hist. Nat. des Helminthes, 244. — Diesing, Syst. Helminth, ii. 131. 

" Corpus recurvatum. Cauda brevissima, obtusissima, rotundata, parum longior 

quam crassa, fere nulla. Longit. 

4 • 


JIcJj. Inter Confervas in aqua Mli Dongolse (Kemp, et Uhren.)." 

8. A. BRASSICJE, Griibe. 

■367, tab. vii. 18-20.— Diesinf;, 

1 /// 

2 5 

Syst. Helminth, ii. 557. 

" Extremltate corporis antica vix attenuata obtusa rotundata, baud crenata, postica 
sensim su])tiliter acuminata, cauda foeminae fere J, maris \ corporis oequante pauloqne 
incurva, CESopliago postice baud incrassato, vulva pgene in medio corpore sita. Longit. 

(?), crassit. yL-." 

Hah. In brassica depravata, Novembri ad Martium usque, Berolini {Milnter et 


*' AnguUluIm inJlex(E et A, recticaiidce, no. 4. et 6. affinis." 


9. A. MixisTERiALiSj Diesmg. 

Tibrio glatinisy Humboldt, Ueber die gereizte Musk. u. Nervenf. i. 179. 
Vibrio mhnsterialis, Boiy, in Encycl. Meth. 1824. p, 778 




Corpus pellucidum. Os dHatatum, subhians ; cauda acutissima. Longit. ad f '." 
Hab. In fungis deliquescentibus [Smnboldt et BoryV' 

10. A. F^cuLomrM, Diesing. 

MabdUis feculorum, Guerin-Mcnevme, in Acad, des Sc. Nat. Paris, 1 

Wiener Zeitung, 1845, 7 Nov. 2362.— Idem in Comptes Rendus, 
Notiz. xxxvi. 186.— Diesing, Syst. Helminth, ii. 136 et 556. 

Uab. In Solani tuberibus depravatis {Guerin-Menemlle) 





11. A. POssiLARis, Leidy. 

Proc. of Acad, of Philad. V. 226. 


" $ Body cylindrical, anteriorly narrowed, truncated. Mouth round, sujrounded by a 




prominent circular lip ; buccal apparatus none ; pharynx short ; ccsopliagus long, clavato 


fusiform, slightly tortuous ; intestine cylindrical, bro-\^Ti in colour ; rectum distinct, 
crlindrical, colourless. Tail acute. Ovary double. Generative aperture anterior to the 

"Len^^th 2 to 2^ lines, breadth -^Wi ^^il To" long from anus. Oesophagus -5^" long; 

-I—" broad at commencement, 4^" at termination. Intestine 47V0" broad. Rectum 

l 3 o *J 

««H«5. Stagnant ponds and ram-puddles in the suburbs of Philadelphia." 

12. A. ECAiiDis, Ehrenberg. 

Monatsber. d. Berlin. Akad. 1853 (solum noraen), et ibid, 1855, p. 226. — Diesing, Sitzungsb. dcr Kais. 
Akad. Bd. xlii. (1861) 629. 


"Hab. In terra muscorum Montis Eosse {Schlagintweit et Ehrenherg)" 


13. A. LONGiCArDA, Ehrenberg. 


Monatsber. d. Berlin. Akad. 1853 (solum nomen), et ibid. 1855, p. 226 j ejus Mikrogeologie, 1854, tab. 
XXXV. B. A. iii. F. (sine descrlpt.). — Diesing, Sitzungsb. der Kais. Akad, Bd. xlii. (1861) 629, 

" Eab. In terra muscorum, Weissthorpass ad montem Ilosse, in altitudine 11,138' 
{ScJiIaginhcelt et JEhrenberff).'* 


li. A. Ran^ temporarije, Perty. 

Kleinste Lebensformen^ 156. 

''Eab. Hana temporaria^ivi tractu intestinali cum Opalinis, Bernee {Terty)'' 
" Sine dubio Anguillulse cum aqua liaustse vel cum cibo in intestinum translatae. 


7. TRIPYLA 1, Bastian. 

Gen. Chah. Body tapering at extremities. Caudal sucker large, well developed. Inte- 
gument thick, having well-marked transverse striae, with lateral and ventral pores ; 
setae none (?) ; cephalic papillae present or absent. Fhanjngeal cavity none. (Eso- 
pJiagus cylindrical, distinctly muscular ; posterior part separated by a constriction, 
but not containing any valvular apparatus. Intestine rather sparsely covered with 
coarse granules, their arrangement in cells not being visible. Vulca at about the 

middle of body. Uterus bifid, segments symmetrical. Spictiles of an elongated 
cuneiform shape. Accessory piece posterior, very small. Lateral canals indistinct, 
having a faintly granular appearance. No regular ventral duct, but three large 
integumental canals in same region, close to anterior extremity. 
Movements active, often forming into a coil when touched. 

!• T. GLOMERANS, n. sp. (PI. IX. figs. 16, 17.) 

^ole, length -^'^ breadth -^". 

External Characters.—'^o^j white, cylindrical, tapering slightly forward, but more 
backwards, where it gradually narrows to the well-developed sucker. Head bluntly 




rounded ; no papillae. Integument tliick ; transverse stri^ very distinct, y^^" apart, 
Ihi^an"- lateral pores and three larger equidistant channels opening through anterior part 

of ventral 

(Esophofjus ahout ith of total length; constricted portion xAs" long. Intestm 
);irsely covered with light-coloured fat-particles. Anus ^" from posterior extremity, 
Spicules cuneiform, slightly curved, 3^3" long. Accessory piece small and indistinct, 
somcnvliat trianirular. 

Female, not 

JIah. Mud from freshwater ponds, Palmouth; and Easthampstead, Berl 

% T. SALSA, n. sp. (Plate IX. figs. 18, 19.) 

Female, length \", hreadth 

Mrtenial Characters.— Body cylindrical, tapering much the same as last. Head more 
rounded, provided with two papilla?, lateral (?). Integument thinner; transverse dm 

not so well marked. 

CEsophagus Jth of total length; constricted portion large, s\^" long. Intestine 
covered with rather large, light-coloured fat-particles. Anus -if from posterior ex- 
tremity. Vulva posterior to the middle of hody. Titer us bifid. Lateral canals in- 

distinct, yoq^" hroad. 
3fale, not seen. 
Hah. About the roots of Uilppia maritima, brackish water, Swanpool, Palmouth. 

8. DIPLOGASTER, Max Schultze. 

Gex. Chae. — Focli/ tapering at extremities, especially at posterior. Caudal sucJcer very 

small, scarcely recognizable. Integument having longitudinal and also delicate 
transverse markings ; setae none (?) ; papilla? none (?) ; small lateral cervical mark- 
ings. Fliarynx cup-shaped, having two horny valvular plates at the bottom. ^^0- 
pliagus having a well-marked muscular swelling about its middle ; canal of anterior 
half indicated by three bright lines ; not so, however, posterior to muscular swelling. 
Intestine moderately covered with fat-particleSj having a more or less tessellated ap- 
pearance. Vulca about the middle of body. Uterus bifid, segments symmetrical. 
Spicules two, curved, barbed. Accessory piece single, posterior, easily recognizable. 
Ventral excretory gland wanting. Lateral canals ... 
Movements very active. 

1. B. FiCTOE, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 71-73.) 

Female, lenirth A", breadth 

1 -" 

O"" la 3 "xv>«,u.i/jj. 5Qy 

Lxternal Characters.— Bodj white, slender, tapering very slightly anteriorly, but con- 
siderably posteriorly, where it gradually tapers to a fine point ; sucker not recognizable 
Head truncate, unarmed. Integument with longitudinal striee tttJoo" ap^rt. and almosl 
imperceptible transverse stride ^0^" apart. 

Fharyngeal cavity 3^3^" deep. (Esophagus i-jth of total length, swelling in 
middle, 5^:^" long. Intestinal cells containing a moderate number of light-coloured par 







1 " 

from posterior extremity 

Vulva slightly antcr 




b 833 



clcs, tessellated 
iddle of hody. 

Male rather shorter, more slender, and transparent breadth hem 
om posterior extremity. Spicules curyed, txtt" long. Accessory portion well marked 



leaves of Ilyriophjllum verticil 

JIal}' With Diatomacese from the decaying lower 

latum, pond, Bagshot. 
Has a habit, when touched, of straightening itself, and remaining perfectly still for 

few seconds . 

(Plate X. figs. 74, 75.) 

2. D. ALBTJS, n. sp. 

Female, length ^/', breadth 


Kxtcrnal Characters 

Body white, rather stout, tapering very slightly forwards, but 

onsiderably backwards, where it terminates in a short filiform extremity 

Head bluntly 


Inteo-ament having longitudinal and transverse striae 

laryngeal cavity large, cup-shaped, with valvular plates at bottom. (Esophagus Jth 
of total length, havim? the usual median swelling t^o" long. Intestine shghtly covered 



from posterior extremity 

^vith Mght-coloured fat-particles. Anns 

middle of bodv. 

Male, not seen. 

Eab. About rootlets of wheat from sandy soil, Broadmoor, Berks 

3. B. FiLironMis, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 76-78.) 
Female, length -A-", breadth 





Body white and very slender, tapering very slightly anteriorly 

but very considerably behind, where it terminates in a long filiform extremity 



ment with longitudinal striae TTrnrm") and tr 


maryngea{cavity cup-shaped, with horny plates at bottom. (Esophagus about ^th 

of total lemrth, with usual swcliino' of mid por 

hit est m 

Hght-coloured granules. A 

Male, leno'th A", breadth 



22 2 

from posterior extremity 

rered sparingly with 
Vulva at middle of 


from posterior extremity, which is longer than in female 

Spicules could 

not he detected, though the genital tuhe could be readily seen in front of the 

Sab. Same as last 
I could detect 

no suclcer with the microscope, though I feel confident that .uch a 

tail onl\ 

structure, however minute, must exist, since I have seen the male of this species^sway 

violently about in all direction s, the extremely fine extremity of thread-like 

remaining in a fixed position. 
4. 3). MicAKs, Max Schultze. 

». Carus's Icones Zootoinicje, tab. vili. 1. 

No description or reference. 
-&«6. Unknown. 


9. PLECTUS \ Bastian. 

Enoj)his}f'Dujard\n. . 


Gen. ChaPw J^orhj tapering at either extremity. Caudal sucker pointed. Integiinmt 

having transverse stria? ; setae or papillae around head occasionally present. P/j^, 

ryngeal cavity slightly dilated at first, then narrow and elongated; commencement 
of oesophagus marked hj 4-G hriglit slightly curved lines. (Esophagus cylindrical 
hut having an oval swelling posteriorly, in which is contained a horny valvular 


apparatus of the same shape. Intestinal cells mostly containing rather few pale- 
coloured fat -particles. Vulva ahout middle of hody. Uterus bifid ; segments short, 

symmetrical. Ovarian tubes short, hroad, reflexed. Spicules ' . . 

Excretory gland having linear duct twisted round oesophagus, and opening nearly 
0])positc its middle in length. Lateral vessels with distinct double outhne, com- 
mencing at lateral circular markings of integument, opposite pharyngeal region of 
body, and terminating posteriorly. 

Movements active. 

I have little doubt that the Nematoids found by Spallanzani in tufts of moss, and 
ascertained by him to possess the remarkable power of resuming all the functions of life 
after prolonged periods of torpidity and more or less complete desiccation, belonged to 
this genus ; and it seems probable also that Dujardin, in his observations, has con- 
founded together such forms as the members of this, and those corresponding to the 
type of his genus Mhabditts. I have found individuals of this genus in specmiens of 
liclicn brought by my friend Howard Fox, Esq., from Norway, and which had been 
lying in his cabinet for four years; none of the animals, however, exhibited signs of life 
after prolonged immersion in water. In these specimens of lichen, as well as in tlie 
fresh patches of Farmelia parietina which I have examined in this country, I have found 
the Nematoids associated with two or three species of Eotifera, as well as the peculiarly 
slow-moving little animals designated "Sloths" by the Abbe SpaUanzani^ and belong- 
ing, I beheve, to the genera Emydium and Macrobiotus—sll possessing about the same 
tenacity of life. 

1. P. PARiETixrs, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 79, 80.) 
Female, length -^3", breadth ^". 

' External Char act ers.~-Bo^j white, tapering at either extremity, more especially pos 
teriorly. Head truncate, provided with a circle of four large rounded papilla}. Integu 

mental striae transverse, t^^" apart 

. fJ'y^Oe^^^ cavity ^" long. (Esophagus about ^th of total length. Eitestlnal cells 
mdistmctly tessellated, containing rather few light-coloured fat-particles. Anus ^" 
tK)m posterior extremity. Vulva at middle of body. Excretory ventral gland having 
toasted duct opening at ^i/ from anterior extremity. Lateral vessels commencing at 

^ m...a., t^te^ 5 Husion to the particular character of the duct of its ventral gland. 
Iracts on the Nat. H.t. of Anin,. and Veget., translated by Graham Dalyell, ed! 2, vol. ii. pp. 129-lCG. 



circular markings of integument ttso" ^-'om anterior extremity, by narrowed portions 
-J^' in length, with delicate vessels from xow" *« yooo" broad. 

]J.ale, not seen. 

Uoh. Hemispherical tufts of moss {Tortidd) on the roofs of old houses or walls, and 
also from the yellow lichen {J^armelia parl^tind)^ Broadmoor, Berks. 

S. P. ciiiRATFS, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 81, 82.) 

Temale, length -^\ breadth -^J/. 

External Characters. — Body slender, tapering at both extremities, especially pos- 
teriorly. Head rounded, provided with a circle of four very short cirri, about xTuuo" 
lou"-. Integumental striae 2o\qq' apart, transverse. 


Tharyngeal cavity slightly dilated at first, then long and narrow, leiigth being about 

(Esopliagus less than ^th of total length. Intestinal cells not well marked, and 

1 " 

containing but few fat-particles. Anus yst" from posterior extremity. Vulva slightly 
posterior to the middle of body. Duct of excretory gland opening opposite middle of 

oesophagus. Lateral vessels commencing at t^5-o ' from anterior extremity. 
Male, not seen. 
Eah. About lower decaying leaves of My riophjllum verticillatum, pond, Bagshot. 

3. P. TENUIS, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 83, 81.) 

Female, length gV^ breadth yooo''' 

External Characters. — Body white, slender, tapering very slightly anteriorly and pos- 
teriorly. Head rounded, naked. Integumental striae transverse, almost imperceptible. 

1 " 



laryngeal cavity y^" long. (Esoj)hagus more than Jth of total length. Intestinal 
cells containing but few light -coloured fat-particles. Anus -^W' ^o^ posterior extre- 

mity. Vtilva at the middle of body. Excretory duct opening at xir" ^i^oi^ anterior 
extremity. Lateral vessels commencing at circular markings 2^ o" ^^^^ anterior ex- 

Male, not seen. 

Sab. In transparent gelatinous matter, with Vorticella chlorostigma, from the shady 
margm of a lake, Sandhurst. 

4. P 

sp. (Plate X. figs. 85, 86.) 

1 '' 


Female, length -^Z', breadth 
External Characters .—^oHj white, tapering anteriorly and posteriorly, especiaUy in 
tlie latter direction. Head rounded, unarmed. Integumental stride transverse, 20 W 


I'haryngeal cavity yJL_- lo^g. (Esofiagus Jth of total length. Intestvnal cells in- 
^stmctly marked, containing very few light-coloured particles. Anus ^to" fi'^m pos- 
terior extremity. Vulva slightly posterior to the middle of body. Lxcretory duct 
opening at xJ^" from anterior extremity. Lateral vessels commencing at xeW" ^om 
anterior extremity. 

^«i(?, not seen. " 

Sah. Prom moss with T. Lamineii. Palmouth. 


6. r. ACTiriXATT's, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 87, 88.) 
Female. Icn^rtli .V, brendth ^'\ 

Kcternnl Characters.— 1^Q^^ white, tapering at both extremities, especially at posterior, 
which is narrow and acuminated. Head rounded, unarmed. Integumental stria) trans- 
verse, TryJ, „ ,y" apart. 

TJuirjugeul cavity narrow, elongated, -rhi' loiig- CEsopliagiis about Jth of total 
length. Intestinal cells very indistinct, from their containing very few light-coloured 

^7 » 

fat-particles. ^4;?/?.? afc" ^^o'^ posterior extremity. Fw/i^f« in middle of body. Bxcre' 

torj (h'ct opening opposite the middle portion of oesophagus. Lateral vessels com- 
mon cing in the usual way, at yqoo" from anterior extremity. 

MalCy not seen. 

ILch. In moss. 

6. P. PARTUS, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 89, 90.) 

Female, length -^'\ breadth rcfoV- 

Fvtcrnal Characters. — Body white, tapering anteriorly and posteriorly, especially in 
the latter direction. Head rounded, unarmed. Striae transverse, 300 W apart. 

Pharyngeal cavity y^we' long. Oesophagus about -Jth of total length. Intestinal 
cells v(n-y indistinct. Anus yj^" from posterior extremity. Vulva at middle of loclj-. 
Kvcrctory duct opening opposite middle of oesophagus. Lateral vessels commencing at 
integumental circles iifo-o" from anterior extremity. 

JiliilCy not seen. 

II<ih. "With P. velox, from moss covering stone lying in a freshw^ater stream, Fal- 

P. TRiTici, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 91, 92.) 

Female, lenirth -Ar", breadth 

1 '' 

O"" 10 3 WiVLlVALAi 45 . 


Lxternal Characters.— Jiodj white, tapering slightly anteriorly, but more posteriorly. 
Head rounded, unarmed. Transverse striae readily seen, yyooir'' apart. 

Fharfjngcal cavity q^" long. (Esophagus only -|th of total length. Intestinal cells 
containmg few light-coloured fat-particles. Amis 3^" from posterior extremity. Tw^^^ 
about the centre of body. Excretory duct opening at yjg" from anterior extremity. 
Lateral vessels commencing in usual way, at ^m" fr'om head. 

Male, not seen. 

Hab. Between the lower part of the sheaths of leaves of wheat-stalks taken from a 
stubble-field with sandy soil, Broadmoor, Berks. 

8. P. GRANULOSUS, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 93, 94.) 

Female, length J^", breadth ^". 

Fxtemal Characters,— 'Eo^j opaque-white, narrow at anterior extremity, but not 
tapering in either direction so much as usual. Head rather truncate, unarmed. Stride 
transverse. Whole body much obscured by a number of rather large colourless 




J^haryugcal ca-city xAs"" long. (Esophagus |tli of total length. Intestinal cells 
distinct. Anus ■^^" from posterior extremity. Vulva about middle of body. Ex 

torn duct opening near middle of oesophagus. Lateral vessels commencing at r^Vo' fi'om 
anterior extremity. 

. Jfalc, not seen. 
Ilab. About the rootlets of oats from sandy soil, Broadmoor, Berks. 

9. P. rusiroRMis, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 95, 96.) 
Female, length ^", breadth ^'\ 

External Characters. — Body tapering considerably, both anteriorly and posteriorly. 
Head truncate, leaving no papillae, but provided with four small setie. Integument 

with transverse striae, ^oio o" apart. 

pharyngeal cavity long and narrow. (Esophagus Jth of total length. Intestinal cells 
containing few light-coloured granules. Anus ^" from posterior extremity. Vulva 
sh^htly posterior to the middle of body. Excretory duct opening opposite commence- 
ment of posterior Jrd of oesophagus. Lateral vessels commencing at T2W ^oi^ anterior 


Male, not seen. 

Eah. Tuft of bright-green moss from thatched roof, Sandhurst. 

10. p. RiVALis, Dujardin. 

Enoplus rivalis, Dujardin, Hist. Nat. des Helminthes, p. 235. 

" Corps blanc, filiforme, aminci en arriere, long de 2"--23, large de 0™™, quarante 
fois aussi long que large; tete large de 0--28, tronquee en avant et herisscc do 
qiielques soies roides ; bouche armce interieurcment de trois pieces etroites, arquecs, 
qui se reunissent a I'entree de I'oesophage; oesophage musculeux, cylindrique, long de 
0^^-U, terminc par mi petit ventricule, que precede un leger ctranglcment. 

Femelle lon-ue de 2-"-23 a 3-", large de 0--055 a 0--08, h queue insensible 

I ^^,..^.v^ — -^ 

ment amincie, et terminee par un petit renflement d'ou part une soie courte ; vulve 
situee un pen en avant du milieu ; uterus divis6 en deux branches opposees, qui, ar- 
riyees k 0--30 ou 0™-45 en avant et en arriere do la vulve, se recourbent pour se con- 
tinuer avec les ovaires correspondants qui reviennent de part et d'autre jusqu'au-dessus 
de la vulve commes deux larges tubes eontenant ime pile d'oeufs comprimcs ; ccufs 

eUiptiques, longs de 0"^'06." . 

" Je I'ai trouve dans I'eau de la Seine, a Paris, et dans I'eau courante d'une fontame 

^ Blagnac, pres de Toulouse, ainsi que dans la Vilaine, a Uennes." 

I cannot feel certain about the genus to which this animal belongs, but have placed 
it in that to which the nature of its oesophagus aUies it most : it is evidently not an 

10. APHELENCHUS \ Bastian 

Gbs. Chae. Bod;, tapering more or less at extremities ; posterior pointed, or blunt and 

rounded. Caudal sucker, if present, very small. Integument havmg transyerso 

i^eX»)s, simple, and lyxos. a spear 





strife ; sctfe none ; papilla) none (?). pharyngeal camty modified into a sin 
hollow exscrtilc (?) 5/5^«r. (Esophagus liaTing a distinct rounded muscular swell- 
in^at termination; lumen of oesophagus thread-like. Intestine not distinctly de- 
finrd, from extremely small number and colourless nature of hepatic granules; 
internal or intestinal tube proper often very distinct. Vulva at about the com- 
mencement of posterior third of body. Uterus unsymmetrical. Spicules simple, 
slender, curved. Accessory piece none. Excretory gland having rather rigid, 
curved duct, opening posterior to junction of oesophagus with intestine. Latenil 


^Movements sluixu'ish. 

In a member of this genus, Aphelenchus parietlnuSj I have very frequently met witli 
certain bodies such as I have also recognized once in a species of the genus Fleet us, and 
two or three times in Tylcnchus Davainii. In these specimens a remarkable condition 
has been met with, in which, beneath the integument of the whole animal, in the general 

of its body, and, in A. parietiuus, also within the intestinal canal, there have 
been a large number of small spherical cellular bodies, simply granular-looking in, this 


last species, but in the two others presenting the appearance of small hyaline cells, 
each of which contains a large, highly refracting, spherical central body or nucleus. 
TTliat is their precise nature seems difficult to say at present. That their occur- 
rence is exceptional, as well as other considerations, rather inclines me to the opinion 

that they arc distinct 

perhaps belonging to the family Gregar 

group of animals of very simple structure, met with in the intestine and other parts 
of many insects and Annelids" ^ Whatever be their nature, they seem to correspond 
pretty closely to what Dujardin and other helminthologists have observed in certain 
parasitic Xematoids. Speaking of Ascaris trimcata, this distinguished naturalist says- : 
— " Tontes les cavites interviscerales sont occupees, chez les males comme chez les 
femelles, par des vesicules independentes qui out attire Tattention de tons les helmin- 
thologistes, mais dont on n'a point indique la nature. II semble qu'on ne pent dire 
autre chose, sinon que ce sont des productions parasites analogues aux accphalo- 
cystcs des mammiferes." And a little further on (p. 220), after describing A. rMCii- 
lorn from the Common Pigeon, speaking of Eudolphi's observations, he adds:— "II 
signale aussi dans lo tegument des corpuscles orbiculaires diaphanes, beaucoup plus 
grands que les oeufs, et qui rendent le corps presquo tachete, d'ovi le nom specifiqiie de 
maculosa. En dissequant ces ascarides, on voit en effct flotter avec les oeufs, dans le 
liquide, des vesicules larges de 0"""-14 h O-^-SO, sur la nature desquelles il est difficile 
dV'tre fix(5. Ce sont les memes que Ton trouve aussi dans I'ascaridc du Perroquet, et que 
je crois analogues a des acej)halocystes." 

1. A 

sp. (Plate X. figs. 97, 98.) 

Female, length ^'\ breadth ^'' 

Krternal Ch 

—Body white, tapering very slightly at either extremity, both 

^ - - - ■ 

II On our Present Kno^vledge of the Gregarinidc^r Sec, by E. Ray Lankester, Journ. of Microsc. Soc, new series 

Hist. Nat. des Ilelminthes, p. 21 o. 




of wliich are rounded. Head having no setse or papillae. Caudal sucker none. Inte- 
?uinental stria? transverse, xoocm" apart, easily visible. 

-p^^j^l — -Vir" long, simple, not knobbed at the base. (Eso]}li(fgvs i^lli only of total 
length havino- a globular and distinctly muscular terminal swelling, Trfeu" broad. In- 
latino portion next oesophagus very indistinct; granules scattered, rather coarse and 

coloiu'less. Anus q^" from posterior extremity. Vulva posterior to comiucnccmcnt of 
hinder third of body, -f^" from posterior extremity. Excretory cfvct opening slightly 
posterior to commencement of intestine. 

Male, not seen. 

Eah. Between the lower sheaths of leaves of oats from stu])ble-ficld, Broadmoor, Berks, 

A. viLLOSTJS, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 99-101 
Female, length -h", breadth tdW- 

External Characters. — Body tapering very slightly anteriorly, but narroAving to a pomt 

w - 

posteriorly; shaggy from the presence of a hair-like fungus (?) growing on integun 
Sucker (?). Head rounded, naked. ' Striae transverse. 


1 '' 


long, simple. (Esojjhagus ^th of total length ; terminal muscular 

ing aiToo" i^ diameter. Intestine sparingly covered with granules. Ames jt}^'' h 

posterior extremity. Vulva at commencement of posterior third of body. Excretory 
duct opening at 2^'' from anterior extremity. 
Male, lenfrth -A-", breadth wrrnr". 

w^ \_ _f ^^ ^^f "^ ^^_ ^^ ^^r ^^ 

Anus about the same position as in female. Spicules xroi" long, narrow, curved 
slightly knobbed at upper extremities. 
Eab. With I^lectus parlet'mus, in tufts of moss (Tortula), Broadmoor, Berks. 

3. A. PARiETiNus, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 102, 103.) 

Female, length ^", breadth ■^'\ 

External Characters.— Bodj pellucid, tapering very slightly forwards, but to a point 
backwards, where it appears to terminate in a sucker. Head almost truncate. Trans- 
verse striae 30^00" apart. ^ ,, 

Sjpear simple, -^^-^'Wong. (Esophagus ^^th of total length ; terminal swellmg w 
in diameter. Intestine covered by a few scattered granules; internal tube well seen. 
Anus y|^" from posterior extremity. Vulva at commencement of posterior third of 
body. Excretory duct opening at -^h'' ^om anterior extremity. 

Male, not seen. 

SaL With Flectus parietinus, in patches of yellow Hchen {Farnielia parietina), Broad- 
ttioor, Berks. 

4. A. PTRi, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 103 a-103 c.) 

Female, length ^3", breadth xAo"- . ^. ^ ^, , _ , . 

External Characters.— Bo^^ naked, peUucid, filiform, tapermg slightly at both extrc. 
laities ; sucker doubtful. Head narrowed, rounded. Integimicntal striae not visible. 
Spear simple, ^i^' long. (Esophagus ^th of total length ; terminal sweUing large 

Woo" in diameter. Intestine yevj sparingly covered with a few Hght-coloured granules 

B 2 


Anus Tri?'' from posterior extremity. Excretory duct opening opposite oesophageo- 
intostinal junction (?). X(/^<?r«Z t;^sscZ.9 straiglit, not convoluted. Vulva ^i commence- 
mont of posterior third of liody. 

Mah', abont same size as female. 

J It us -^" from posterior extremity. Spicules solitary, large, curved, j^W Ion 
somewhat knobhcd at upper extremities. 

JIdh. Found by Dr. Cobbold in the decaying pulp of pears i. 


11. CEPnALOBUS ^ Bastian. 

<?EX. CiiAji. J^odfj tapering slightly at extremities. Head somewhat lohed. Caudal 

6uch?r none. Interjument having well-marked transverse striae ; no setae or papilla. 
'Plirmjngccd cavity indistinct. (Esojpliagits narrowed previously to its termination 
in a rounded swelling containing a simple valvular apparatus. Intestine sparingly 
covered with light-coloured fat-particles ; intestinal tube proper easily seen. Vtdca 
at commencement o^ posterior third of body. Uterus unsymmetricah Spicules 
slightly curved, somewhat fusiform. Accessory piece posterior, median, easily re- 
cognizable. Hxcrctor}] zentral gland having a somewhat rigid, curved duct, opening 

opposite posterior third of oesophagus. Lateral vessels straight ; terminations un- 

Movements sluggish. 

1. C. TEESEGNis, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 104-106.) 
Female, length J^", breadth ^^'\ 

External CJumtctcrs.—Bo^Y ^vliite, tapering slightly anteriorly, and also posteriorly, 
T\ here it is blunt and rounded. Head bilobed. Stride transverse, distinct, twotj" apart. 

(Esophagus between \i\i and |th of total length. Intestine slightly covered with a 
few light-coloured hepatic particles. Aims -^-^" from posterior extremity. Vidm at 
posterior third of body. Excretory duct opposite narrowed portion of oesophagus. 

^ ' In his work on "Entozoa," Dr. Cobbold, speaking of Oxyuris vennimJaris, remarks :—« Respecting the migra- 
tions of the larvae, I am not aware that anything very definite is yet known. I have introduced the eggs containing 
embryos into various animals, but have not yet succeeded in rearing young Oxyurides. I have also int'roduced them 
mto the pulpy parenchyma of pears ; but I have not been able to satisfy myself that any of the young Nematodes 
winch I subsequently procured, by thousands, in one or two of the pears were the result of these experiments. I 
showed some of these living larvae to Leuckart, who thought they might be AnguilMc ; and certainly I never saw 
the tadpole-hke larvae, as such, out of their shells. The young Nematodes in question displayed 1 very different form. 
As my experunents are in the act of being repeated, I will now say no more on this head" (pp. 3G9, 370). 

^ 1 am mdebted to the kmdncss of Dr. Cobbold for the opportunity of examining these animals, when I at once recog- 
mzed two distmct species, belonging respectively to the genera Aphdenchus and Plectus. The representatives of the 
Jomer genus, constituting the species above described, were by far the most numerous, though those of the genus 
riectus were larger and much more active in their movements. The portion of pear-pulp sent to me was quite dry; 
on , attex mmersion m water for a few hours, I had no difficulty in verifying Dr. Cobbold's previous observations, and 
recogmzmg the little Nematodes in full activity, showing that they also are endowed with the same property of r^ 

ovenng after desiccation as are the other species of these genera. Dr. Cobbold did not recognize two distiact 

it the '' ' f r "v '" '^' '"^'"'^' ^^'^"^ ^^ *^' P'^^-P^^^^ ^''' indlTiduals of the same species, he proposed for 
« ^ ?' ;. Tf''^'' ^y''^ ^" ^ communication read before the last meeting of the British Association at Bath. 
*:tc^«X»?, the head, and \o/3oj, a lobe. 



5 • 

MolCy longer than female, but narrower; length ^'^ hrcadth ^i 
Anus tJt" ^i'o^ posterior extremity, wMcli is altogether narrower than in tlic female. 
Spicules not distinctly visible^ slightly curved, r^" long. Accessory piece more dis- 
tinct, straight, -^■^" long. 
Hah. Between the sheaths of leaves of wheat-stalks, from stubhlc-ficlds, Broadmoor, 


2. C. STEIATTJS, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 107, 108.) 

Female, length ^", breadth yf^". 

Eiienial Characters.— Body white, tapering anteriorly and posteriorly ; posterior ex- 
tremity proportionally narrower than in last species. Head bilobed. Strioc transverse, 

very distinct, tootto'' apart. 

(Esophagus ^th of total length. Intestine sparingly covered witli light-coloured he- 
patic particles. Amis s-Jiy" from posterior extremity. Vulca slightly anterior to pos- 
terior third of body. Mvcretory duct readily visible, ^^o" ^"^om anterior extremity. 

■ Mile, not seen. 
Sab. Sandy soil, about rootlets of wheat, Broadmoor, Berks. 

12. TYLENCHUS \ Bastian. 

Fi^Ho, Muller; ^w^Mi/Ma, Hemprich & Ehrenberg; 7^/iaic?i/is, Bujard^^^^ 

Gen. Chae. Body tapering at extremities. Caudal sucker, none. Integument having 
distinct transverse stria? ; no sctoo or papilke. Iliarynx modified into an exsertilc 
spear, with a trilobed base. (Esophagus having a rounded muscular swelling about 
its middle ; canal thread-like, continuous with spear, most distinct in anterior half. 
Intestine rather indistinct, sparingly covered with coarse, colourless fat-granules; 
intestinal tube proper easily recognizable. Vulva considerably posterior to middle 
of body. Vterus unsymmetrical ; traces of abortive posterior median segment 

rather stout, <?enerallv united to the posterior accessory ])^ece 


in males mcmln-anous and unsupported by rays. Duct of excretory ventral^ gland 
linear, rigid, and curved at termination. Lateral vessels distinct, occasionally 

flexuous ; terminations uncertain. 

Movements slusrwish. 

The tenacity of life possessed by the members of this genus, as well as those of Flectus, 
^pMenchus, and Cephalohus, is a most remarkable peculiarity, which may perhaps, in 
some sHght degree, be accounted for by the structure of the integument, which seems 
calculated to enable them to resist actual desiccation and the evaporation of the 
natural moisture from their tissues for a much longer period than 'could be the case 
with other species, whose tegumcntary organs are constructed upon a different prmciple. 
I have demonstrated by actual microscopical observation the presence of a pteality of 
i^tegumental pores in the species of many genera ; and all these animals (as weU as many 
otiiors, in which such pores have not been recognized, owing to the smallness of their 
si^e and the intrinsic difficulty of the investigation), when immersed in a dense medium, 

1 TvXos, a Jcnoh, and lyx^h a spear. 


such as glycerine, filmost immediately shriyel up, owing to tlie rapid osmosis of fluids 
from witliin; or, when placed in a colouring solution of magenta, tlie wliole of their 
tissues -become speedily and uniformly dyed of the same hue. But if a species of either 
of these four land and frcslnvater genera be submitted to the same conditions, they 
cxhil)it totally different results : they will continue to move about in glycerine for about 
fifteen or twenty minutes l)cfore commencing to shrivel, and" will remain nearly as long 
in a stron- mar^cnta solution with the body uncoloured, save for a very short distance 

o O 

from the mouth and anus. Both these experiments seem to indicate that there is not 
such a free communication through the integument, in these species, between the in- 
ternal parts of the body and the external mediimi, and that the integument is hermeti- 
cally scaled, excepting* at such natural apertures as mouth, anus, and vulva. This 
property jnay be one of the factors concerned in producing the extraordinary tenacity of 
life observed in these animals,— one of small significance, however, when we attempt 
to explain the very prolonged periods of suspended animation, extending over a series of 
years. This power of remaining for lengthened periods to all intents and purposes 
dead, inasmuch as there is a negation of all that we are apt to consider as the charac- 
teristic attributes of life, save that, like seeds, they still retain the potentiality of re- 


their vital manifestations under the influence of suitable external 

must, doubtless, depend upon inherent peculiarities of the tissues themselves, beyond 
the reach of detection by optical instruments even of the highest power. . 

Another peculiarity of these four genera is the fact that they all possess the excretoiy 
gland in a modified condition, though I have not met with it at all in any of the other 
land and and freshwater types. 

1, T. Davaixii, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 109-111.) 

Female, length Yf\ breadth yyo" 

■1 I 

External Characters. — Body tapering at both extremities, especially towards posterior. 
Head narrowed, truncate. Integument thick ; striae transverse, distinct, rsroo" apart. 

Spear large, j^a s" lo^S- (EsopJiagus Jth of total length ; posterior part, behind median 
swelling, gradually widening. Intestine not very distinct from body generally, hemg 
obscured by large, coarse, colomdess granules. Ames yjo" from posterior extremity 
Viilva considerably behind middle of body, ^o'' from anterior extremity. Mccretorij 
duct distinct, opening opposite posterior part of oesophagus, and extending backwards 
for about ji^'i where it terminates in an ovoid sac. 

Male, same size as female. 

(Esophagus shorter. Anns i|-/' from posterior extremity, Spicules rather narrow 


jfj long ; accessory piece of about half this length. Alee transparent, narrow 

tending, on either side, from sHghtly above to a little below the anus, 

JIah. Prom sheet of moss covering large boulder lying in a freshwater stream, 

2. T. THICITI. (Pkite X. figs. 112-114.) 

Needham, Micr. 99, tab. v. 7. 

Baker, MIcr. Expl. 80, tab. v. fig. 9. 1, 2. 

Hoffredi, in Journal de Phys. 1775, p. 369. . 

, OS' 




vulffaire, Rozier, Obs. 1775, Mars, p. 218, tab. i. 7, et 1/78, Nov. p. 401. 

du ble rachitique, 1. c. 1775, Janv. tab. i. 

dufauoo ergot, 1. c. 1776, Janv. p. 72, et Mars, pp. 372 et 436; Naturf. xxix. St 

nzani. Micr. 189. fiar. 12 (pessima) : idem, Opusc. Phvs. ii. 354. tab. v. 10. 

Eiclihorn/Micr. 72, tab. vii. A. 
Gleichen, Micr. 61, tab. xxviii. 6. 



Wurtemb. Wochenbl. 1782 


* 4 

VJrilm, Bauer, in Phil. Trans. 1823, i. 1-12, tab. i. et ii.— Versio in Ann. des So. Nat. (prem. scr.) ii. 

154-167, cum tabula.-^Bory, in Encycl. Meth. 1824, p. 779.— Duges, in Ann. des Sc. Nat. (prem. 

s^r.) ix. 225. — Henslow, in Microscopical Journal, 1841, p. 36. 
fi/iaWi/i5 !?n;i«, Duj., Hist. Nat. des Helminthes, p. 242. 
Angullhla graminearumy Diesing^ Systema Helminthumj 1850^ vol. ii. p. 132. 
Anyuilkles de hli^ Davaine, in Comptes Rendus, xli. (1855) 435-438 (de modo propagationis et immigra- 

tioiils in $emina frumenti).— Idem^ ibid, xliii. (1856) 148^ et in Institute no. 1179 (1856) 281 (de 

tenacitate vitae in individuis organis genitalibus adhuc destitutis). — Idem,Recherches sur rAnguiIlulc 

du ble nielle, Paris. 18573 ^vec 3 pL 

Female ^ length y'', breadtli 


External Charactei's. — Body yellowisli white, tapering rather abruptly forwards, but 
more gradually towards posterior extremity.* Head rounded ; no setse or papill'jc. Trans- 
verse striae of integument not very distinct, -2 ooFo" apart. 

Spear small, only ^ 5 q q" long. (Esophagus about irjtli of total length ; middle of swel- 


^'^0 Too' from anterior extremity. Intestine mucli obscured, by genital tubes, covered 
with irregularly arranged fat-particles. Anus -aio" fi'om posterior extremity. Vuha 
ratlier prominent, ^V' from posterior extremity. Anterior uterine segments and ovary 

developed. General cavity of body filled with delicate parenchymatous or 

liyaline cells. Excretory duct opening at r^" from anterior extremity, and, in favour 
able specimens, visible for about ^" as a somewhat rigid, almost linear, curved tube 
liileroX vessels most distinct, about W^" in breadth, often much convoluted anteriorly^ 


Mcde, length ^'\ breadth ^\ " 


Anns 2T5" fr'om posterior extremity. Spicules rather broad, sis" long. Accessory 
connected with spicules, xAr" long. Alee narrow, transparent, extending from 

1 " 


above anus to posterior extremity. 
Sah. In gall-like growths, replacing germens in certain cars of wheat, also more 
^rely in those of oats and rye. * 

■ r 

3. T. TEumcoLA, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 115, 116.) 

Female, length ^/', breadth y^"- 

External Characters.— Body pellucid, tapering slightly forwards, but more posteriorly. 
Striae of integument transverse. _ ' 

Absolute measurements of both male and female rather variable ; the relative measurements, however, remain 

Pretty constant. ' 




'» parasitic Nematoids, but float freely in the cavity of the body.' When the integument of one of these animals 
« ruptured by pressure of the coverin<^.^lass under the microscope, I have several times seen whole coils of the vessels 

^''P ^"tlrely out of the cavity of the body. " ' 



Spear ^^" long. (EsopJiagus Jth of total length; centre of globate swelling a^" | 
from anterior extremity. Intestine covered with rather coarse, scattered granules. 2i^ ' 
t\js" from posterior extremity. Vulva slightly posterior to anterior frds of body. J:^. 
cretorij (hid opening opposite commencement of posterior third of oesophagus. 

Male, not seen. 

Tfoh. Trom sandy soil, adhering to rootlets of wheat-plant, Broadmoor, Berks. 

4. T. OBTUstTS, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 117, 118.) 

Fewale, length .^^'\ breadth y-JV'- 

External Characters. — Body, tapering very slightly anteriorly, and still less poste- 
riorly, where It is blunt and rounded. Head rather truncate. Striii) transverse, irnr-" \ 

• apart. 

iSjjear j-^t^" long. (Esophagus yjth of total length, having a globate swelling about 
Its middle. Intestine sparingly covered with light-coloured granules. Amis 4I3-" from 
posterior extremity. Vulva near commencement of posterior third of body. Excreton 
duct opening slightly posterior to middle of oesophagus. 

Ih'le, length J3", breadth -^~\ 

-^""5 -^jj" from posterior extremity. Spicules ywoq" loi^g- Accessory piece about 
half as long, posterior, median. Aloi membranous and transparent, extending on either 
side from a little above anus to posterior extremity. . ■ 

]I"h, Sandy soil, about the rootlets of oats, Broadmoor, Berks. 


5. T. EiPSACi, Kiihn. 

AmjrulMa Dipsaci, .J. KQliii, In Sclilcs. Jahrcsber. 1857, pp. 50-53.— Idem, in Zeitsch. fur Wissensch. 
Zoob Ix. (1n57) 129-137, tab. vii. C, 

Corpus antrorsum attenuatum transparens. Cajmt obtusum, rotundatum. Cauda 
sensim acuminata recta v. paulo incurvata. Apertura genitalis feminea retrorsum sita. 
Ovipara. Longit. corp. i-f"', crassit. f-i'"; longit. caud^ maris (a pcne) -A, femin^ (a 
vulva) J corporis longitudiuis." 

" (Esophagus postice bulbosus.'* 

" mil). In anthodiis depravatis Dipsaci fullonum, Junio {Kiihn):' 



yi/i^«i/////a ^ra;/i,Vflr.m (in part), Diesing, Sjst. Helminth, ii. p. 132. 

It seems to me most probable that this species is distinct from Tylcnchus fritlci] tlie 
determination of this question, however, must be left to future observers. 

13. RHABDITIS, Dujardin, 

Anguillula, Gmbe. 

Oen Char i?o(/y tapering at extremities. Caudal sucUr none. Integument baring 

longitudmal as well as transverse stri^ ; seta) none ; papilla none. Thary^^ 
-- " long cylmdrical. (Esophagus distinctly muscular, havin- two swelHng?, 





one elongated near its middle, and the other terminal, rounded, and containing a 
simple valvular apparatus. Intestine rather sparsely covered with fat-particles, 
the large containing cells of which can sometimes he recognized. Vulva near the 
middle of body. Uterus bifid, segments symmetrical. Ovijparons or viviparous. 
Spicules of moderate size, slightly curved. Accessory piece single, posterior, me- 
dian, about half ^ as long. Caudal alee lateral, membranous, supported by sets of 
rays. Ventral gland wanting. Lateral vessels or cellular canals 
Jlovements active. 


Although I have looked very carefully for them, I have been unable to distinguish 
either lateral vessels or the ventral excretory gland in any of the representatives of this 


The typical Rhabditis terricola of Dujardin seems undoubtedly to correspond as re- 
gards structural details with the other species that I have placed in this genus ; and, 

since it is now evident that Dujardin associated with this animal others of such diverse 
types as Anguillula aceti and Tylelenchus fritici, we shall have the less difficulty in 
imagining that he may have confounded with them also members of the genus VlcctuSy 
not only because they seem to be much more abundant than are the proper representa- 
tives of the genus Mhahditis, but also because he speaks of the latter as possessing that 
remarkable tenacity of life which belongs to species of the two former genera, when, 
as far as my experience goes, it is not possessed by the real allies of the typical llhah- 
ditis terricola. 

1. R. MAEiNA, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 60-62.) 

Female, length i", breadth yjj". 

External Characters. — Body tapering considerably anteriorly, but more posteriorly, 
where it narrows to a point. Head truncate, naked. Integument having transverse 
and longitudinal striae, those of each set being about xoooo" apart. 

^Pharyngeal cavity cylindrical, tttt" lo^ig- (Esophagus ^th of total length, containmg 
in its terminal enlargement a valvular apparatus, which may be seen to open and shut with 
spring-like rapidity for the passage of fluids. Posterior part of oesophagus and anterior 
■portion of intestine fixed to parietes by distinct muscular retinacula. Intestine much 
larger at commencement than terminal part of oesophagus ; covered sparsely with fat- 
particles, the containing cells of which can occasionally be recognized. Anus xJ^" from 
posterior extremity. Vtilva slightly posterior to middle of body. Uterus bifid ; seg- 

jTnmetrical, large, and densely distended with freely moving young and 
all stages of development. Ova j^'' long, by ^" broad. Gland-system very sUghtly 
developed ; but numerous floating gland- or blood-cells in cavity of body, the maximum 
size being about x^" in diameter ' . 

^«/e, length ^'\ breadth ^o"- 

Anus ^" from posterior extremity. Genital tube consisting of a smgle testicle, 

; I have observed (in the female only) what appear to be two lateral apertures through the Integument, connected 
'"th an obscure appearance of oval vesicles or dilatations internally, situated exactly midway between the anus and 
posterior extremity. ■ 




dividod by a nnrrow constricted portion from the broad vas deferens. Spicules and 

mry piece united together ; segments of former -^" long. Spermatozoa cylindrical 
" long, havinj? slow oscillatinoj movement. Alee two, composed of a hyaline inem 

g, iltmil^ C-iV" WOV.X..C..xx^j5 

brune extending on each side from -^" above anus to posterior extremity, supported 
by nine rays in sets of one, two, and three. 

JL>h, ^larine, in sand from tide-pools, Talmouth. 

2. il. LOXGTCArDATA, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 63, 64.) 

Female, length ^", breadth 


Hxtemal Characters.— Bo^j white, tapering gradually anteriorly, but more alDruptly 
towards the posterior extremity, which is long and filiform. Head truncate, naked, 
lult'oumont with loii'.ritudinal striae, toootj'' apart; transverse not recognized. 

Thanjngeal cazity cylindrical, tooo'' loi^o % tooo'' broad. (Esophagus |th of total 
length. Intcst'mc very broad at commencement, before it is compressed by genital 
organs ; covered by only a very few scattered fat -particles. Anus rJo ' fi'om posterior 
extremity. Vidca very slightly anterior to middle of body. 

Male, not seen. 

Hah. Sandy soil about roots of wheat, Broadmoor, Berks. 

3. tl. ORNATA, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 65-67 

Female^ leliirth oV, breadth 

t '' 

v3i.11 2 2 5 "'i'-'wv^ii^ix 5 00 

Fxlcrnal Characters. — Body white, tapering anteriorly, but more posteriorly, where 
it is filiform. Head truncate, naked. Integument very transparent, with transverse 

stnoc 2W00"" apart ; longitudinal not recognized. 

Tharyngcal cavity -yitt' long- (Esoj^hagiis about Jtli of total length. Intestine, just 
at commencement, devoid of hepatic granules ; remaining portion sparingly covered "with 
large and rather dark-coloured particles. Anus -gJo" from posterior extremity. Vnka 
exactly in centre of body. 

Male, length -^/\ breadth 

1 " 


Anus 4^" from posterior extremity. Spicules not very broad, slightly curved, 
long, and connected with a posterior median accessory portion of one-half the lengtli 
AlcB lateral, same as in Jt. marina. 

Bal), Between sheaths of leaves, stalks of wheat in stubble-fields, Broadmoor, Berks. 

4. Pv. ACEis, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 68-70.) 

Female, length ■^", breadth ^Jg". 

External Characters.— -Bq^j white, tapering forwards and also towards posterior ex 
tremity, which terminates in a sharp point. Head truncate. Integument with trans 
verse strise, ^o W apart ; longitudinal not seen. 

Fharyngeal cavity -j^' long. (Esophagus about ith of total length. I^ 

ered with few but large and dark-coloured hepatic granules. Anus -^' from pos 
terior extremity. Vulva slightly posterior to middle of body. 
Male, length i^'\ breadth gi/'. 

Anus YTi" from posterior extremity. Spicules double, y^V long, united to a post 






median accessory piece of one-lialf the length. Mcb on each side of tail, supported by 
iiine minute rays, same as in other species \ 
Sah. Sandy soil about the rootlets of wheat, Broadmoor, Berks« 

5. H. TEEEicoLA, Dujardin. 

Angiostomum terricola, Diesing, in Syst. Helminth. ^. p. 139. 

«* Corps blanc, fusiforme, allonge, quinze fois environ aussi long que large ; tctc large 
^g Qmm.Qig j bouche suivlc d'un pharynx prismatique, long de 0™"-03 ; oesophage long do 
0'"'"13 a 0°'°'-2, renfle en fuseau, large de 0'"'"-033 au milieu, elargi de nouvcau en 
arriere pour se continuer avec le ventricule beaucoup plus large (de 0'"'"-04 a 0'"'"-045). 

"Male long de 0™"^-50 a l'°'"-05, large de 0"""'025 a 0""°-07; queue courte, un pcu 

coui'Lde, terminee en pointe fine, et munie en dessous de deux ailes laterales, sou- 
tenues par sept a Imit c6tes chacune ; anus a 0™"-04 de Tesitrdmite ; deux spicules, longs 

de 0'""^-06. 
"Femelle lonj^ue de 0"™-5 a 2°>'rf, large de 0»"'"-025 a O'^^'IO; queue droite, amincic ct 

prolonge en pointe fine plus ou moins longue ; anus a O™'"-!^, au moins, de rextrcniit6 ; 
yulve situee vers le milieu; uterus tres-large, musculeux au-dessus de la vulve, puis 
divise en deux branches opposees ; oeufs eUiptiques, longs de 0^°^-05 a 0'"'"-06, contcnant 

un embryon replie trois fois. 

" Get helminthe, si remarquable par sa structure, ne Test pas moins par son habita- 
tion dans la tcrre humide et parmi les mousses, ovi il pent subir une dessication complete 
sans perir, et d'ou il est entraine par la pluie dans les fosses et les rivieres. II passe 
ensuite comme nourriture dans I'intestin des limaces, et de la dans I'intestin de la gre- 
nouille rousse, qui devore ces moUusques ; ou bien il est avale dans les eaux par les gas- 
terostes et divers petits poissons. On le trouve enfin aussi dans les lombrics ; mais la 
il parait avoir pris naissance dans des masses de parenchyme, libres entre I'intestin et 
renveloppe musculeuse. Je Tai vu plusieurs fois, soit a Paris, soit a Eennes, se deve- 
lopper en quantite prodigieuse et former des amas blanchatres dans des vases ou j'avais 
conserve des lombrics avec de la mousse et de la terre humide I Je I'ai trouv^ com- 
muuement dans les plaques d'oscillaires qui se developpent sur la terre humide et dans 
les touffes de mousses {Brytim) qui se trouvent sur le sol et meme sur les murs." 

"Les exemplaires que j'ai recueilHs dans I'intestin des Gasterosteus sont longs de 
l"""-55 ; leur queue est plus brusquement amincie ou subulce, longue de 0--07 ; les ocufs 
soat longs de 0'"™'062." 

" J'ai trouve fr^quemment, soit dans la terre lumiide oil dans les eaux vaseuses, ou 
dans I'intestin des batraciens et des moUusques, divers mahdUes qui diffiu-ent du prece- 
dent par leur oesophage cylindrique et non renfl6 en fuseau. Ce sont, 1°, des vers fili- 
formes, longs de 0-«^-25 larc>'es de O'^'^'Oie, dans les oscillaires a Paris ; 2« des vers fusi- 
formes, longs de 0--6, lar-es de 0"-026, parmi les conferves, sui- les murs humides des 
Fontaines a Toulon ; 3« des vers longs de 0--6, larges de 0--3, a queue obtuse, et ayant 

In the only male of this species observed by myself, there was « swellmg or developmeat of ^^l^ff''^'^' 

around the head for a dist 


1 4^ » ? 

prove to be a constant character I cannot say 

Vide note, p. 77- 





fac long 

I'oesopliagc etroit, long de 0"""-15, parmi les oscillaires ; 4" un ver long de 0""»-53 
large de 0'"'"-02, ayant les baguettes du pharynx longues de 0°'°'*023, et I'oesoplii 
de 0'°°'08, dans Tintestin du Triton variegatus, etc." 

I have thought it best to give Dujardin's description and remarks concerning tliis 
species entire. "Frovd the great difference between the measurements given of this 
lihfihdUis tcrricola, I think it very probable that Dujardin may not clearly have dis- 
tingiilshed between two or more different species of this genus; whilst the animals 
referred to in his subsequent remarks, I have little doubt, belong to several totally dis- 
tinct genera. 

6. R. ML'Cr.OXATA. 



14 (cum an atom.). 


cmitafc corporis antica lentius attenuata, truncata, bifariam e longitudine 
crenata, postica vix attenuata, foemina rotundata, mucronata, maris in paleam maxime 
excavatnm (costulis sustentam) desinente; ocsophago postice bulboso, vulva in medio 
corpore sita. Vivipara. Longit. vix \'" ; crassit. vix 

1 /// >) 

Hab. In terra humida cum lumbricis servata ( Gruhe) 

14. SYMPLOCOSTOMA \ Bastian. 

Enoplus, Eberth ; Urolabes, Carter. 

Gen. Chae. Body tapering at extremities. Caudal sucker well developed. Integument 

plain, or with longitudinal markings ; setae none (?). Fharyngeal cavity elongated, 
somewhat fiddle-shaped, having a peculiar funnel-shaped body lying along its in- 
ferior aspect, and an appearance of three or more circular lines around the parietes. 
(Esophagus gradually widening posteriorly, not distinctly muscular, embraced in 
some part of middle third by glandular ring. Intestinal cells large, well filled 
with dark-coloured granules ; often very irregularly disposed in adult specimens. 
Vulva about middle of body. Vterus bifid ; segments symmetrical. Spicules long, 
narrow. Accessory piece wanting. Ocelli present or absent. Glandular system 
well developed, especially at anterior and posterior extremities. Excretory ventral 
gland opening near anterior extremity; duct containing a granular fluid, and much 

contracted just before termination. Lateral canals 

Movements active. 

I liave temroiarily placed in this genus tliree species, which wUl, in all prohabilit.v, 
have to he removed hereafter : the first is S. vivipara, about the exact structiire of 
whose pharj-nx I hare not had sufficient opportunity of satisfying my self ; and the other 
two, evidently very closely allied, are moplu, ornatus of Eberth and TTrolabes harUU 

Ihese would appear not exactly to belong to this genus, but to a type very 

of Carter 

Future observation must decide this point 


* trifiTXoKos, complex, and trrSfia, a mouth . 






1. S. LONGicoLLis, n. sp. (Plate XI. jBgs. 119-122.) 

Female, length |", breadth ^'\ 

External Characters. — Body smooth; anterior extremity tapering much, long, and 
narrow; posterior tapering more quickly. Caudal sucker well developed. Ilead trun- 
cate, naked. Integument with an appearance of longitudinal markings, ^^Vo" apart. 

Tharyngeal cavity somewhat fiddle-shaped, length y^g-", having funnel and tliree cir- 
cular markings. Two circular, highly refracting, colourless bodies (on oesophagus?) 
near termination of pharyngeal cavity. (Esophagus Mh of total lcnj>th. Intestinal cells 

large, from y^oo ^o 500 ^ diameter, containing an abundance of dark fawn-coloured 
granules, sometimes varying in shade in contiguous cells, and these themselves often 
very irregularly disposed. Anus yW fi^om posterior extremity. Vidva slightly poste- 

middle of body. Ocelli none. Glandular si/stem around middle third of cesopl 

highly developed, and also at posterior extremity behind anus. Excretory ventral duct 

opening at 3^ from anterior extremity. 
Male, slightly larger than female. 

Amis yjo" from posterior extremity. Spicules long and narrow, very slightly curved 

b^^ 17 2 

' I 

Eab. Prom tide-pools, on Cladophora rupestris and other fine green and brown weed 
I which Piatomaceae abound, Palmouth and Brighton. 

2. S 



" Korper fast gerade, cylindrisch, gegen beide Enden ziemlich gleich stark ver- 
schmalert. Hinterende bei dem Weibchen gerade, bei dcm Mannchen eingeroUt. Kopf 
quer abgestutzt. Schwanz mit einer grosseren Papille versehen." 

hange des Weibchens 6 Mm., Breite 0*16 Mm. 
Lange des Mannchens 4-5 Mm., Breite O'OO Mm 
Oesophaguslange=i der Korperlange" ^ 

3. S. vmPARA, n. sp. (Plate XI. figs. 123-125.) 
female, lenj^th ^'\ breadth 

1 " 

2 , ►^xccn.iiii 2 94 

External Characters. — Body tapering considerably at extremities, especially at pos- 
terior, which is long, filiform, and terminates with a minute sucker. Head slender, 
rounded, provided with a circlet of 6-8 spreading seta^. Integument with longitudmal 
niarkings about y^^^" apart. 

Pharyngeal cavity of a somewhat elongated-oval shape, containing no funnel or cir- 
cular markings (?), 3^" in length. OSsop)hagus about Jth of total length, gradually 
^dening posteriorly, and embraced by a glandular ring at about its middle. Intestine 
Regularly and rather sparsely covered with somewhat large fat-particles. Anus -^" 
from posterior extremity. Vulva in centre of body. Uterus bifid. Segments symme- 
ncal. Viviparous. Excretory ventral gland ? 

' Unless specified to the contrary, Eberth's species have been found at Nizza, amongst AlgJe and Sertularise. Tn 
liMescription of this, as well as other species discovered by him, I have merely given the external characters. 
° ^'s w'einoir, in addition to beautiful coloured drawings of each species, will be found lengthy descriptions, includmg 
'"^ny interesting and accurate anatomical details. It should be consulted by all interested in this subject. 


Male, length yj'\ breadth 3+0''* 

Amis Th" from posterior extremity. Spicules 4^" long, solitary, very slender, and 

slightly curved. 
Hub. Tine siirface-mud from marine estuary, Falmouth. 


Enoplus omahtff, Eberth, Untersuch. iiber Nematod. 1863, p. 40, tab. iv. figs. 13-15, tab. v. figs. 5 & 6. 

" Korpcr fadcnformig, gegen heide Enden versehmalert. Vorderleib gerade, Hinterleib 
Lei beidcn G cschlechtern einjT:erollt, starker bei dem Mannchen als bei dem Weibchen 

Kopf fast qncr abgcstutzt. Schwanz stumpfspitz mit feiner terminalen Oeffnim 
Ilintcr dem Munde ist dcr Korper leicht eingeschniirt. 

"Liiiig(? d('s Weibchens 4 Mm., Breite 0'125 Mm. 

"Langc des Miinnchcns 5 Mm., Breite 0-1 Mm. 

" Vcrhaltniss der Oesophagusliinge zur Korperlange wie 1:4." 


Urolubes harhata, Carter, Ann. of Nat. Hist. ser. 3, vol. iv. (1859) p. 43, pi. iii. fig. 32, 


- \ 

" Female. Body the same as the last ( U. ocellata), but much longer. Head furnislied 
with four linear, short cirri. Tail short, somewhat curved, furnished with a short, 
pointed, digital termination. Mouth and anus the same. Yulva situated much pos- 
teriorly to the middle of the body, about the junction of the middle with the anterior 
third of the posterior half." 

'' Alimentary canal the same as in the foregoing species, but the intestinal sheath 
terminating lesff abruptly upon the commencement of the rectum. Hepatic organ the 
same. Organs of generation double, occupying the middle part of the body j their form 

undetermined. Ocelli at some distance from the head, of the same colour as m V. 


" Size |th inch long, and ^kth of an inch broad." 

" Male, the same as the female ; but with a lar^e, thick, curved taU. obtuse at the extre- 

outer curv 

mity, tuberculated in its inner curvature, and furnished on each side with a row of short 

extending from above the anus towards the tip ; also three or four set^e on the 

[iture. Testes and penis the same as in the foregoing species ; form of the 
testes undetermined." 

Ilah. " Silty clots of Oscillatoria floating in the salt-water main drain of the town of 

15. 0NCH0LAIMI7S, Bujardin. 

Emj)lus, Diesing & M. Schultze. 

Gex. Char. Bodi/ often elongated; posterior extremity blunt- or sharp -pointed. Caudal 

sucker variable, sometimes weU developed, with 2 or 3 distinct sucker-tubes. Integi^- 
merit ^ plam or with longitudinal markings ; cephalic seta^ generally present, and 
occasionally a few scattered over other parts of the body ; cephalic papilla wantin,- ; 
mtegumental pores most distinct in mid-dorsal and ventral regions, marm^^'^ 
cavity Large, ovoid, bounded by horny parietes, and having three longitudinal, slighUy 




curved, tooth-like projections from its inner surface. (Esophagvs not distinctly 
muscular, cylindrical, and almost uniform in size ; surrounded by a distinct com- 
phageal ring. Intestine mostly covered with olive-coloured particles, having a 
tessellated arrangement. Vulva at centre of body, or occasionally at posterior third. 
Vterus symmetrical or unsymmetrical. Spicules two, with or without a single 

' accessory piece. Ocelli mostly wanting. Excretory ventral gland simple, tubular, 
extending from the anterior third nearly to the termination of oesophagus. Lateral 
canals often distinctly cellular. 

Movements active. 

This is not q[uite so natural an assemblage as those presented by some of the other 
genera, even after the freshwater species formerly included by Dujardin have been 
transferred to the genus Mononehus. In some members of this genus Oncholaimus the 
vulva is posterior, and the uterus unsymmetrical ; and in some males also the spicules 
ai'e solitary, whilst in one at least, 0. vulgaris ^ there is a large and well-developed 
accessory piece. Owing to my not having found in several cases both the male and 
female representatives of the same species, I am unable to say, from my own observa- 
tion, whether these alterations in the male and female organs are generally coincident, 
and constant enough to enable the species to be ranged under two distinct subgenera ; 
and, unfortunately, the details concerning the anatomy of those discovered by other 
observers are too scanty to afford any assistance in the solution of this question. In 
two species also, 0. fiiscus and O. albidus, I have been unable to detect the usual 
oesophageal ring. 

1. 0. VULGARIS, n. sp. (Plate XI. figs. 126-128 a.) 

Female, length J", breadth -. 

1 " 

Bxternal Characters. — Body elongated, cylindrical, tapering very slightly at extre- 
mities. Sucker well developed, with three large sucker-tubes occupying nearly the 
whole of the cavity of body posterior to anus. Head truncate, with a circlet of 4-6 
short, stout setse, and a few smaller ones scattered over anterior part of body. Integu- 
ment thick, with an appearance of longitudinal markings gifej" apart ; integumental 
pores distinct in mid-dorsal and ventral regions. 

I'haryngeal cavity -^'' long by ^k" ^I'oad, having three strongly marked, slightly 
curved teeth projecting into cavity. (Esophagus about Jth of total length, nearly uniform 
in size, having three longitudinal rows of pigment-granules ; embraced at termination of 
anterior third by an cesophageal ring. Intestine broad, having a thick coating of olive- 
coloured hepatic granules, enclosed in cells, and presenting a distinct tessellated arrange- 
Kient. Anus -j^'' from posterior extremity. Vulva slightly posterior to middle of 
^^y. Tlterus bifid. Excretory ventral gland opening close to the oesophageal tmg. 
lateral canals distinct, cellular. 

^oJe, length jV', breadth ir"* 

Anus -^" from posterior extremity. Spi^niles rather wider at middle, and tapering 
Wards extremities, yio" long.. Accessory piece single, somewhat triangulai', -^'' Ion 


V eic" broad at tlie base. A^lar^^e mid-ventral prominent siicher j^ above anal c^eft 


JIab. Amongst half-tide sand and stony debris very abundant, and also found onw 
on a bright grass-grccn filiform weed (free from Diatomacese) from tide-pool, Falmouth 

2. 0. GLABEu, n. sp. (Plate XI. figs. 129, 130.) 

Female, length .}^ , breadth ^^ 

Kilernal Characters. — Body tapering slightly forwards, but considerably towards 
posterior extremity, which is long, narrow, and pointed, and terminates with a minute 
Bncker. Head rounded, naked. Integument plain or with longitudinal markino-s. 

Tharynrjeal cacity yg^B"" loiig- (Esopliagus about ^th of total length, embraced ob- 
li(iucly, near its middle, by an oesojoliageal ring. Intestine thinly covered with hepatic 
particles. Anus xiTr" from posterior extremity. Vulva about middle of body. Exm- 

lunj central duct 

uM'ifr, not seen. 

Hab. !^^arinc surface-mud from estuary, Palmouth. 

3. 0. ^^scosus, n. sp. (Plate XI. figs. 131-133.) 

Female, length ■^' , breadth yy^". 

External Characters. — Body long and fiHform, scarcely at all narrowed anteriorly, 
but tapering gradually to a point at posterior extremity, which terminates with a minute 
sucker. Head bluntly rounded, provided with a circlet of four setse. Integument 
plain or with longitudinal markings, having numerous fine particles of sand and diatoms 
adhering to its external surface. 

Vharynfjeal cavity -nL_" long. (Esophagus jth of total length, embraced obliquely, 
near its middle, by an oesophageal ring. Intestine sparsely covered with hepatic par- 
ticles. Anus 2^2-" fi^"om posterior extremity. Vulva at middle of body. litem 

Male, the same lenp'th as female, breadth ^^". 

Anns ^" from posterior extremity. Spicules solitary, of an elongated wedge-shaped 

form, and Tihm' lonsr. 

10 -'"^S 

Jffah. Marine surface-mud from estuary, Palmouth. 

Wlien a thin layer of mud is spread out with water on a slip of glass, I have met 
with this species generaUy floating on the surface, appearing under a hand-lens as a 
slowly moving peHucid filament. 

4. 0. ruscus, n. sp. (Plate XI. figs. 139, 140.) 
Male, length |" , breadth jig-". 

External Characters.~^o<ij stout, of a brownish colour, tapering slightly forwards, 
but abruptly posterior to anus. Terminal sucker minute. Head narrow, rounded, 
havmg a cn^clet of 6-8 short, thick set^ at ^^" from anterior extremity. Integument 
temity ^''^'*^^^'^^ ^^^^^^q, ; slightly tinged of a blackish colour at posterior ex- 

Tharyngeal cavity ^' long, large, elongated-oval • one tooth much larger than 
either of the other_ two. (Esophagus about Jth of total length ; slightly enlarged pos- 

t:^^:;^-^^^^^^^ with darVbrow^ he^ particles; 

ui^imct. Anusj^ ^om posterior extremity. >Si?/c«?^nong and narrow, 





very dark in colour, hollow, Yh" long ; accessory piece wanting. Excretory ventral 
gland not recognized. 

Female, not seen. 

]Tab. Marine surface-mud of estuary, Palmouth. 

5. 0. ALBiDrs, n. sp. (Plate XI. figs. 141, 142.) 

Female, length I", breadth xJe"- 

Fxternal Characters.— Bodj elongated, whitish in colour, tapering anteriorly, hut 
more towards posterior extremity ; terminating in a moderate-sized sucker. Ilead trun- 
cate, provided with a circlet of four short, stout setae, and a few smaller ones scattered 
over anterior part of body. Integument having longitudinal markings. 

Tharyngeal cavity broadly ovate, ■^" long. (Esophagus short, about i^th of total 
length ; enlarging slightly posteriorly ; no ring seen. Intestine moderately well covered 
with rather light-coloured hepatic particles tessellated in arrangement. Anus y^" from 
posterior extremity. Vulva considerably behind middle of body, -^" from posterior 
extremity. Uterus un symmetrical. Ova very large, in single file, occupying the whole 
width of the body, and somewhat flattened against its parietes. Excretory ventral gland 
opening far forward, at -^" from anterior extremity. 

Male, not seen. 

Eab. Amongst small stones and sand in tide-pools, Ealmouth. 

6. 0. viRiDis, n. sp. (Plate XI. figs. 137, 138.) 
Female, lenorth I", breadth 

1 '* 

Q-x^ 9 , K, 1. K.<A,KXU iL 33 3 

External Characters, — Body of a light-greenish hue, tapering very slightly forwards^ 
but somewhat abruptly behind anus, where it terminates with a pretty distinct sucker 
and sucker-tubes. Head truncated, provided with a circlet of 4-6 setae; a few other 
smaller ones scattered over anterior part of body. Integument having longitudinal 


Pharyngeal cavity broad anteriorly, -^' long. (Esophagus about Jth of total length, 
uniform in size, embraced obliquely by ring near its middle; having a collection of 
pignient immediately behind pharynx somewhat resembling an ocellus. Intestine well 

1 // 

covered with hepatic particles having a distinctly tessellated arrangement. Anus -^ 
from posterior extremity. Vulva prominent, considerably behind middle of body, ^' 
from posterior extremity. Uterus unsymmetrical. 

^(de, not seen. 

-£f«i. Small filamentous green weed from tide-pool, Falmouth. 

7- 0. ATTENiiATus, Dujardin. (Plate XI. figs. 134-136.) 

Enoplus attenuatus, Dieslng, Syst. Helminth, ii. p. 125. 

Female, leno^th ^'\ breadth ^V'. 

b*^" 10 > uxt.t*tn.ix 43 5 

External Characters. —Body long and slender, tapering very slightly at extremities, 
though most at posterior, which is somewhat blunt, and terminated by a well-marked 
sucker, with which are connected sucker-tubes. Head bluntly rounded, provided with a 

of 6-8 setae. Integument having longitudinal markings 

Pharyngeal cavity elongated, -Aq" in length. (Esophagus about ith of total length 




uniform in size, embraced by a ring near its middle, having three longitudinal lines of 
pigment more or less distinct, and two distinct local aggregations immediately behind 
pharynx (pscudocelU), varying in colour from brown to carmine. Intestine covered with 
hepatic particles having a tessellated arrangement. Anus ^ij' from posterior extremity • 
posterior boundary of anal cleft rather prominent. Vulva prominent, some distance be- 
hind middle of body. Uterus unsymmetrical. Floating gland-cells numerous, lar^e 
about 3 Jq ^ ' in diameter. Excretory ventral duct opening far forwards, only -i-" from 
anterior extremity, by a very narrow portion immediately following a small pyriform 
dilatation. Lateral canals of a green colour and granular, with the appearance of an axial 


Male, length A", breadth 

1 " 

qUU H » l^X C^ttVA Kii 5Q0 

Posterior extremity curved, shorter, more abruptly narrowed, and having two median 
immediately above anal cleft. Q^sophagtis about -|^th of total length. A 

1 " 


from posterior extremity. /SjpzVw?^* almost straight, slen der, gig- " long ; accessory pece 


Hai. Found, with CJiromadora vulgaris, C. filiformis, and Qy atlwlaimus ocellatus, on a 
stunted and dingy specimen of Cladophora rupestris from half-tide pool, Palmouth. 

The specimens found by myself seem to agree so closely with the short description Du- 

jardin has left us of his Oncholaimus attenuatiis, as to make me think they must belon^ to 

the same species. The principal difference is that he mentions a " serie de soies roid°es" 

above the anus in the male, whilst I have only recognized a single pair in this situation. 

TTi<^ description is as follows :— « Corps filiforme, tres-mince, cinquante fois aussi long 

que large; tote munic lateralement de deux ou quatre soies courtes; cavite buccale 

alorigde, arm^e de trois pieces longitudinal cs, etroites, portant chacune une forte dent au 

milieu ; deux laches rouges contiguees pres du pharynx ; oesopha^e loni? de O"'"-^, lar^e de 
0--02O." i ^ 1 s t, . o 

^ « Mcile, long de 2--4, large de 0-^-045 ; queue brusquement retrecie en arriere de 

ranus, recourbc'e en crochet et terminee par une sorte de papiUe (ou ventouse ?) ; anus 

k0--033 de I'extrdmite, accompagn^ d'une double sSrie de soies roides; spicules longs 
de0"''»-03." ^ ^ 

Dans reau de mer, entre les algues, h Lorient." (Hist. Nat. des' Helminth, p. 236 

8. 0. PAPiLLosus, Eberth 

tab. i. figs. 13-17 


Korj,erjcstvicU, das Vorderende wenig versehmalert. nuer abgestutzt. Das Hinter 

ende des lYeibchens gerade, in eine lan^ 

gen. Bei dem Manncbe 

macht das nintertheil eine leiclxte Kriimmung gegen den Eueken. biegt sicli aber da 
nut der aussersten Spitze wieder gegen den Bauch 


Lange des Weibchens 3 Mm., Breite 0-075 
Oesophagus=ein Viertel der Korperlan-e.' 

9, 0. MEGASTOMA, Ebcrth 


tab. i. figs. 18-20 

Korj,er fast gerade, fadenformig, gegen don Vorderleib wenig yerschmiilert Mund 



ende ab^-erundet, Schwanzende beim Mannchen stark verdunnt, Aveniger bei dem Weib- 


chen, leicht eingebogen. 
» ■\reibcben 3 Mm. lang, 1 Mm. breit. 
" ^lanncben 5-6 Mm. lang. 


■ " Oesophagus = ein Sechstel der Korperlange." 

I have retained this species provisionally in the genus OncTiolaimus, whore it was 
placed by Eberth, though the representation he has given of this animal seems to indi- 
cate that it possesses a form of pharynx different, not only from that characteristic of the 
genus Oncholaimus, but also from that possessed by any other type thut I have yet 

10. 0. Echini, Ley dig. 

Miiller's Archiv, 1854, p. 291.— Diesing, Sltzungsb. der Kais. Akad. Bd. xlii. (1861) p. 626. — Eberth, 
Untersuch. iiber Nemat. p. 25. 

« Corpus utrinque attenuatum. Os dentibus pluribus instructum, Ovipara. 

Longit. 4 

/// H 

" Eab. JEchimis escuTentus, In intestinis {Leydig)" 

Probably swallowed accidentally ; and it seems doubtful whether it really Ipelongs to 

this genus. 


11. 0. KiVALis, Ley dig. 

Miiller's Archiv, 1854, p. 291, tab. xl. 89.— Diesing, Sitzungsb. der Kais. Akad. Bd. xlii. (1861) p. 626. 
Eberth, Untersuch. iiber Nemat. p. 25. 

" Os dentibus duobus lateralibus et tertio intermedio denticulato instructum. VivU 

para. Longit " 

" Eab. Sub saxis Meni frequenter {Leydig)." 

If this really belongs to the genus Oncholaimus, it is the only freshwater species yet 


16. ENCHELIDIUM, Ehrenberg, 
Body often 3-6 mm. lon^, straidit or slightly curved. Head blunt, rounded off 

truncate. Posterior extremity pointed, provided with a perforated sucker. Mouth 
plain, or with four small punctiform papillae. 

" Shin consisting of two or three layers, having, especially on fore part of body, 
several hairs implanted in its substance ; larger cirrhi around the mouth. Behind the 
phaiynx there opens on the ventral surface either a smaU gland or a tube reachmg to 

commencement of intestine. 

" An agglomeration of small cells in the. place of tail-glands. 

" Lateral lines simple, narrow, cellular cords. 

" Organs of Digestion.-^ o pharynx. (Esophagus cylindrical, widening posteriorly; 
the external sheath finely granular, or transversely striped. Anus at the base of taih 

" Organs of Gene rat ion. -Two spicules, or a larger and a smaUer pair, the latter bemg 
rather posterior. 



. *' Bright ring around the oesophagus, which in one case appeared to be incomplete 

" OccUL— One large, ring-formed mass surrounding oesophagus, and haying several 
lenses anteriorly." — Eberth^ TInters. ilber Nemat. p. 23, 

1. E. iiAKiyuM, Ehrenberg. 

Meer, u. d. Oreanism. d. Med 

57. — DujarJin, Hist. Nat. des Helm. p. 238. 
De rc'giouc marlnis, 1844, p. 69. 

7 (partim).- Oersted, 

" Corpus capillare, extremitate caudali subulata. Caput corpore continuum, truncatum 
On tcnulnale, orbiculare, ciri'hatum ? Ocellus pone os. Fenis . . . . ; femin^ apertura 
genitalis .... Longit 



TTah. Inter mucosa palos marinos obvestientia, et in aqua marina servata frequentis 

2. E. TENncoLLE, Ebcrth. 

' Untcrs. iiber Nemat. p. 23, tab. iii. figs. 1-3. 

" Korper des Mannchens fast gleichmassig cylindrisch, mit Ausnahme des verdiinn. 
ten Kopf- und Schwanzendes. Ersteres besonders im Cervicaltheile sehr diinn, nad 
vorn wicdur ctwas anschwellend, quer abgestutzt endigend. Das Hinterende zugespitzt 
mit durchbohrter Papille." 

*' Ange im Cervicaltheil kurtz hinter der Mundoffnung, scheint ringformig den Oeso- 
sophngus zu umgcben, yon schon brauner Earbe, enthalt zwei kleine runde Linsen. 
" Jjdngc des Mannchens 5 Mm., Breite 010. 
" Oesophngus=ein Eiinftel der Korperlange." 

3. E. ACUMINATUM, Ebcrth. 


Unters. uber Nemat. p. 24, tab. iil. figs. 4, 5. 

Korper des Mannchens fast geradc, cylindrisch, nach unteH wenig an Dicke zuneh- 
mend, wemg yerschmalert gegen das Vorderende, das Hinterende leicht eingehogen, in 

erne feme Spitze auslaufend, die in eine durchhohrte Papille endigt. . . . Hinter 
dem Pha.ynz ein schwarzhrauner birnformiger Pigmenthanfen, dessen vorderer ver- 

schmalerter Partie drei grossere runde Linsen auiliegen .... 

Laiii/e des Mannchens 3 Mm., Breite O'l 
Oesophagus=ein Funftel der Korp 

4 E 


.to ™ Wa»&., Eberf h. Unte«. uber Nemat. p. S3, tab. ii. figs 11 12 

Enda^Il?r ^^^'}'^' f'^'^^^^'^k, Hinterende zugespitzt mit feiner durchbohrter 
ajanschwellung, Vorderende wenig verschmalert, ahgerundet, in einen rundlichen, vom 
ubrigen Korper leicht abgesetzten Kopf geendigt 

Lange des Mamichens 5f Mm., Breite 01 Mm. 
Oosophaguslange verhalt sich zur Korperlange wie 1 : 6." 







' - 




5. E. GkOii. 

Prube Ausfluo- nach Triest und dem Quarnero, 1861. — Eberth, Unters. iibcr Nemat.j p. 22. 

17. ANTICOMA\ Bastian. 

Odontobius, Eberth. 

Gek Char. Bodi/ tapering at extremities. Caudal sf^rJcer ratlier small ; sucker -tubes 
undeveloped. Integument plain ; short rows of opposite setae on lateral aspects of 
anterior extremity ; also cephalic setae, and others more or less scatterinl ovei pos- 
terior part of body of males; papillae absent. Pharyngeal caxUy none. (Esophagus 
not distinctly muscular, widening posteriorly, surrounded by ring near its middle. 
Intestine mostly covered with rather pale granules having a tessellated arrange- 
ment. Vulm about middle of body. JJterus bifid. Sjncules two, curved. Accessory 
piece wanting. Supplementary organ small, simple, tubular. Ocelli absent. Vaginal 
glands two, pyriform, equal; anal two, medium-sized, nucleated. Excretory ventral 
gland opening opposite anterior of oesophagus. Lateral canals narrow, cellular. 
Movements moderately active. 


1; A. Ebeuthi, n. sp. (Plate XI. figs. 143-145.) 

Female, length J", breadth - 

External Characters.— Bodj whitish, slender, tapering considerably at extremities, 
especially at posterior, which is filiform. Head bluntly rounded, provided with a circlet 
of 6-8 well-marked setse, whilst laterally, at a distance of ek" ^^om anterior extremity, 
on each side, there is a row of 5 or 6 setae extending at right angles from body. Integu- 
ment plain. 

(Esophagus Jth of total length, gradually widening posteriorly, embraced by ring near 
its middle. Intestine well covered with liffht-coloured tessellated fat-particles. Anus 

1 " 


from posterior extremity. Vulm considerably anterior to middle of body, -^o" ^I'om 
anterior extremity. Uterus bifid; segments symmetrical. Anal glands two. Excretory 
ventral duct opening opposite termination of anterior |rd of oesophagus. 

Male, length \", breadth -^'\ 
' Posterior extremity having a well-marked row of setae in mid-abdominal region, above 
and below anus. Amis rh" ^o^ posterior extremity. Spicules curved, pointed, en- 
larged at upper extremities. Supplementary organ ^" above anal cleft, oblique, simple, 

^^^ar, j^^' long. 
Sab. About the roots of Corallina officinalis, tide-pools, Falmouth. 

2. A. LiMALis, n. sp. (Plate XI. figs. 146-148.) 


External Characters.—Bodj whitish, tapering considerably anteriorly, and also at 
posterior extremity, which is rather long and filiform. Head slightly rounded, provided 


' avno,, oj>^osite, and k<5^,. hair, on account of the opposite rows of setae on the lateral aspects of the cervical 


with a circlet of 4-6 spreading setae ; opposite cervical hairs not recognized. InteoTi 
ment plain or with the appeara^ice of longitudinal markings about goVo" apart. 

(Esophagus \ih. of total length, gradually widening posteriorly, embraced by mo 
slightly in front of middle. Intestine covered with pale, regularly tessellated fat-cells 
Anus j-J-g-" from posterior extremity. Vulva slightly posterior to middle of body. Vterm 
bilid. Varj'uial (/lands two, equal, pyriform. Excretory ventral gland opening close to 
anterior extremity, at a distance from it of only tww^'^ ' 

MalCi not seen. 

Hah. ]\rarine surface-mud of estuary, Palmouth. 

Not having seen the male of this species, I do not feel quite certain that it belongs to 
this genus. 

3. A. FELLUCiDA, n. sp. (Plate XI. figs. 149, 150 

Female. Icnsrth h". breadth 

1 " 

-UiX g , UiUClVALU 22 2 

External Characters. — Body tapering considerably forwards, posterior extremity 
and filiform. Head slightly rounded, provided with 4^6 setae ; whilst laterally, at 
from anterior extremity, on each side, is a row of six short equidistant setse. Integu- 
ment with an appearance of longitudinal markings -f~ooo" apart. 

(Esophagus about |th of total length,, widening posteriorly, and embraced by ring 
slightly anterior to its middle. Intestine covered with light, distinctly tessellated hepatic 

particles. Anus y^" from posterior extremity. Vulva slightly anterior to middle of 
body. Anal glands two. Excretory ventral duct ... 
Male, not seen. 

Hah. Small green weed from tide-pools, Palmouth. 


Odontohius acuminatus, Eberth, Unters. iiber Nemat. p. 28, tab. i. figs. 6-9. 

" Korper des Wiebchens weissHch, gerade. Vorderende stark verschmalert, Mund leicht 
abgerundet, Hinterende stark verdiinnt, in einen geraden pfriemenformigen Schwanz 

" Korper des Mannchens, Hinterende wie beim Weibchen. Zwei paarige, gekriimmte, 

leicht blassgelbe Spicula, davor ein unpaares, stabformiges, accessorisches Glied 

" Weibchen 2-5 Mm. lan^, 0*1 Mm. breit. 


Mannchen 2 Mm. lang, 0-075 Mm. breit 
Oesophagus:=ein Hrittel der Korperlang 

18. PHANODERMA\ Bastian. 

Enoplus, Eberth. 

Gen Chae. Body tapering at extremities. Caudal sucJcer well developed ; sucker-tubes 

three, rather short. Integument plain, or with longitudinal markings, Yery trans- 
parent ; cephalic setce present ; integumental pores weU marked anteriorly, lateral. 

' i^avhs, bright or clear, and Sep^io, skin. 






-pharyngeal cavity indistinct, with obscure indications of three slightly coloured 
T)haryn<^eal plates. (Esophagus not distinctly muscular, widening posteriorly, sur- 
rounded by a ring^ and in its latter half having circular contractions of its sheath 
at intervals, giving its border a regular crenated appearance; three longitudinal 
rows of orange- or other coloured pigment-granules more or less marked along 
its whole extent. Intestine covered witli somewhat olive-coloured fat-pnrticlcs, 
havino" a tessellated arrangement. Vulva about middle of body. Uterus bifid; 
seffments symmetrical. Spicules two, \on^ and narrow; accessory piece wanting. 
Supplemental organ small, obliquely situated, tubular. Ocelli two, large, conical, 
brio-ht red, situated laterally. Parietal glands, on muscles, well developed. Ex- 
cretory ventral gland consisting of a short tube, with a blind dilated extremity, 
and opening by an abruptly narrowed duct near anterior extremity. Lateral canals 

distinctly cellular^ 
Movements active. 

1. P. CocKSiS n. sp. (Plate XI. figs. 151-153.) 

Female, length \'\ breadth y^ 

External Characters,— Bodj tapering very gradually forwards, but narrowing quickly 
to a point behind, where it terminates in a well-developed sucker. Head narrow, 
rounded, provided with a circlet of 6-8 setse ; a few others scattered over anterior part of 
body. Integument hyaline, with an appearance of longitudinal markings ttW apart. 

Fharyngeal cavity indistinct. (Esophagus about ith of total length, embraced l)y ring 
at termination of anterior third ; having three rows of pigment, varying from ofangc- 
colour to olive-green, along its whole length ; constrictions of posterior half ^ at regular 
intervals, giving a crenated appearance to borders. Intestine well covered with a tessel- 
lation of hepatic particles. Anus yia" from posterior extremity. Vulva slightly posterior 
to middle of body. Farietal glands in oesophageal part of body very abundant. Ocelli 
two quite lateral, conical, bright-red pigment-masses. Excretory ventral gland open- 
ing by narrow duct, only ^o" from anterior extremity, and terminating in a dilated 
extremity near the middle of oesophagus. 


Male, lensth \'\ breadth 

1 " 

Amis ^" from posterior extremity. Spicules long, narrow, solitary ; length , , 5 
Siipplementary organ tubular, not very distinct, slightly curved, -^" in length, and 

situated ^" above anus. 
Sab. About the roots of Corallines in tide-pools, Falmouth. 

2. P. ALBiDTJM, n. sp. (Plate XI. figs. 154, 155. 

Femcde, length f', breadth -^'\ ,, ^ . . , x 

External Characters.-Body white, tapering gradually at extremities, not suddenly at 

posterior, as in last ; terminating in distinct sucker, with which are connected three 

sucker-tubes. Head narrowed, rounded, having a circlet of 6-8 spreading cirri. In- 

tegument very hyaline and transparent. 


' Named after mv dear and valued friend, W. P. Cocks. Es,.. to science is much indebted for his researches 
i»l« the marine zoology of Falmouth, resulting as they did in the discovery of so many new species of «.imals. 


Tharyngeal cavity indistinct. (Esophagus ^th and Jth of total length, embrac d K 
a ring ; border of posterior half crenated. Intestine well covered with fat-D rf " ^ 
arranged in a tessellate manner. Anus yi^" from posterior extremity. Tw^co ^^ ^ 
what posterior to middle of body. Ocelli lateral, bright red, situated about ^ "T^ 
anterior extremity. Farietal glands well developed. Excretory ventral duct "^ 

Ifale, not 

Uab. Small green sea-weed from tide-pools, Ealmouth. 
3. P. TTBEncuLATUM, Eberth. 


Enoplus tuherculatus, Eberth, Untersuch. uber Nemat. p. 38, tab. iv. figs. 1-5. 

" Korper fast gerade, nach hinten anschwellend, nach vorn sich allmahlieh versclinia- 
lernd, mit quer abgestutztem Kopf. Schwanz kurz, wenig spitz, in eine durchbohrte Papille 
endigend. Das Mannchen vor Beginn des Schwanzes starker anschweUend . 

" Liingc des Weibchens 5 Mm., Breite 0-2 Mm. 

" Lange des Mannehens 4J Mm., Breite 0-125 Mm. 

" Ocsophaguslauge verhalt sich zur Korperlange wie 1 : 3." 

19. LEPTOSOMATUM \ Bastian. 

Phanoglene, Eberth ; Enoplus, Eberth. ' 

Gen. Chap. Body elongated, filiform; posterior extremity blunt and rounded 

suclcer not prominent, provided with two or three long sucker-tubes 



Ijain or with longitudmal markings ; lateral integumental pores well marked, «>. 
absent, or yery few in number; cephalic papilte wanting. Fharynffeal omit, 
wanting. (EsapHagu, not distinctly muscular, almost uniform 

ZTv T:,^ .^ ^^ "'^ophageal ring. Intestine very scantily covered with 

2L n r ''''*-P«^-««''=^' ^"'-et^es almost altogether wanting. «« 

™n derahly posterior to middle of hody. Vtems bifid ; segments symmetrical (?). 

tt L '"' r. "'''' ''"* *^P*"-'"S ^* extremities. Icessory pieces two, pos- 

lateral hnvin P'^!''""; ' ^«I«> above anus. Ocelli two, conical, red, almost 
staneo'm,t„ ; ,°°'T"^ ^ ^ transparent lens-shaped body imbedded in their sul- 
ante orlrS; f~"^''^-'^ *-- lateral, opening'on either side close to 
oanaU . . !^' '''*'"= "''"''^ *° P"^*^™' Pa^ of oesophagus. i«<«-o' 

Movements mostly slow and tardv. 

T f 1 1 

to thrsameTvnTtnd "'''"'" ^f "'^ ''"™'^' '''"■' P'*'"''^ '"^ «»^ genus all really beta? 
by me undoubtedly present Tel ^ '■"^"''' ' '•^arrangement. The three species foimd 
the simUarity in the ^T ft *'°""'"'° "'^'^''^''ters, the most notable of which are 
nature of the ocelli • but'?' I! ™''^'' spicules and accessory pieces, as well as in tlie 

somatum grncile Ja t v? . ™fortunately bgen unable to ascertain whether Lejto- 

and L. figuratuM have the same double excretory glands as I have un- 

^ ^'^rl,> blender, md aQ^a, a body. 



External Ch 


mistakcably made out in the typical species L. elongatum ; in both these other two species 
I have as vet failed to detect any structure, either simple or double, answering to the 
excretory gland. 

After a careful examination of Eberth's figures, however, I feel almost sure that 
liis Thcuwglene punctata presents the same type of structure' as my L, clongattm, 
and still more convinced that his P. bacillata is intimately allied to X. gmcile, 
AVhether belonging to this or more correctly to another, it is nlso evident that his 
Enoplus coronatus and my L. Jiguratum must be included in the same f^-enus. 

I have constituted this new genus, and removed from the genus EhaiwgJcnc the species 
placed in it by Eberth, on account of the improbability that these marine forms would 
agree in structure with the freshwater type of Nordmann's 

1. L. ELONGATUM, n. sp. (Plate XII. figs. 156, 157.) 
21ale, length f ", breadth aw"- 

Body cylindrical, filiform, tapering but very slightly at extre- 
mities. Sucker not prominent ; sucker-tubes two, loni?, tubular, the terminations bein '^ 

l)Iunt and rounded. Head slightly narrowed, rounded, naked. Integument plain ; no 
striae visible. 

(Esophagus |th of total length, slender, nearly uniform in size, and free from pigment, 
surrounded by ring near .end of anterior third. Intestine scarcely recognizable, from the 
almost total absence of hepatic particles. Anus -^" from posterior extremity. Sjjlcules -^^ 
long, broad in the middle, but tapering at extremities ; accessory pieces j-^" long. 
Ocelli two conical carmine-coloured masses on dorsum of oesophagus, jij" from anterior 
extremity. Kvcretori/ glands tw^o, tubular, extending along anterior two-thirds of oeso- 
phagus, and opening one on each side of head, tooo'' ^o^ level of anterior extremity. 

Female, not seen. 


JTab. In a small dull-reddish sponge between crevices of stones from estuary, Falmouth. 



Phanoglene punctata, Eberth, Untersuch. iiber Nemat. p. 20, tab. ii. figs. 5-7. 

" Korjper iiberall von fast gleicher Dicke, starker verschmtilert nach vorn, hinten in 
eine stumpfe Sj)itze auslaufend, leicht s^e^en den Bauch concav, mitunter auch starker 

emgerollt. Bas termiuale Ende hier und da leicht nach unton ciufireboijen. Ilintercnde 


des Mannchens etwas schmaler als das vomWeibchen. Mundoffnung eine leichte Grube, 
i^urz hinter ihr auf der Bauch- und Elickenflache zwei kleine Haare 

"Weibchen 4-5 Mm. lang, 0-10 Mm. breit. Mannchen 7-5-8 Mm. lang, 01 Mm. 


" Oesophagus =ein Eiinftel der Korperlange. 
Sab. Villafranca, unter Seepflanzen." 

3- I^. GRAciLE, n. sp. (Plate XII. figs. 158-160.) 

^m«7e, length F. breadth ' " 

t,^" a » i^icaubii 733 


;t he merely represents a terminal portion of one excretory gland, and does not depict its commence- 
anteriorly, 1 think he has very possibly overlooked the other, and also the lateral openings so close to the 
i"ior extremity. This very unusual arrangement seems not to have been detected by him. 




Fxtemal Characters. —Body -white, long,- thread-like, tapering very slightly at extre- 
mities. • Head rounded and, as well as rest of body, naked. Integument pMn; pores 
Tcry numerous and easily recognizable, especially in lateral regions of anterior n* 



(Esophagus Jtb of total length, embraced by ring anteriorly, tery slightly pi^iieuted 

I * 

and almost uniform in size. LdesHne sparingly corered: with small light-coloured ^^^ 

irales mof(^ or less tcssellat6 in arrangement. Anus x|^" from- posterior e:gtremitv. 
Vulva posterior to middle of body.- Uterus bifid; segments symmetrieaL Cha yen 
large, occupying whole Width of body. Excretory glands . . . . . ^ Ocelli two, bright 
redj coniral^ on dorsum of oesopliagUs, ^tt' ^^ov£i posterior extremity. 

Male, length 4", breadth ^\^ 


Anns -j-J-j" from posterior extremity, Spicules -^^" long, same shape as in- L, elonga 
turn ; accessory pieces about half as long as spicules. 
Hah. Same as L, elongatum. 



" Korpcr des "Weibchens gerade, gegen die Mitte wenig' anschwellefid, beide Enden fasf 
leichmassig verdtinnt, Torderende leicht gerundet, quer abgestutzt, Hinterende stumpf, 
lit terminaler Ooffntmg fiir die Schwanzdriise.. . 

i' •* «> ^ 



IVcibchen S-0 itm. lang, 0-1 llm. breit. 
Ocsophaguslange=ein Pimftel des Korpei 
Hub. Unter Corallen im Ilafen von Nizza 


5. L. riGURATUM, n. sp. (Plate XII. figs. lGl-163.) 
Female, length I", breadth ^'\ 

J^ternal Characters.—Bodj long, cylindrical, scarcely tapering at all at extremities, 

the posterior being blunt and rounded. Sucker well developed; sucker-tubes large. 

Head bluntly rounded, of a Hghf yellowish colour for about ^'' of an inch, and figured 

in a regular manner by bright lines ; provided with a circlet of four short conical 

. Integument with airi appearance of longitudinal markings ; fntegunlentat pores 

• Oesophagus about Jth of total length, nearly uniform in size, embraced by nng akut 
the termination of anterior third. Intestine rather slightly covered with light fat- 
particles not tessellately arranged. Anus ^J/' from posterior extremity, rutva at com- 
mencement of posterior third of body. Uterus bifid ; segments short, symmetrical. 
Ocelh two lateral, reddish brown, conical pigment-masses, each having & transparent 
lens-hke body imbedded anteriorly. Floating gtancl-cetls Vefy large, oval', nucleated, 

olten at regular distances on either side Of body. Fkcretoiy fflmds indistinct j appear 
-ce of lateral openings at either side of head; nothing else recosjiiized 
Male, very slightly smaller than female 

O ^"■^^ ^y^^yj^. 

lon^ from posterior extremity. Spicules ^^ in length ; accessory pieces ^" 

Supplementm-y organ m tlxe fo*ai of a horny sucker-like body 






A scries of nine liemi spherical prominences above anus, o^i either side of middle line 

(suctorial papillae). 

Hah. About the root$ of Corallina officinalis, and in sponge with L. elongatum and 
I. oracile, Palmputh. 

6. L 


Korper hei dem Weihchen fast gerade, starker versehmalert gegen das Kopfcnd 


gegen den Schwanzi 

" Kopf leicht abgerundet mit einer kleinen eentralen Vcrtiefung, die zum Pharynx 
fiihrt. Hinterende stumpf spitz, bei dem Mannchen. leicht ein^eroUt. 
"Lfinge des Weibchens 5 Mm., Breite 0-20 Mm. 
" Lansre des Mannchens 4-5 Mm., Breite 0*2 Mm. 
" Oesophaguslange verhalt sich zur Korperlange wie 1 : 5, 
" Uab, TJnter Corallen im Hafen von Nizza." 



''Korper des AYeibchens eingeroUt, nach unten anschwellend, Yordcrcnde ziemlich 
schnial, Hinterende wenig verschmachtigt, stumpf. 
" Sinncsorgane. ^ In der Cervicalgegend zwei viereckige hellbraune Pigmentflcckc 

ohne deutliche Linse. 
" TVeibchen 15 Mm. lang, -j Mm. breit. 
" Oesophagus verhalt sich zur Korperlange wie 1 : 15. 


"Eab. TJnter Corallen im Hafen von Nizza." 


Phanoghne subulata, Eberth, Unters. iiber Nemat. p. 21, tab. ii. figs. 9 & 10. 

"Korper des Weibchens in der aussern Porm der vorigen Art {L. longissimum), mit 
Ausnahme des Schwanzes, ganz ahnlich. Dieser war hier sehr lang, pMemenformig und 
endete in eine schmale durchbohrte Papille. 


ge etwa 8 Mm 

Sab. N 

This species seems to differ considerably from the others ; and the form of the tail, with 
the presence of anal glands, as represented by Eberth, are sufficient to indicate the im- 
probability of its really belonging to this genus. 

20. ENOPLUS, Dujardin. 

Lineola, Kolliker. 

<^E^-. Chae. :Bo% tapering at extremities, especially towards posterior, which is more 

or less conical. Caudal sucker of moderate size, generally provided with three short 
STicker-tubes. Integument having transverse and longitudinal markmgs ; pores 
most visible in mid-dorsal and ventral region ; cephalic setae generally present, and 


frequent about posterior extremity, especially in tlie male ; cepliaiic ba "11 


often present. Fharyngeal caviti/ none or indistinct, but in its situation th 

distinct liorny jaws or teeth, more or less bilobed at their extremities. (Esor 
not distinctly muscular, nearly uniform in size, often much stained with pi^meiit 
especially at the anterior part ; no distinct oesophageal ring. Intestine well covered 

ement. Vuka 



with dark pigment-granules often distinctly tessellate in 
about middle of body. Uterus bifid; segments symmetrical. ^Spicules larg 
curved, and, together with two strong lateral accessory pieces, of a yellowish 
colour. Supplemental organ of same colour, large, oblique, funnel-shaped, 
(pseud.) occasional, owing to more distinct aggregation of the usual pigment-matter 
of oesophagus; sometimes on or external to oesophageal sheath (?). Um^etory 
ventral gland tubular, opening about the termination of anterior third of oesoplia-us 
Lateral canals distinctly cellular. ' ° 

Movements moderately active. 

Tliis is a very interesting genus, inasmuch as it appears to reveal to us the most rucli- 
mentary condition of the ocelli, which are found more specially developed in i\.. species 
of other genera, such as Fhanoderma and Leptosomatum. Here we find, in several 
species, a simple local increase in the aggregation of the pigment, in two or three patches, 
on the anterior part of the oesophagus, it being also more or less scattered over its whole 
extent whilst in Enoplns inermAs it is wanting in aU parts of the ^..,^^, ... . 

lV.f TT^ f ''^^ '^''^^-^^'^^ "^"^^' ^^^i^l^ «-^-' l^-----^ to be still situated 

tC i" 1 '" ,' '''"'^ '' '^^ ^^°^^^^-' - - - ^-d-tly their situation in 

tlie genera above named. ^ 

covlTl ^T' '^? ''' """"^"''^'^ ^"^^ 'P^^^^^ ^^ f^«^ Nematodes which have been dis- 

eithe 1 ^ H • T"""' ^'"'^ ''^^'^' ''^^ ^""'^^'^ ^^^ ^^ture are still very doubtful, 
eithei fiom the msufficient or unsatisfactory nature of the details concernin/them 

1. E. coMMixis, n. sp. (Plate XII. figs. 164-166 ) 
Female, length i", breadth j^". 
Uxtemal Ch 



^yC^.^Z.^ T ~^"''^ *'P'""S ^'^Shtly forwards, but considerably behind, 

papilla, ani bcb :rthef I M^ S g Zr'' ff f ^"^ '""^ ~"^ ^"1 
«,-„„ „„*„..:-_ ._ , . . a cuclet 01 8-10 long patent setiB : a few small sctaj scattered 

about -.nAr^' 

uuoui -^-•■^"' f body also. Integument with almost imperceptible transrerse .- . 
tanee of° " ° " '^ ""'"' "" ^r!V^^^^^<^'> "f longitudinal markings also at a fc 

baobed. ^,CZ r° uM '"''• """^ ^^ '^''^ ^PP^-^ extremities somewhat 
line, with w'r tr ' "' '"'"^ '*'°^''' ^''""=" '*^ --1 -1'-t«a ^y 

..,.' ,„..r *'°"^'^' *'^''"^^^^^'' "'"'■kings of its waUs at int.r.-nl» ...H « i 

intervals, and a more or less 

abundant arrancement nf ^- ""^;;"^" "^ ^^^ ^^Us at intervals, and a more or J 
tliree longitudinal \1, 211 f T^"^^^^^^'^^ pigment-granules, mostly collected 
most marked anteriorlv ^l^^^ . ''''^''^^' transverse offshoots or separate masses 
colour..! p.f .„..:_i ^ ^^ ^^*^"^^ pharynx. Intestine thieklv covered with dark 

coloured fat-particles contained 

Intestine tliickly covered with dark- 
m rather large cells, the tesseUated appearance bein^ 

















distinct. Anus 7V" fron^ posterior extremity. Vulva slightly posterior to middle of 
body. Excretory ventral gland tubular, extending from posterior part of oesopliagus to 
about tlic termination of anterior third. 
• Jlale, length \'\ breadth yfe". 

Eather stouter than female, especially at posterior extremity; tail tapering more 
abruptly behind anus ; small setse scattered over posterior part of body ; below anal cleft 
are two strong setse, one on each side of middle line ; and above, between it and supple- 
mentary oro'an, is a single median row of about sixteen longer and more slender bristles. 
Strong obliquely transverse markings of integument 3^7" apart for some distance above 

anal cleft. 
Spicules brownish yellow, strong, curved, two" ^"^ length ; accessory pieces of same 

colour, -^\^" long, slightly curved, and somewhat wedge-shaped. Supplementary organ 
" above anus, brownish yellow, large, infundibuliform, ^\^" long ; internal expanded 

portion becoming thin and rather indistinct. 
Eah. About the roots of Corallina officinalis from tide-pools, Falmouth. 

2. E. DujAEDiNii, n. sp. (Plate XII. figs. 168-170 

'' 1,™^^^+!, 1 ^' 

Female, length \'\ breadth -j-qo 

External Characters.— Bod^j very pellucid, tapering slightly anteriorly, but consider- 
ably behind anus. Head narrowed, rounded, having four crucially arranged papillie 
around mouth, and behind these a circlet of 10-12 strong patent setae ; no other setae 
visible. Integument very transparent, with almost imperceptible transverse and also 

longitudinal markings. 

Teeth three, same as in last. (Esophagus between Jth and |th of total length ; pig- 
ment-lines and markings well developed anteriorly, but no very distinct local aggre- 
gations. Intestine broad, densely covered with small, dark-coloured, tessellate aggre- 
gations of fat-particles only about 2(foo" i^i diameter. Anus i^" from posterior extre- 
mity. Vulva very slightly posterior to the middle of body. Excretory ventral duct 
opening opposite termination of anterior third of oesophagus. 

Male, about same size as female, but slightly narrower. Posterior extremity ter- 
minating with three minute setae ; single median row of long narrow setae between anus 
and supplementary organ; the two posterior to anus not present, neither were any small 
ones scattered over posterior part of body recognized. 

Spicules brownish yellow, strong, curved, ^h" long ; accessory pieces about half as 
long. Supplementary organ f/' above anus, much longer, as compared with breadth of 
liody, than in last species. 

Sah. In sand and about roots of Ali^ae from tide-pools, Falmouth. 

8. E. PiGMENTOsrs, n. sp. (Plate XII. figs. 171, 172 

Female, length \'\ breadth 

1 " 

External Clmracte,-, .SoAy tapering sligMly fonvards ; posterior extremity behind 
anus elongated, eonical, terminating with distinct rounded sucker, but no seti«. Head 
Wuntly rounded : mouth surrounded by four rather smaller papiUse ; and behmd them is 


a circlet of about six strong spreading setae ; no setae recognized on other parts .of bodr. 
IntoGTumcnt transparent ; strise not recognized. 

Teeth three, large, -g^" in length. (Esophagus about |-th of total length, abundantly- 
marked with pigment arranged in three principal rows. Intestine densely covea^ed with 
very dark-coloured and almost black pigment-granules ; tesseUate aa^angement not very 
distinct. Jnus-iy from posterior extreniitj. Vagina anterior to middle of bodv. 
Oca largo. Krcretory teniral duet opening opposite termination of anterior tMrd of 


Male J not seen. 

Ilah, About roots of Alffje and Corallines from tide-pools, Palmouth. 


4. E. iNERMis, n. sp. (Plate XII. figs. 173-175.) 

1 l-v-^^/^r^y^lTl-i -I 

Female y len^rth \", breadth 

^vu. 3 , u^^.iXKX^.i.^ ig7 

Extervfd Characters. — Eody naked, tapering but verj slightly anteriorly, thongli in 
the usual way towards posterior extremity, which terminates in a rather undevelopecl 
sucker, in connexion with which the usual sucker-tubes were not recomized. Head 

bluntly rounded, or even somewhat angular; no papillae ; no setae. Integument with 

faint transverse striae, yowo ' apart, and also indistinct longitudinal markings. 

Teeth three, small, 3-^^" long, very close to mouth. (Esophagus about yth of total 

length, almost free from pigment, except anteriorly, whex'e it is principally collected into 

two reddish-brown ocelli-like msisses, about 3-j3-"from anterior extremity. Intestine w^ 

covered with dark pigment-granules ; tessellation indistinct. Anus -j^" from posterior 

extrcmity.^ Vulva posterior to middle of body. Excretory ventral gland could not Le 

Male, length nearly the same as that of female, breadth yjg". Head provided T^itli 
four indistinct papillae ; posterior extremity broader than in female, and tapering more 
abruptly behind anus; two setae below anus, small; no other seen. 

Spicules brownish yellow, cui'ved, obtuse at points, jIq'' long; accessory pieces of 

about half the length. Supplementary organ rather narrow, JW" above anus, and 


in length 

Hab. In small red sponges from crevices of rock, Palmouth 


6. E. BREVis, n. sp. (Plate XII. figs. 176, 177.) 

Female, length i", breadth ^1^" 

&^" 5 J uA^^autii J 43 

External Characters.— Body scarcely tapering at all anteriorly, but considerably 
towards the posterior extremity, which is rather long and pointed, terminating in a 
distinct sucker ; sucker-tubes not recognized. Head rounded, having no papillse, but 
provided with a circlet of 10-12 setae. Integument transparent, with very delicate 
transverse and longitudinal markings. 

Teeth three, large, -5^" in length. (Esophagus between ith and ^th of total length 

pigmentary deposits distinct almost to termination. Intestine well covered with dart 
coloured fat-particles, having a tesseUate arrangement. Anns ^" from posterior 



extremity. Vulva posterior to middle of body. Excretory tentral duct opening at rJir" 

ftm. atif erior e^tfemity. 

21ale, not seen.- 

Eah. About roots of small A%ge and Corallines from tidc-pdob, Falmouth. 

(J. U. TRIDENTATIJS, Bujardiu. 

Hist. Nat. des Helminthes^ p. 233. 

"Corps filiforme, gris-brunatre, long de 3 a 7"""", krge de 0'"™-ll a 0'"'"-23, trente h. 
trente-einci fois aussi long que large ; tete anguleuse, large de 0"^"^-0G, portant latcrale- 
ment quelques soies roides, opposees; boucbe ronde, entour^e par le t6gument mou, of 
amide int^rieurement de trois machoires cornees, sym^^triques ;' mandibules longues dc 
©■"OiG, forffiees d'une apopbyse posterieure, plus etroite, 61'argies et bilobecd en avaut, 
6u elleS ^ tei'minent par une dent crochue interne; oesopbage museuleux, lonf^ dc 0'""^-9, 
krge dc 0"''°-06^, avec des bandes transrerses de pigment brun-rougeatre ; deux amas de 
pigment rouge (tacbes oculiformes ?) a I'origine de Toesopbage ; canal ocsopbagien tri- 
quetrCj a bord flexueux ; intestin revetu de plaques ar^olees brunatres (foie ?) ; tegument 
forme d'un ^piderme epais de O^'^-OOIT, et de buit a lieuf couches d'une substance 
diaphane elastique. 

"2Idle ayant la partie posterieure du corps herissee de quelques soies cparses j queue 
assez brusquement amincie, large de 0'""*02, a Fextremite ; orifice genital (et anal ?) a 
Qmm.g-i^ de I'extremite; un autre orifice (anus ou ventouse?) situe ^ O^^'^SS en avant; 
spicules epais, longs de O'^^'IS, courbes en faucille et dcnteles vers I'extremite; piece 
accessoire tongue de 0'"™-048, embrassant I'extremite des spicules. 

" Pemelle a queue plus longue et moins brusquement amincie; anus h O'^^'^'^T de 
rextremite ; vulve orbiculaire, situee en avant du milieu. 

" Je I'ai trouve frequemment entre les algues marines a Toulon, et a Cette dans la 
^Kditerrane'e, et dans I'etang de Thau, et a Saint-i\Ialo dans FOcean." 

7. E. STENODON, Dujardin. 

Hist. Nat. des Helminthes, p. 234. 

Corps long de 2"^™ a (?), large 0'"'"04 a (?), cinquante fois environ aussi long que 


large; tete large de 0"^'*^-01B, munie de quelques soies roides, laterales; boucbe armee 
interieurement de trois dents etroites, sinueuses, longue de 0'"'°012 : une tacbe rouge 
oien nette sur I'oesopbage, h O^'^'-OS de la boucbe j queue epaisse, amincie pen. h pcu ; 
anus h 0---07 de I'extremite. 
'*Dans I'eau de mer entre les algues, a Lorient." 

8. E. ELoxGATUs, Dujardin. 

Hist. Nat. des Ilelminthes, p. 234. 

''Corps long de 18"^ large de 0™™'2, quatre-vingt-dix fois aussi long qtie large; tet^ 
large de 0-"^-06, tronquee et mnme de soies I'ateraleS roides, assez longues ; bouche armee 
^terieurement de deux ou trois pieces (m^ctoires) cotidee», h angte droit en avanf et en 
dedans, et dentelees en avant. 

*''^&s I^eau de mer, ^ Saint-Malo.*' 





9. E. MICROSTOMUS, Dujardin. 

" Corps proportionnellemcnt asscz epais, long de 2""'"-6, large de O^'^IO, vingt-six fois 
aussi long que large, aminci seulement aux extremitcs ; tete amincie brusqucment et 
large 0"""-01G en avant, et entouree de quelques soies roides; bouclie armce interieure. 
ment de trois pieces (mflchoircs ?) prolongees par des apoj^liyses etroites en arricre; deux 
taclics rouges bien neltos et bien separees, h 0"'°'-06 de la bouche; queue courte, assez 

brusqucmeut amincie. 

" Dans I'eau de mer, h Lorient 


10. E. >r.\rTioi'iiTiTAL:\[TJS, Eberth. 

Untrrs. iiber Ncmat. p. 35, tab. ii. figs. 23^ 24, tab. iii. fig. 6. 


" Korj^cr des Weibchcns fast gerade, gegen das Yorderende wenig verscbmalert, das 
Scliu nnzcnde starker zugesjntzt und in eine kleine durcbbobrte Anscbwellung endi^end. 

"Kopf abgerundet mit einem mittleren ruudliclien Vorsprung und 2 kleinen seitli- 
clien Papillen. 


wei grosse braune Pigmcntfleclccn liinter dem Pharynx. 
"lYeibcben 5 Mm. lang, 0*20 Mm. breit. 
"OesophaguslJinge^J Korperlange." 

11. E. OBTrsiCAUDATUS, Eberth. 

Untersuch. iiber Nemat. p. 36, tab. iii. figs, 7 & 8. 

" Koiycr des "Weibchens. — In seiner iiusseren Eorm ist er von dem vorigen verschieden 

durch die alhnabliche und geringe Verschmalerung des Vorderendes und durcli den 

stumpfeu Schwanz, welcher nacli oben eine mehr concave und nach unten eine mehr 

convexe Eliiche bildet. Am Schwanze eine terminale nur leicht prominirende Miindung 
der Schwanzdrlise. 

" Hinter dem Pharynx zwei quergelagerte dunkelbraune Augenflecke. 
" Lringe des Weibchens 3 Mm., Breite 0125 Mm. * 
"Oesoi^haguslange^i der Korperlange." 

12. E. STEiATUs, Eberth. 


Unters. iiber Nemat. p. 36, tab. ix. figs. 9-12. 

" Korjper fast gerade, fadenformig, in der Mitte angeschwoUen, gegen die beiden 
Endcn verschmalert, starker gegen den Schwanz ; dieser bei dem Mannchen leicW 

gen. Yorderende stumpf abgerundet, mit einem kleinen trichtcrformigen Mund. 


Der Korper hinter dem Pharynx auf eine kurze Strecke leicht eino-eschnlirt 



Hinter dem Pharynx zAvei braune nierenformige Pigmenthaufen 
Liinge der Mannchen 3 Mm., Breite 0-125 Mm. 
Oesophaguslange= J der Korperlange." 

13. E, ocrLATTJS, Diesing 

Anguillula oculata, Oersted 

1 J 

" Ocelli duo brunnei 


p. 625. 

Sab. In profunditate 11-go orgyarum, Kullen in fretu Oresund, estate (Oerstedf 



U. E. LETDiGii/Ebertli. 

Miiller's Arcliiv, 1851, p. 292.— Eberth, Unters. uber Nemat. p. 32. 

"Per ^Vunu ist fadenformig, l|-2"' lang, das Kopfende brciter als das Scliwanzcndc. 
Die cuticula stark quergeriugelt, besonders im vordercn Drittbeil des Kor2)crs, uud joder 
Rin"- crscheiiit wieder flir sich langsgestriclielt. • 

" Kopf querabgcstutzt, vorderer Rand wie lippenartig, mit melircn seiclitcn Einkcr- 
bungcn und mit vereinzelten blassen Borsten bcsetzt. Der Lippentlicil des Kopfes ist 
hell, sonst bat der Wurrn bei durchfallendem Lichte eine briiunliclic Earbiinrj. Die 

;!lIuudliohIe hat inneii zwei seitliclie gezalinelte Leisten und eine unpaarc mittlere klcincrc. 
Schundrohre nacli hinten leicht ' kolbig angeschwollen, dickwandig, quergc^f reift mit 
innerer Cuticula. Darm gerade. Anus an der Scliwauzbasis. Im Anfang dos Ocso- 
phagus zwei rothbraune augenahnliche Elecke. Zwei entgegengesctzt verlaufende 
Eierstocke, gemeinsamer Uterus, Vagina in der Mitte des Korpers. Das Miinnclien vor 
dem Schwanzende auf dem Rllcken mit Borsten besetzt. Es sclieinen zwei Spicula vor- 
liandcn. Schwanzdriise bei beiden Gesclileclitern durch ein kurzes Uohrcbcn miiudend.** 
Eberth . 

15. E. SiEBOLDii, Eberth. 

Untersuch. iiber Nemat. p. 31. 

Lineola Sieboldii, KoUiker, Abdriick aus den Verhand. d. Naturf. Gesellch. 1845. 

" Der Leib ist briiunlich, vorn und hinten weiss, 3-5'" lang. Von den Eiihlern vier 
sehr kurtz, zwei etw^as langer, alle endstandig. Mundhohle mit kleincn zahnarti 
Hcrvorragungen besetzt ; am Kopfe diclit am Oesophagus zwei oder drei Elecken 
(Augen ?). Scheideoffuung mit zwei oder drei kleinen zahnartigen Vorspriingcn versehen. 
Schwanz O'V" lang ; Penis O'l'" lang." 

16. E. ciEEHATUs, Eberth. 

Untersuch. iiber Nemat. p. 34, tab. ii. fig. 20-22, tab. iv. fig. 17, & tab. v. fig. 4. 

"Korper: bei dem Weibchen am Hinterleib sjeojen den Bauch leicht eingebogen, 


starker eingerollt bei dem Mannchen, beide Enden verschmalert, der Schwanz zugespitzt, 


das Vorderende etwas abgerundet. Schwanz in eine kurze durchbohrte Spitze aus- 
laufend ... 

"Lange des Weibehens 4 Mm., des Mannchens 3JMm. 
"Breite des ^Veibchens 0-12 Mm., des Mannchens O'lMm. 

"Oesophaguslange=i der Korperlange." 

This certainly is not an Unoplus ; the type is distinct, though unknown to me. 

17. E. c^RULETjs, Eberth. 

Untersuch. iiber Neraat. p. 39, tab. iv. fig. 6-12, & tab. v. fig. 3. 

"Korper von bliiulicher Earbung, cylindrisch, gegen das Vorderende leicht yer- 
sclimiilert und stumpf conisch geendet, das Hinterende wenig verjiingt, stumpf ; beim 
Weibchen ge^en den Bauch eino-ekrilmmt, beim Mannchen starker eingerollt. Die 

Gestalt des Schwanzes bei beiden Geschlechtern gleich. An ihm findet sich terminal 

zeimhch c^rosse runde Oeffnuno- fiir die Schwanzdriise. Kurz vor der Mundun 

>3xv.oov. x^XiUC V/CimUUg 

liegen noch drei kleine hornio-e zahnartige Klappen. Die Driise besteht aus einem 

grosseren, von einer gemeinsamen Membran eingeschlossenen Zellenaggregat 

• • 





Am untereii Ende des Pharynx liegen auf diesem zwei sclionblaue merenfdrmise 

All i*en. 

"Lange des Weibchcns 6 Mm., Ereite 0*2 Mm. 

"Lfinge des ^Mannchens 4 Mm., Breite 02 Mm. 

" Oesoplinguslange verhalt sich zur Korperlange wie 1 : 5." 

This also cannot belong to the genus JEnojpUis. The first glance at Eberth's fi»iires 
reveals a large pharyngeal cavity with no teeth or jaws, a distinct oesophageal rin», and 
an absence of the characteristic supplementary male organ, which at once negative its 
really belonging to this genus. It seems to be a most remarkable and interesting type, 
but one with which I am quite unfamiliar.- 

18. E. QUADIDEXTATUS, Berlin. 

Miillcr's Arclilv, 1853, p. 431, — Eberth, Untersuch. iiber Nemat. p. 31. 

Under this name Berlin appears to have included two or three forms which are per- 
fectly distinct from one another. Erom his drawings, one of these animals is un. 
doubtcdly an Enophis, whilst another appears to be a Leptoso7iiatum. 

19. E. , n. sp., M. Schultze. 

V. Carus, Icones Zootomicse, pi. vii. fig. 3. 

No description. 

This animal is e^ddently not an JEnoplus. 


21. LINHOMCEFS ^ Bastian. 

Gen. Chae. Body, linear, cylindi-ical, scarcely tapering at all at the extremities, wliich 

are hhmt and rounded. Caudal sucUr small, very sliglitly prominent ; sucker- 
tubes two, short and broad. Integument plain or with longitudinal markings; 
lateral cer^-ical mark cii'cular, small, with a dot in the centre ; set^e more or less 
abundant in anterior part of body; no cephaKc papillse. Fharyngeal caviti/ of 
moderate size, cup-shaped, naked. (Esophagns distinctly muscular, swollen slightly 
behind pharynx and again at termination. Intestinal cells containing rather light- 
coloured particles more or less tessellate. Vulva about the middle of body, with 
minute emmences (suckers ?) in median Hne in front and behind it. • Uterus bifid, 
segments symmetrical. Spicules curved, pointed. Accessory pieces two, thin 
and reflcxed. Ocelli none. Glandular sys^^m. parietal, not much developed; 
floating ceUs in general cavity of body large ; anal glands well developed. Excre- 
tory ventral gland consisting of a broad duct opening near middle of oesophagus, 

. and a terminal dilated portion pressing upon first part of intestine. Lateral canals 

Movements rather slow, 
1. L. HiESTJTus, n. sp. (Plate XII. figs. 178, 179.) 

Female, length J", breadth 3^". 

Rrternal Characters,^Bodj tapering scarcely at all at extremities, but rather more 

' X/.ov, a line, and Sf^otos, like, in allusion to the thread-like nature of the body. 



p-steriorly than anteriorly. Head truncated or obtusely rounded, surrounded by setae, 
some directed forwards and others spreading, tlie latter continuing for some distance 
over anterior part of body. Integument very thin ; no markings visible. 

Tlwnjngeal camty cup-shaped, -^ho" deep. (JEso^pliagus -f^th of total length. Intcs- 
tine well covered with cells presenting a tessellate arrangement, Rud containing liglit- 
coloured granules. Vulva slightly anterior to middle of body ; seven minute suctorial 
eminences in median line before and behind it, about j^'' apart. Anal glav<h con- 

of four distinct masses. Excretory duct opening near middle of ocsopha^'us. 
Lateral canals faintly granular, occupying about Jth of circumference of body. 

M<ile, not seen. 

Uab. In sand at roots of sea-weed from tide-pools, Ealmouth. 

2. L. ELONGATUS, n. sp. (Plate XII. figs. 180, 181.) 

MaUy length -f^\ breadth -^\ 

External Characters, — Body very long and filiform, not tapering at all anteriorly, 
aiul but very slightly immediately before termination. Head bluntly rounded, fiu-nished 


■nitli a circle of eight setae, directed forwards. Integument thin, presenting longitudinal 


markings xaoW apart. 

Pharyngeal camty nearly rectangular, depth two^j having three thin horny laminae 
continued backwards (into substance of oesophagus), with rounded and minutely serrated 
edges. (Esojjltagus about Jth of total length. Intesfine covered with cells having a 
tessellate arrangement; individual cells containing rather few granules. Anus 

1 " 

from posterior extremity. Spicules of moderate length, curved ; accessory pieces thin, 
flat, blade-like. Anal glands four large, somewhat quadrate, granular bodies, lying 
between anal cleft and sucker-tubes. Excretory duct opening near middle of oesophagus. 

Female, not seen. 

Eab. With Symplocostoma tenuicolUs and Chromadora vulgaris on fine filamentous 
■green weed from tide-pools, Palmouth. 

22. TACHYH0DITE3 \ Bastian. 

Gex. Char. Body tapering at extremities. Caudal sucJcer very small ; no sucker-tubes 

visible. Integument having transverse striae ; cephalic setae present ; papilhe absent. 
JPharyngeal cavity very small, indistinct. (Esophagus almost cylindrical. Intestine 
rather sparingly covered wdth light olive-coloured hepatic granules. Vulva poste- 
rior to centre of body. Uterus unsymmetrical. Spicules rather narrow, curved. 
Accessory pieces nearly straight, pointed, and directed backwards. Ocelli {?) 
two bright colourless bodies on upper surface of oesophagus. Excretory ventral 
9^^'^id Lateral canals ...*.. 

Movements very rapid. 

1- T. NATANs, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 182-184.) 
Female, length ^'\ breadth ^h^". 

External Characters.-^BodY tapering towards either extremity, but principally towards 

raxi)», swi/t, and o^irnh « traveller. 



the posterior, wliicli is sharp and filiform. Head bluntly rounded, furnished with a circlet 
of 1 6 sLort seise. Integument having very fine transverse striae, about -^j^'' apart. 

Tharyngcal cavity very small, conical. (Esophagus about ^th of total length, en- 

Ifirging very slightly backwards. Intestine sparingly covered with non-tessellate he. 

pntic granules. Anus ^h" ^^om posterior extremity. Ocelli two highly refractive yd- 

lowish bodies, with a dark central spot on dorsal aspect at 2W0" from anterior extremity. 

Vidca behind centre of body. 

jr^fle, Icn firth A-", breadth 9^". 

(Esophagus relatively shorter. Anns -^i' from posterior extremity. Spicules harbcd 
at upper extremity, curved, 1^00" long ; accessory pieces lying nearly at right a] 

to spicules, pointed. 

JIah. Small green filamentous weed from tide-pools, Palmouth. Also observed in a 
small aquarium for two or three weeks, feeding on minute vegetable spores near the 

L L 

surface of water. 


2. T. PAEYUS, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 185, 186.) 
Female, leuirth -^'\ breadth t-Att''. 

b"^" 4 5 

External Characters. — Body tapering at both extremities, especially at posterii 
commencing:]? behind vulva. Head truncate, naked. Striae of integument imperceptibl 

Pharyrtf/eal cavity indistinct. (Esophagus about yth of total length. Intestine 

sparingly covered with hepatic particles. Amis 3^5" from posterior extremity. Vulm 
posterior to middle of body. Ocelli 

Malcj not seen. 

Ilab. Small green weed from tide-pools, Ealmouth. 

23. THEEISTUS^ Bastian. 

Gen. Char. Body tapering at extremities. Caudal sucker small; sucker-tubes not 

visible. Integument having transverse striae ; lateral, circular, convex prominences 
close to anterior extremity; cephalic setse, but no papillae. Fharijngeal cadtjj 
moderately large, rounded ; parietes membranous, not horny. (Esophagus distinctly 
muscular, nearly cylindrical. Intestine plentifully covered with hepatic particles, more 
or less tessellate, and of a brownish colour. Vulva at commencement of posterior 
third of body. TTtenis unsymmetrical. Spicules shaped like a reaper's hook. Ac- 
cessory pieces two thin rounded plates directed backwards. Ocelli none. Vc'd^^^ 
glands two, unequal, pyriform. Excretory ventral gland .... Lateral canals .•-• 
Movements very active. 

1. T. ACER, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 187-188.) 
Male, leno^th -rV", breadth .^^". * ■ • 


5 , uxcaum 434^ 

•nal Characters.— Bodj tapering at extremities, slightly forw^ards, but graduallj" 
narrowing to a point posteriorly. Head rounded, furnished with about eight spreading 
seta^, arising from swollen bases.. Integument having transverse stri^, ti4oo"^P^'^' 
conical projections 33^3" in diameter, at j^" from anterior extremity. 






VJi(tri/)fgeal cavitij rounded. (EsopJiagus between |tli and Jth of total 
le abundantly covered witli fat-particles liavii 


In tes 

^" from postei 

extremity. Sp 

g no distinct 




from point to point; accessory 

)]':ccs cm-vcd backwards, and pyriform in sbape. 
Tc.nale, not seen. 
Hah. ^larine surface mud from estuary, Palmouth 

2. T. VELOX, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 189-191.) 
Female, lenj;tb -^s\ breadth 


TUtcrnal Cha 

— Body tap 

sliglitly forwards, but rather abruptly behiiul 

and thence gradually to pointed posterior extremity 


dcd, provided 

4-6 setse, w^hich are rather long, and directed forwards. Transverse strife wcW 



apart ; convex lateral prominences of integument toVo" ^ 

in diameter, at 

from anterior extremity 
pharyngeal cavity rounded 


^^" deep. (Esophagus about ith of total length, nearly 
Intestine moderately well covered with olive-brown fat-particles, having r 

tcsscllate arrangement 





from posterior extremity 

Vuha at comuience- 

of posterior third of body 

Vo,ginal glands pyriform granular bodies, unequal, the 


posterior being much the larger and jAV ^^^o 
Male, not seen. 

b. About roots of small green sea-weed from tide-pools, Falmouth 

24. SPH^UOLAIMUS \ Bastian. 

Gen. Chae. Sody tap 

at extremities 

Caudal sucker minute 

isible. Integument having transverse and longitudinal markm 

•-tubes not 

abundant : 

phalic papillae absent 

Fharyngeal cavity large and somewhat spherical, havmg 

peculiar sets of parietal linear markin^ 

(Esophagus distinctly muscular 


defined by three rather bright bands 

Intestine rather densely covered with dark 

coloured hepatic particles 

Vulva considerably posterior to middle of body 


unsymmetrical. Spicules long and 
what shield-shaped. Ocelli none. 

aarrow. Accessory piece single, poster 
Vaginal gland single, pyriform, poster 


cretory ventral gland tubular, openin 
canals .... 

^lovements rapid, powerful. 
S. HmsuTus, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 192 

Female, length ■^'\ breadth 
External Cha 


near middle of cesoph 



1 " 

™.....„. .„„,„...,.._Boay tWck in proportion to length, tapering slightly anteriorly 
but more consideraWy towards posterior extremity, which is slightly swoUen and rounded 


ed with rather long setse, whieh are largest and most numei 

about anterior extremity 

Head rounded, somewhat conical 

Integument having trans 



^' apart,' and an appearance of longitudinal also, xofeo" apart 




Fharyngeal cavity somewhat globular, about -^^" in depth, surrounded about middl 
by a dark band, apparently due to markings of its walls, whilst anteriorly more delicate 

towards the mouth. (Esophagus about Jrd of total length 


Intestine densely covered with fat-particles of a dark colour, obscurely tessellate. Anv^ 
■gV" from posterior extremity. Vulva considerably posterior to middle of body 

* ' 10 "^ 

front of anal cleft. Vaginal gland single, brownish, pyriform, projecting backwards tW" 
long, by jj^" wide. Excretory ventral gland tubular, not dilated at extremity, extend- 
ing from posterior part to a little in front of middle of oesophagus, where its duct opens 
2Ialc, length -^\ breadth yfj" (EsojpJiagus shorter than in female. Anus ^f" from 
posterior extremity. Spicules long, rather narrow, and moderately curved, yfg-" in length • 

piece single, shield-shaped, with two grooves, along which the spicules c^lide 

,^j'uo" long, by y^jTo" "broad 

Eoh. Marine surface-mud from estuary, Falmouth 

25. COMESOMA\ Bastian. 

Gen. Char. Body tapering at extremities. Caudal sucker moderately distinct; sucker- 

tubes none (?). Integument having transverse and longitudinal stride, spiral lateral 

ical markings, setae more or les- abundant about 

and posterior 

tremities, papillae none. Pharyngeal cavity small, cup-shaped. (Esophagus muscular, 
more or less swollen posteriorly. Intestine moderately well covered with hepatic 
particlcs,^ mostly having a tessellate arrangement. Vulva about the middle of body. 
Vterus bifid ; segments symmetrical. Spicules very long and narrow. Accessary 
pieces none, or, if present, single, small, and indistinct. Ocelli none. Anal 
glands (?). Excretory ventral gland consisting of a slightly dilated posterior portion 
and a wide duct extending from commencement of intestine to about middle of 
oesophagus. Lateral canals ha^dng a faintly granular appearance. 
Movements moderately rapid, frequently forming body into a circular coil. 

1. CoMEsoMA VULGARIS, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 195-197.) 
Female, length f , breadth -^'\ 

External Characters.—Bo^j opaque white, tapering slightlv towards head, but more 
considerably towards posterior extremity, which is long and narrow, but slightly swoUen 
at tcrmniation. Head rounded, provided with two circlets of set^, the anterior (four) 
bemg very long, but those forming the posterior, from six to eight in number, being 
!!!''L „'r'.^.^''" , ^^'^'"'^ T^"^. scattered over anterior part of body. Integument >vitli 


gitudinal ^ markings 7^" apart, and more delicate transverse stride ttAtt 0'' apai't 
lateral spiral marking at same level as second circlet of setse. 


meal cavity smaU, cup-shaped. (Esophagus ^^.-th of total length. Intestine 
coyerea .uth light-coloured hepatic particles, having a tessellate arrangement. Anu^ 
^ irom posterior extremity. Vulva at middle of body. Excretory duct opening oppo- 
sue miaclle ol CEsophagus. 

lilale, same size as female. Posterior extremity having setse scattered over its surface. 

^ Ko^i], hair, and ffw/ia, body 





especially in yentral region before and behind anus, wbere there is a linear scries. Anus 
' from posterior extremity. Spicules very long and narrow, but slightly rounded and 
laro-ed at points, length yis'' ; accessor^/ piece none. 
TTol). Small o-reen sea-weeds from tide-pools, Falmouth. 

2. C. PROFUNDI, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 198-200.) 

Fmale, length y', breadth 3^0 


KHernal Ch 

— Body light- coloured, slender, tapering gradually forwards, b 

more notal)ly towards posterior extremity, which is rather long and filiform, having two 
small setee at its termination. Head truncate, furnished with a circlet of six stout and 
Ion" , spreading setse. Integument having longitudinal markings, transverse not visible ; 
two circular (?) depressions, one on each side of head, and about 3^3" in diameter. 

pharyngeal cavity very small, almost wanting. (Esophagus about Jth of total length, 
irradually widening towards termination. Intestine covered with pale-coloured hepatic 
particles, having a tessellate arrangement. Anus rJV' ^-'oi^a posterior extremity. Vulca 
about the middle of body. Uterine segments rather short. Excretory duct opening 
opposite middle of oesophagus. 

Male, lens-th ¥ , breadth 

1'' i,„^„^+i. 1 " 

i^Lii 9 , VAcau.i;-u 333 

Anus jy from posterior extremity. Spicules very long, slightly curved, Icngthjia 
apparently not tubular, but grooved from angular bending. Accessory piece small 

Eah In mud dredged up from a depth of 20 fathoms, Falmouth Harbour. 

26. SPIE A \ Bastian. 
Gen. Char. Body tapering at extremities. Caudal sucJcer very small and indistinct; 
sucker-tubes absent. Integument having transverse striae; two small, lateral, cir- 
cular, convex prominences or depressions of integument in cervical region ; setae 
not abundant, principally cephalic ; cephalic papillae wanting. Pharyngeal cavity 
wanting. (Esophagus short, distinctly muscular, with a simple terminal swelling. 
• Intestine moderately well covered with rather large, light-coloured hepatic particles. 
Vulva at middle of body. Uterus bifid; segments symmetrical. Spicules curved, 
moderately broad, enlarged at upper extremities. Accessory pieces^ two, nearly 
straight. Ocelli none. Ea^crefory ventral gland .... 
Movements active. 


1. S 

Female, length t^", breadth 

sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 201-203 


&fernal Characters .—Body opaque white, tapering anteriorlj" and also gradually to a 
point posteriorly. Head rounded, provided with a circlet of 4-6 short setfe. Integu- 
ment with faint transverse stria. ^,,^0" apart ; small lateral hemispherical prommences 

anterior extremity 

(Esophagus about Jyth rf total length ; terminal swelling nearly globular. In testin e 

' exTreepa. a coil from tliP frPnuencv with which they twist their bodies into this form. 


» ■ 

ratlicr narrow, moderately well covered with rather large particles havino- a tessell 
arrangement. Ames ^oo" from posterior extremity. Vulva near middle of body 


Male, about same size as female. Anus about 2^0 from posterior extremity. Snici h 
ratlicr short, cnrved, 4^" in length; accessory pieces short, horizontal; proximal 
extremity curved and pointed. 

JLih. Amongst sand and small stones from tide-pools, Falmouth. 

Body often more or less covered with minute tufts of hair-like algee, whilst to thp 
posterior extremities of two specimens I have seen groups of Vorticella attached. 

S. L.f:yis, n. sp. (Plate XTII. figs. 204-206.) 
Female^ length J", breadth 

1 '' 



Extertial Characters. —Bo^j light-coloured, tapering slightly anteriorly, and gradually 
narrowing to a point posteriorly. Head most distinctly rounded. Integument smooth- 
no striae visible ; a few small setae scattered over anterior extremity ; lateral cervical 
depressions (slightly raised in centre) -^^" in diameter, close to anterior extremity. 

(Esophagus between -ig-th and ^Vth of total length ; terminal swelling nearly globular. 
Intestine sparingly covered with light-coloured hepatic particles having a somewliat 
tessellate arrangement. Anus -^'' from posterior extremity. Vulva anterior to middle 
of body, ^" from anterior extremity. Uterus bifid ; segments symmetrical. Om large, 
occujwing whole breadth of body. Genital tube containing large, spherical, finely 
granular cells, about Twm" in diameter. 

1 " 

Male, length f , breadth _ 

(Esophagus about -U\ of total length. Anus xb'' from posterior extremity, 
large, curved, -^' in length ; accessory pieces straight, rather narrow, and half the 
length of spicules. 

Bah. In sand from roots of small algae, tide-pools, Palmouth. 

3. S. TENUiCAUDATA, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 207-209.) 
Female, length .V, breadth ^ " 

O-" 10 > "i»-a,ULU 2X5 

External Cha 

Body white, tapering gradually anteriorly, but more abruptly 
towards posterior extremity, which is long and filiform. Head truncate, provided with 
a circle of 4-6 setae. Integument with transverse stri^, pretty well marked, .„.„„ 
apart; two lateral cu'cular depressions close to anterior extremity, 3^" in diameter; 
when looked down upon, a small central circle is seen |rds less in diameter than that 





(Esophagus about ith of total length ; posterior enlargement not nearly glolular. 
latestme covered pretty uniformly with pale small-sized granules. Anm ^h" ^'"^ P"'" 
tenor extremity. Tw^ca about middle of body. 

ale length -Jj", breadth ^" ; having a few short setse scattered over posterior 
extremity. Anns j^" from posterior extremity. Spicules narrow, cui-ved, ^" long; 
accessory p^eces reflexed, curved, almost linear, -^" W 

Sab. In sand from tide-pools, Falmouth. 

tlJtf '?''"* .''"^' ^'"^ '*°°* °^ *^" oesophagus, as well as the difference in form of 

spicules and accessory pieces, lead me to suspect that this species will hereafter r^ 




quire to be transferred to a distinct though nearly allied genus. Its present position 
may be looked upon merely as provisional. 

27. ODONTOBIUS, Rousscl. 
Gen. Chak. " Body thread-like ; anterior extremity more or less narrowed ; posterior 

obtusely or sharply pointed, ending in a small papilla. Around the mouth and on 
anterior part of body are several cirri. On the hinder part of the body of tlie 
male, around the genital opening, are one or two rows of roundish intcgumcntal 

« Skin colourless or of a yellowish-green colour, occasionally iridescent. External in- 

umeut smooth or transversely striped. (Esophagus cylindrical, widening slightly pos- 
teriorly ; external layer or sheath composed of a finely granular mass, or c^ lindrical cells. 

" Vagina variable in position. Lateral lines present. Gland (ventral ?) of anterior part 
of body doubtful. Tail-glands consisting of an agglomeration of cells. 

" Two spicules, with an anterior accessory organ i, or two pairs of spicules, one large 
and one small." — Ebertli, Unters. iiber Nemat. p. 27. 

This description is the one given by Eberth, which I have inserted rather than that 
of Roussel, from its containing more details, though even these are insufficient accurately 
to characterize and fix the position of the genus. Eberth naturally enough objects to 
Diesing's having in his recent " Revision der Nematoden" placed this genus amongst 
his subfamily Anguillulid(S, since Eoussel's OdontoUus w^as distinctly stated to be pro- 
vided with cirri around the mouth. Eberth is, however, himself uncertain what 
systematic place to assign to this genus, but says that he includes in it several free 
Nematoids which, from the appearance of small teeth ^ in the mouth, are distinguished 
from those of Amblyiira, Fhanoglene, JEhtchelidiumj and Oncholaimns, and, through the 
want of ocelli, from those of JStioplus. 

^\ hether the original animal described by Eoussel de Yauzeme, and found by him in 
or on the mucous membrane about the base of the whalebone in JBalcena Ai(straUs, is 
rightly included amongst the free Nematodes is a point about which I am still doubtful ; 
but, as it seems quite possible that one of these animals might be met with in such a 
situation, I have retained it amongst them, and have refrained from altering the designa- 
tion of three of the species placed by Eberth in this genus, though one of them seems to 
differ in some important respects from the other two. 
1. 0. CETi, Roussel. 

Odontobius Celi, Roussel de Vauzeme, in Annal. des Sc. Nat. 2 ser. i. .326, tab. ix. 1-5 A; et Froriep's 


Notiz. xxxvii. 1, figs. 3-6 ; Isis, 1836, p. 512.— Siebold, in W 


Dujardin, Hist. Nat. des Helminthes, 292. 

'' Corpus capillare, extremitate caudali involuta. Caput corpore continuum. Os termi 

^ale, orbiculare, dentibus cornels 3-6. Penis ; apertura genitalis feminea 

^ongit. ad 2 


' This seems o% to have been met with in OdontoUus acuminatus, which I have transferred to the genus Anti- 
<^o»«a, so that the latter part of this sentence only must now be considered as applicable to the genus Odontobms. 

e omits to mention these in his generic description given above. 
^OL. XXV. Y 


" Ilah. B(d(Bna australis, in strato inucoso elasmatis cum ovulis suis gregarie nidulans; 
ad insiilas :^^aloriT]as, Octobri usque ad Januaritim."— 7)/m%^, Syst. Helm. vol. ii. p. 123, 

2. 0. MiCANS, Ebertli. 

•Unters. iiber Ncmat. p. 28, tab, i. figs. 1-5. 

" KOrpei' des 'Wcibchens fadcnformig, Kopf wenig verscbnlalert, quer abgestut 
€mem JTaarkranzc umi^cben, vom librigen Korper durch eine seichte Einschi 

getrcnnt. Scbwanz .gegen den Baucb eingekriimmt, in eirie kurze Spitze endigend 
TTInt(>rciidc dcs Manncbcns starker eingebogen. 

■" Wcibchcn 1*5 Mm. laug, 0'15 Mm. breit. 

" Mannchen 1-25 Mm. lang, 0-13 Mm. breit. 

" Oesophagus =cin Yiertel der Korperlunge." 

3. 0. FiLiroRMis, Eberth. 

Unters. iiber Nemat. p. 29, tab. i. figs. 10-lS. 

" Korper des Mannchens fadenformig, von leicht gelblicher Farbung, scbon vom 
Oesophagus an ziemlich stark einwarts gerollt. Kopf fast quer abgestutzt, hiiiter dem 
Pharynx leicht eingeschniirt. In der Gegend des letzteren etwas weiter nach hinten ist 
die Haut mit fcincn kurzen Harchen besetzt, welche in Querreihen angeordnet scheinen. 
Das Schwanzcnde dcs Mannchens wenig verjungt und stumpf geendigt. 

" LdiKje des Mannchens 7 Mm., Breite 0*08 Mm. 


Oesophagus =ein Sechstel der Korperlange." 

4. 0. STRiATTJS, Eberth. 

Unters. iiber Nemat. p. 30, tab. i. figs. 21-27. 

" Korper bei beiden Geschlechtern ziemlich gleich, fadenformig, gegen den Baueh 
eingekriimmt, in der Mitte starker anschwellend, an beiden Enden yerschmalert. Yor- 
derende fast quer abgestutzt, um die Mundoffnung und hinter dieser mit kurzen Harchen 
besetzt. Schwanzende abgerundet, mit einer spitzen durchborten Papille versehen. 

" Ldnge des Wcibchens 3 Mm., Breite 0'175 Mm. 

" Liinge des Mannchens 2 Mm., Breite O'l Mm. 

" Oesophaguslange f Mm.** 

28. CYATHOLAIMUS^ Bastian. 

Gex. Chae. Body mostly of a brownish cdlotir, tapering at extremities ; posterior conical. 

Caudal sucker mostly well marked, cylindrical ; sucker-tubes occasionally present. 
Integument having transverse striae or rows of dots ; small, lateral, circular, convex 
prominences in cervical region, and occasionally others over posterior part of body; 
cephahc setae generally present, papilljfe occasionally. Thaf-yngeol cavity eup-shaped, 
with slight longitudinal rib-like markings. (Esophagus nearly uniform and ^^^ 
drical ; central canal broad. Intestine moderately well covered with large and 

' KvaOos a cup, and Xai^ihs, the throat, in allusion to the shape of the pharyngeal cavity. 



generally dark fawn-coloured hepatic particles. Vtdca about the middle of body. 
TTierus bifid ; segments symmetrical. Spicules rather thick and solid, of a yellowish 
colour, dccessory pieces four, in two pairs, the lonsrer beinu' somewhat lamclli- 

o * "^ "a 

form, whilst the external pair are thick and quadrilateral. Ocelli, two aggrcg-ations 
of brownish pigment on dorsum of oesophagus ; not present in some species. Qhti- 
dukr system well developed ; subcutaneous, srlandular, cell-like bodies numerous : 

anal glands three, occasional. Excretory ventral gland terminating in modcrat 
sized duct, opening opposite middle of oesophagus. Lateral canals .... 
Movements moderately active. 


Caudal sucher well marked, cylindrical. 

1. C. OCELLATIJS, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 210-212 «.) 
Female, length yt", breadth -a 

1 '' 

External Characters. — Body tapering slightly forwards, but much more towards 
posterior extremity. Head rounded, provided with a circlet of four small aettc. Integu- 
ment with delicate transverse striae, faintly visible, -yoqwo" apart ; shreds easily peeling 
off under pressure. 

laryngeal cavity -asVo" deep, (Esophagus rather less than |th of total length. lutes- 


tine thinly covered with fat-particles, non-tessellated. Anus 2X5" ^^*^i^ posterior ex- 
tremity. Vulva slightly anterior to middle of body. Ocelli, two small greenish-brown 

masses of pigment, ■^^■' from anterior extremity. Subctitaneo^s gland-cells numerous, 
rgi^nded, granular, giving the animal a peculiar maculated appearance. 

Male, length ^V' breadth ^Jy" 


Anus 3^ g-" from posterior extremity. Spicules curved, somewhat wedge-shaped, 
long ; accessory pieces four ; principal pair rather long, narrow, and united in middle 
line ; external paii* rounded. 

Sab. About Cladophora rupestris frQjn tide-pools, Tahnouth. 


sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 213, 214) 

Female, len^jth A-", breadth ^W 


External Characters. — Body tapering slightly forwards, but gradually narrowing to a 
point posteriorly. Head broad, truncate, having a circlet of four small setae. Integu- 
laent with almost imperceptible transverse striae, about 30^00 '' apart. 

Pharyngeal cavity cup-shaped. (Esophagus about |th of total length. Intestine 
sparsely covered with large, coloured hepatic particles. Anm -^y from posterior ex- 
tremity. Vulva anterior to middle of body. Ocelli wanting. Suhcutmeous gland-cells 
round or oval, granular, about -^^" in diameter. 

^ale, not seen. 


Sah. Marine surface-mud from estuary, Palmouth. 

3. C. ORNATus, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 215, 216.) 
female, length J^", breadth 

1 /' 

Eternal Characters.— Body stout, light fawir-coloured, tapering slightly forwards 
^^t gradually to a point posteriorly, where it terminates in an elongated sucker ; sucker 


txihoH two, s|iort, distinct. Head truncate, provided with 8-10 short setae directed for. 
wards. Integument with transverse striae scarcely perceptible, tooW apart. 

Tlinnjvgeal cavity cup-shaped, -^^oo" deep. (Esophagus rather less than Jth of total 
iongth. Intestine well covered with brownish fat-particles having a tessellate arranf^e- 
ment. Anns .^\^" from posterior extremity. Vulva slightly posterior to middle of 
body. Ocelli^ two aggregations of brown pigment, at two" from anterior extremity. 
Siihcutcmcous (jhivd-cells abundant. Anal glands three, large. Excretory ventral aland 
opening opposite middle of oesophagus ; duct rather narrow, uniform in size. 

Ifflp, not seen. 

Hub. Small green soa-wccd from tide-pool, Palmouth '. 

** Caudal sucker small, indistinct. 

4. C. PTJXCTATUS, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 217, 218.) 

JLcdc, lenirth ^'\ breadth 

1 " 

a"" 12 > "iV.Cll^l;Xi 263 

External Characters. — Body powerful, tapering very slightly anteriorly, but gradually 
to a point posteriorly. Head obtusely rounded, provided with a circlet of 6-8 small 
spreading sctoD; other small setae scattered over posterior part of body. Integument 
having row s of dots arranged in transverse series tsJqo". apart ; two lateral comex 
prominences of integument in cervical region nearly opposite base of pharyngeal cavity, 
s^^g-jf" in diameter. 

Vharyngpal caritij cup-shaped. (Esophagus about i^jth of total length. Intestine 

sparsely and irregularly covered with large brownish-coloured fat-particles. A 
from posterior extremity. Spicules ^" long. Ocelli two, greenish brow 

1 " 

1 4 •-' H 

from anterior extremity. Subcutaneous gland-cells w^antin 

Fern a Ic 


Bab. Marine surface-mud from estuary, Palmouth 
5. C. STEiATUS, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 219, 220.) 

Male, Icno-th ^'\ breadth ^ " 

j^K-Lx J 2 » i^ACdum 2g5 

External Characters.-— Bo&j tapering slightly anteriorly, but gradually to a point 
posteriorly. Head obtusely rounded, provided with two small papilla?, upper and lower, 
and a circlet of about six setae directed forwards. Integument with very distinct trans- 
verse striae ttooo" apart ; a few scattered setae over anterior part of body, but numerous 
others posteriorly beliind anal cleft. 

Pharyngeal cavity cup-shaped, -^^^ deep. (Esophagus ^th of total length. In- 
testine well covered with hepatic particles havin- a tessellate arrangement. A 

^ ^ ^V.OOV.XXt*l,V> WiiM^Xl-, 

125 from posterior extremity. Spicules thick, strong, slightly curved, -^" lo^g- 
accessory pieces four; two median lanceolate, thin; two external stout, quadrilateral. 
Ocelli wanting. Subcutaneous gland-cells plentiful. 
Female, not seen. 


Ilab. Marine surface-mud from estuary, Tahnouth. 


I Or else from marine surface-mud of estuary. I am not quite certain which, as the habitat was unfortunately not 
entered at the time wheu the species was discovered and described. 





Enophis gracilis, Eberth, Unters. iiber Nemat. p. 34, tab. ii. figs. 13-19. 

'^Kor2)erm der Mitte leiclit angescliwoUen, Vorderende versdimalcrt, Kopf abgcruu Jot, 
leiclit vom iibrigen Korper abgesclmiirt. Hinterendc bcidcr GescLlochtcr zugespitzt 
und sre^ren den Bauch eingebogen. Der Schwanz in einen kleincn durcbbolirtcn zicr- 

lichen Portsatz ausgezogen 

" Lange des Weibcliens 3J Mm., Breite 0"15 Mm. 

"Liinge des Mannchens 2 Mm., Breite 0*1 Mm. 

" Oesophagnslange verlialt sicli zur Korperlange wie 1 : 6." 

I have placed this animal in the genus Cy atholaimtis , because it seems more nearly 
allied to the representatives of this type than to any others that I have met with. It is 
most certainly not an Unoplus, and will hereafter, I suspect, be found to belong to a 

genus distinct from, though closely allied to, the one in which I have now temporarily 

located it. 

29. SPILIPHERA^Bastian. 

Gen. Char. ^ocZ^' tapering at extremities, conical posteriorly. Caudal siicher elongated, 
cylindrical; sucker-tubes undeveloped. /wz'^^MmewMiaving transverse rows of dots 
or striae, and tw^o longitudinal rows of dots close together in each lateral region, as 
well as a spiral cervical marking on each side, close to the head ; cephalic setae mostly 


present; no papillae. Fharijngeal cavity cup-shaped, having longitudinal rays or 
rib-hke markings and three horny apophyses spreading from its base. Q^sophogvs fre- 
quently enlarged behind pharynx, and generally terminating in an ovoid swelling. 
Intestine mostly pretty well covered with large, coloured hepatic particles. Vulva 
about middle of body. Uterus bifid; segments symmetrical. Spicules curved, 
narrow. Accessory ineces two, somewhat ovate, indistinct. Ocelli absent. Anal 
glands three, sometimes absent. Excretory ventral gland opening near middle of 

cesophagus. Lateral canals 

Movements moderately active. 

1. S 

sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 221, 222.) 

1 "' 


Jiale, length -^'^ breadth 

External Characters. — Body tapering most at posterior extremity. Ilead blunth 
rounded, provided with 2-4 minute seta?, directed forwards. Integument having trans 
verse rows (^J^^" apart) of minute rectangular dots, and two longitudinal rows of large: 

^^^^' TooV apart, on each side of body. . 

Pharyngeal cavity somewhat infundibuliform, ^cfoo" deep; three^curved equal-sized 
apophyses extending backwards into substance of oesophagus, xA^" in lengtli. (Eso- 
P^mis ith of total length ; swollen opposite apophyses, and again very distinctly at 
termination. Intestine covered irregularly with large-sized, greenish-yellow hepatic 
particles. Anus ^" from posterior extremity. Spicules narrow, slightly curved, -^^ " 

' <T;r;\os, a spot, and <pepu,, to bear, in reference to the integumeutal markings. 



long; accessory pieces ovate, leaf -like, about Jrd as long, rather indistinct. ^na\ 
glands Excretory ventral duct 

Female f not seen. 

Hub. ^Marine surface-mud from estuaiy, Falmouth. 

S. iN.fiQUALis, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 223^225.) 
Female, length A-'') hrcadth yjo'- 

External Characters. — Body tai)ering as in last species. Head slightly rounded 

pr()\I(h^d with 2-4 spreading setae. Integument with well-marked transverse striip 

apart, and two longitudinal lines of dots, about -gifoo'' apart, on each side of the 


Tharijnfjeal cavity cup-shaped, rather indistinct, having two apophyses extending 
backwards for about rr^r/'j ^^^6 third being small and abortive. (Esophagus 4th of total 

lejigthj with post-pharyngeal and terminal swellings. Intestine covered pretty 
formly with large olive-yellow-coloured fat-particles. Anus 2w" fi'otn posterior e 
mity. Vulva slightly posterior to middle of body. Excretory ventral duct .... 


ather larg 

Anus ^2d'' from posterior extremity. Spicules narrow, slightly curved, TFoo"loiig; 
evcessory pieces indistinct. In mid-ventral region, anterior to anal cleft, is a linear 
scries of about fifteen small, bright, rectangular spots, equidistant and WbV Jipart. 

Hah. 'MikviaQ surface-mud of estuary, Falmouth. 

3. S. TiOBUSTA, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 226, 227.) 

I " 

2 22 • 

Female, length ^", breadth 

External Characters. — Body stout, of a brownish-yellow colour, scarcely tapering at 
all anteriorly, but very abruptly posterior to anus. Head rounded, naked. Integument 
with rows of dots, transverse, and j^^" apart. 

Pharyngeal cavity large, j^" deep, longitudinal ribs well marked; three very thick 
and nearly straight apophyses extending backwards for to-qo"- (Esophagus Jth of total 
length, cylindrical, and nearly uniform in size. Intestine covered with large, yellowish 
granules having a tessellate arrangement. Anus ^' from posterior extremity. Vulu 
slightly anterior to middle of body. Vterus bifid. Excretory 'central gland extending 
from about middle of oesophagus to commencement of intestine. Anal glands 
large, occupying nearly the whole of space posterior to anal cleft. 

Male, not seen. 

Eab. Marine surface-mud of estuary, Falmouth. 

The very large size of the apophyses, the uniform calibre of the oesophagus, and the 
apparent absence of the lateral longitudinal rows of dots are all divergences from tlie 
typical characters of this genus, whose value it is at present difficult to estimate, and 
more particularly so since the characters of the male are as yet unknown. 

4. «. cosTATA, n.«p. (Plate XIII. figs, 228, 22;9,) 
Male, length A", breadth 



43 5 • 

External Characiers .~Soi.s I'ather dark in colour anteriorly ; tapering conies 
posterior extremity. Sucker cylindiical, well marked. Head truncate, having a circW 



of fbur strong patent setse. Integument with most marked transverse stria% to^" 
apart, and equidistant longitudinal ridges, very obvious in tlie middle portions of body, 
but less evident towards extremities. 

^harijngcal cavity indistinct. (EsojjJictffus about }th of total length, with post-pha- 
iTTi£real nnd terminal swellings. ■Intestine undistinguishable, from the total absence of 
the usual hepatic cells and contained fat-particles. Aims Yh" ^I'om posterior extremity. 
S/wuIcs sHghtly curved and rather broad, ybit" long ; accessor}/ pieces not recognized. 

Female, not seen. 

Uab. ]\Iarine surface-mud from estuary, Palmouth. 

Havhig only seen two specimens of this species, I am not quite certain about the 
exact structure of its pharynx, and the presence or absence of accessory pieces to the 
spicules. The almost uniform light colour of, and absence of pigment from its internal 
parts, combined with a somewhat opaque integument, was the cause of my failure in as- 

taining these T)oints 

30. CHROMADOEA \ Bastiau. 

Tthabditis^ Max Schultze; EnopluSy Diesing. 

Gen. Char. Body tapering at extremities ; conical posteriorly. Caudal sucker elon- 
gated, pointed; sucker-tubes not developed. Integtiment having transverse and 
longitudinal strise, frequently somewhat clouded and opaque anteriorly; cephalic 
setae generally present, papillae not. Pharyngeal cavity small and indistinct, 
with three cuneiform horny apophyses (apices downwards) extending backwards, 
and in contact. (Esophagus having a more or less distinct swelling posteriorly; 
muscular tissue not well developed. Intestine mostly covered with irregularly 
arranged, large-sized, coloured hepatic particles. Vulva at middle of body. Uterus 
bifid; segments symmetrical. Spicules two, somewhat narrow, curved. Accessory 
pieces well marked, about half as long as spicules. Ocelli two masses of reddish 
pigment on dorsum of anterior part of oesophagus; sometimes wanting. Glandular 
system not much developed. Bxcretory ventral gland opening by a rather small duct 

nearly opposite middle of oesophagus (?) . Lateral canals 

^lovements active. 

1- C. VULGARIS, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 233-235.) 

Female, length -^'\ breadth .A.". 

^^xternal Characters. —Body clouded anteriorly, tapering from near the middle to 
ei ner extremity, but somewhat widening again at head, which is truncated and pro- 
^j ^1 ^^^^^! ^^^^^^ ^^^'^' Integument with very distinct transverse striae at intervals of 

' which are crossed by delicate longitudinal lines joioo" ^part ; small longitudmal 



either side of body 

the ^'^^^^ P'^ment, and loph, skin, on account of the frequency with which the transparency of 
^ amenor part of the body is obscured by a dark tinge of colour. 

out anterior part of body the markings of integument seem almost more dotted than linear. 


Thcmjngcal cavity shallow and indistinct ; apophyses well marked, xoW lono-. ffi^ 
phuyiis about |th of total length, mth a large ovoid swelling at termination, and pronded 
\vith two rows of brownish jngment extending backwards on either side from two lonl 
reddish-brown aggi-egations ^g" from the anterior extremity and within the slieatl 
of ojsophngus. Intestine covered with fat -particles, having a more or less tessellat 
arrangement. Amis y^" from posterior extremity. Vulva at middle of body. Ocelli 

as above. 

1 " 

JlalCy length -j^", brcadtli -^ 

Alius i J J-" from posterior exterior extremity. ^icw^<?.s curved, -g^" long; 
jjicc't's two, strong, broad, y^-g-" long. 


Hub. Very abundant about CladopJiora rupestris and some other small green weeds 
from iide-pools, Falmouth. 

2. C. NUDiCAPiTATA, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 230-232.) 

Femuley length -^'^ breadth ^ " 
External Characters. 


■Eody tapering very slightly forwards. Head rounded, naked. 
Integument with delicate transverse striae, jsioo" apart ; longitudinal not recognized. 

J^harijmjeal cacity shallow and indistinct; apophyses -^^" long. (EsophaguB about 
] th of total length ; rounded swelling at termination. Intestine sparingly covered with 
hepatic particles. Anns -^" from posterior extremity. Vulva slightly anterior to 
middle of ])ody. Ocelli two, reddish brown, at -^'~' from anterior extremity; occa- 
sionally one only, in middle line. 

Male, length gV", breadth gl^". 

Anus -^" from posterior extremity. Spicules slightly curved, -^" long; accessory 
pieces narrow, and curved at inner extremities, about x^" long. In mid-ventral region 
a])oye anus, within the substance of the integument, are five disk-shaped, highly refractive 
bodies, about 50W" in diameter, whose distances apart gradually diminish anteriorly. 

Uab. On small, stunted, greyish specimens of Cladoplwra rtipestris from tide-pools 


h-water mark, Falmouth 

3. C. XATAXs, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs 236-238.) 
Female, length ^V, breadth 


1 '^ 

500 • 

Fa-ternal Characters.~-Bodj tapering very slightly towards anterior extremity, but 
usual at posterior. Head rounded, provided with four spreading seta;. Inte 
very transparent, not darkened anteriorly, having transverse stri^ j-^Wo" apart; longi- 
tudmal not recognized. 

Pharyngeal cavity indistinct ; apophyses xe^" in length. (Esophagus |th of total 
length. Intestine well covered with large-sized greenish-yellow granules, haT__. 
distinct arrangement. Anus ■^' from posterior extremity. Vulva at middle of body 
Ocelli two distmct conical aggregations of red pigment, situated almost lateraUy oi 
the oesophagus, which is somewhat narrower at this point. 

Male, length -^", breadth y|/'. 

An-s ^' from posterior extremity. Spicules rather narrow, curved, tIt^'Io^^'' 




accessory pieces ■^" }on^' In mid-ventral region, above anus, is a linear series of five 
biHily refractile roundish bodies, similar in kind to tliose of C. midwajpitata. 

Hah. Found swimming near tlie surface of the water in a small aquarium containing 
weeds from tide-pools, Falmouth. 

1 G. CECA, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 239-241 

female, length ^'\ breadth 5^". 

External Characters. — Body tapering considerably at both extremities. Head trun- 
cate, provided with four setge directed forwards. Integument having well-marked trans- 
verse striae at ^00^0" apart, and with the appearance of longitudinal also. 

Tharijugeal cavity small, indistinct ; apophyses three. (Esophagus about jth of total 
■th; "posterior swelling distinct. Intestine sparsely and irregularly covered with fat- 
granules of large size. Anus 2 Jg^" from posterior extremity. Vulva about the middle 
of body. Ocelli wanting. 

Mide, length -^"j breadth 5^". 

Anus 2I-5" from posterior extremity. Spicules slender, curved, roo^" long; acces- 
iorjj pieces two, nearly half as long. 

Eah. Marine surface-mud from estuary, Falmouth. 

5. C. FiLirouMis, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 242-244 

1 " l^^^^Ai^l^ 1 " 


Female, length ^", breadth 

External Characters. — Body very slender, tapering most notably towards extremities, 
so as to appear somewhat spindle-shaped. Head bluntly rounded, provided with 2-4 
setae. Integument with transverse striae ttoo 0" apart. 

Hilary iigeal cavity indistinct; length of apophyses t^"- (Esophagus about Jth of 
total length; posterior swelling not very distinct. Intestine thinly covered with irre- 

disposed hepatic particles. Anus -^" from posterior extremity. Vtilva slightly 



posterior to middle of body. Ocelli two, reddish brown, jAo" ^^^"^ anterior extremity 
Male, longer, though more slender, tlian female ; length ^", breadth 
'^« li/' fi'om posterior extremity. Spicules rather short, curved, t^" in length. 

Accessory pieces about half as long. 
Sah. Small green sea-weeds from tide-pools, Falmouth. 

6. C. SABELLoiDES, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 245, 246.) 

^^de, length 3V', breadth -^'\ 

External Characters.— Body tapering very slightly anteriorly, but in usual manner 
at posterior extremity. Head rounded, provided with four moderately long setae. In- 
tegument with transverse stri^ xsioo" apart ; longitudinal not recognizable. 

^^iciryngectl cavity indistinct ; apophyses about 3^3" i^i ^^^g*^' (^^^P^'^'ff'^^ ^^"^"^^ i^^ 
of total length ; posterior third formin"" an eloni^ated terminal swcUmg. Intestine thinly 

CXXX ^.w^-, 

ed with hepatic granules. Anus -oiV ' from posterior extremity. Spicides slightly 

euTi-ed. ,-J__" 

rooo long. Accessory pieces ywqg'' lo^o- 
female, not seen. 

So-^- Marine surface-mud, Falmouth. Found in the mud, moving about with a tube 




like tliat of a Sabella, composed of the finest particles of sand and Diatomacece aoo] 
tinated togetlicr. Tube longer than worm, but embracing its body pretty closely 

7. C. PAPiLLATA, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 247, 248.) 

Male, length ^", breadth g-Jg". 

External Characters, — Body tapering slightly anteriorly; posterior extremity rathe 
nan-ower, and more elongated than usual. Head rounded, provided with two (upper and 
lower) horn-like papillae in front, and four rounded ones (crucially arranged) behind 
them ; also four setae arising close to these posterior papillae. Integument brittle 
clouded anteriorly, having well-marked transverse striae y^" apart, and longitudinal 
ones at a distance of tq Joo". 

Pharyngeal cavity and apophyses (Esophagus Jth of total length,' sHghtly 

swollen posteriorly. Intestine moderately well covered with light-coloured hepatic'par- 
ticlcs. Anns j^" from posterior extremity ; posterior boundary of anal cleft rather 

promment, and containing a small horny body within, its substance. Spicules cmed 

rather narrower at upper extremities, ^" long; accessory pieces strong, hook-likei 
^b" long. Ocelli wanting. Excretory ventral duct rather narrow ; openino- opposite 
middle of oisophagus. ^ 

Female, not seen. 

Uab. Marine surface-mud from estuary, Palmouth. 

The nature of the head and pharynx in this species differs somewhat from the strict 
type of this genus, though, in other important points, the characters are identical. 


RhabdUis bioculata, M. Schultze.— V. Carus's Icones Zootom. tab. viii. 2. 


No descript 

9. 0. OCELLATA. 

Urolabes ocellata, Carter, Ann. of Nat. Hist. ser. 3. vol. iv. p. 43. 
Phanoylene ocellata, Eberth, Unters. iiber Ncmat. p. 21, pi. iii. fig. 31. 

«^m«Z^, linear, cyHndrical, unstriated ^ oceUated, diminishing gradually toward 
the head, which is obtuse and provided with four short, linear cirri ; also diminishing 
graaually towards the tail, which is short, somewhat curved, and furnished with \ 
pointed digital termination. Mouth, vulva ^ and anus situated as in the fore« 


"Alimentary canal the same, but with the oesophageal sheaths more bulbous posfe 

norly. and no globular dilatation of the intestinal sheath posterior to'it." 


organs . 

Size. About g^nd of an inch long 

Male, the same as the female, with the exception of the difference in the 


Sab Silty clots of Omllatoria floating in the salt-water main drain of the town of 


Bombay. ' ' 


' Perhaps stri* fine, and not recognized. . j^ ^y^le of body. 








^ - 

31. AMBLYUEA, Hemprich and EhreiiLerg. 

Enchelis, Hill; Vibrio, Miiller; Enoplus}, Dujardin j Anguillula, Leidy. 

Gen. Ceae. " Corpus capillare, extremitate caudali subulata, papilla suctoria suTj- 
clavatum. Caput corpore continuum, truncatum. Os terminale, orT)iculare, cir- 
rliatum. Ocelli nulli. • :Penis simplex, nee vaginatus ; apertura genitalis fcminea 

Aquarum dulcium et maris incola : natatoria." 

I. A. SEEPENTIJLUS, Hemprich and Ehrenberg. 

Micro sc 

227, figs. h~f. 

EncheliSf Hill, Hist. Anim. tab, i. (ic. mediocris). 

Vibrio serpentuhs, Miiller, Verm. Terr, et Fluv. 24.— Ejus Zool. Dan. Prodr. 2449, et ejus Anim. Infus. 61, 

tab. viii. 15.-Bory, in Encyl. Meth. 1824, 777. tab. iv. 10.— Blainville, In Diet, des Sc. Nat. Ivli. 

537, et Iviii. 69. . 

Amblyura Serpentulus, Hemprich et Ehrenberg, Symb. Phys. Phytoz. Entoz. tab. ii. 14 (omissis cirrhis). 

Ehrenberg, Infusionsth. 82.— Lamarck, Anim. sans Vert. 2"''<^ edit. iii. 663.— Dujardin, Hist. Nat. 
des Helminthes, 237- 

Anguillula longicauda, Leidy, in Proc. Acad. Philad. v, (1851) 225. 

^m%Mra 5er/)en^M/M5?, Leidy, ibid: viii: (1854) 49. 

" Cauda elongata, clavata. Longit. |-"'.'* 
Eab. In infusione vegetabili plurium septimanarum et in palustribus, in Dania raro 

. In montibus Sinaiticis cum Confervis e rivulo vallis Wadi Esle prope Tor, et 
Berolini {Ehrenberg), Inter fila Lynghya muralis aliarumque Confervarum in aqiiae- 
ductu, Pbiladelphige (Zeidy^):' 

Nota. " Dq Amblyura Sejyenfulo Berolinensi prseterea sequentia valent : — Corpus sub- 
tilissime, transverse striolatum, subannulatum. Tubus cibarius bine ore, illinc ano 
terminatus simplex, strictura cardiaca insignis. Os terminale, anus ad caudse basin 
lateralis. Eeminarum apertura genitalis in medio corpore. Uterus bicornis. Feminse 
mai'ibus majores."--^m^ncA et Ehrenberg. 


2. A. GoRDius, Hempricb et Ehrenberg. 

Vibrio Gordius, Miiller, Anim. Infus. 60, tab. viii. 13, 14. 

Amblyura Gordius, Hemprich et Ehrenberg, Symb. Phys. Phytoz. Entoz.— Ehrenberg 

Lamarck, Anim. sans Vert. 2'^''^ edit. iii. 663. 


1 -m- * 

^^ Dr. Leidy's description, collected from the two notices, is as follows :— 

'Amllyura serpentulus.—Bodj cylindrical, colourless, hyaline; anteriorly obtusely rounded; posteriorly at- 
temiated, with a long, delicate, flexible, subulate tall ; suctorial disk exceedingly minute, clavate. Mouth with cirri ; 
oesophagus cylindrical, often with the appearance of a globular bulb at its lower end ; intestines cylindrical. Anus 
"i^tmct. Generative apparatus ? 

■^" ; length of tail y^ " 

^^«u7 . m an individual ^" long, the oeosophagus measured ^^" long. 



P la. This species is very active in its movements, and appears to have the power of fixing itself by the end of 
^' tail to surrounding objects." 



" Cauda brcvis, globifcra. Longit 



'' Ilal). In infuso raarino {0. F. Midler ^ Mr enherg). 

3. A. MrcPvONATA, Dicsiug*. 

Czernay, in Bullet, de Moscouj xxvi. (1853) 205 (cum icone xylogr.). 

" Os cirrhis brcvlbus quatuor cinctum. Cauda papilla suctoria subglobosa mucrone 
brevi aucta. Longit. fera. ad f", 

^^ Hah. Propc Cliarkoviam." — Czernay. 

32. HEMIPSILUS, Quatrefages. 

Gen. Cdar. " Corpore fere cyKndrico ; cauda acuta, nuda ; capite truncato, rotundato 

sctis circimidato ; parte anteriore corporis setarum paribus lateralium retro decre 
sccntium armata." 

1. n. , Quatrefages. 

Ann. des Sc. Nat. 3* ser. torn. vi. (1846) p. 131. 

" TJn pcu obtus en avant, Ic corps se renfle tres-legerement dans son milieu, et 

tcrminc en pointe aigue. Pres de Textremite anterieure se trouvent six soies pi 

en cercle d'une maniere symetrique autour du corps ...... 


" La trompe est forte et musculeuse ; elle occupe emdron le quart de la cavity du 
corps. Au point ou se joignent la trompe et I'intestin, on trouve quatre corps glan- 
dulaircs qui semblent deboucber dans I'oesophage. 

" L'apparcil genital s'ouvre a pen pres vers le milieu du corps. La verge est form^e 
par un spicule unique recourbe. A sa base sont quatre pocbes a parois ^paisses, deux 
grandes et deux petit es ; des muscles tres-apparents servent a le mouvoir." 


2. H. TEiCHODES, Leuckart. 

Leuckart, Archiv fur NaturgeschichtCj 1849, Band i. p. 157. 
Eberth, Untersuch. iiber Nemat, p. 16. 




33. PHANOGLENE, Nordmann. 


Gen. Char. <' Corpus capillare, retrorsum acuminatum. Caput corpore continuum, 

truncatum. Os terminale, bilabiatum, cirrbis 2-4. Ocelli ruberrimi in cer\'ic«. 

Fenis fiHformis, vagina tubulosa exceptus; feminse apertura genitalis " 

" Aquarum dulcium incolge." 

1. P. BARBiGER, I^ordmanu. 

Fhanoglene barbiger, Nordmann, in Lamarck's Anim. sans Vert. 2^ edit. iii. 664.-Dujardin, Hist. Nat. 

des Helminthes, 238. 

' This account of the genus and species of Amblj/ura has been taken from Diesing's Syst. Helminth, vol ii. 
p. 126, and his * Revision der Nematoden/' loc, cit. p. 624. 



" Os cirrLis qnatuor instructum. Ocelli duo discreti. Longit . . . ." 
''JIab. In aqua stagnante prope Berolinum {Nordmann)'' 

% P. MiCANS, Nordmann. 


iii. 664. — Dujardin, Hist. Nat 

des Helminthes, p. 238. 

"Os ciriliis duobus instructum. Ocelli coaliti. Longit . . . ." 
"Sab. In larva Neuropteri {Nordmanny ^ 


In all probability, this was a mere accidental tenant of the intestine of the Ncuro- 


pterous larva in which it was found by Nordmann — having been swallowed with its food. 
The presence of ocelli renders it almost certain that it could not be an habitual parasite ; 
and the experiments of Davaine (Ueclierches sur rAnguillule du Ble nielle, p. 64) have 
demonstrated that these I^ematodes pass uninjured through the intestinal canal of many 
of the invertebrate and cold-blooded vertebrate animals. 

The only freshwater genus in which I have yet met with species possessing ocelli has 
been Jlonht/stet^a. 

The three following marine species I am very uncertain about, and have therefore 
merely followed Eberth in "allowing them to remain in this genus. 

3. P. EOSEA, Eberth. 

Lineola rosea^ KoUiker, Verhandl. d. Naturforsch. Gesell- in Zurich^ 1845. — Eberth^ Untersuch. iiber 
Nematod, p. 18. 

" Roseiirothe Parbe^ Kopf dreilaj)pig, stumpf, Mundholile unbewaffnet, Fiihler gleich 
lang, an der basis der Kopflappen ; seitlich an der Speiserohre zwei braune viereckige 




Nematod. p. 18. 

" Kopf noch stumpfer, und die braune Elecken noch einmal so gross, von 0-066 
Fiihler sehr kurz, 0-001-0-0013'" lang, vier fast ganz vorn, zwei etwas weiter hinten, alle 
mit dicker in der haut steckender Basis, Schwanz stumpf, kurz, 0-0033" lang. Penis 
sehr kurz, von 0-OW\^Merth. 


5. P. Pltjste^, Eberth. 

Eberth, Untersuch. iiber Nematod. p. 18. 
^scaris Flmtr<e, Dalyell, 'The Powers of the Creator displayed in the Creation,' vol. ii. 1853, p.92j 
%■ 27.— Leuckart, Archiv fur Naturges, 1859, Jahrg. 25, Bd. ii. S. 101 u. 146. 

" Length half a line ; body slender, nearly cylindrical ; extremities acute. Colour 
^Jf grej or brownish, with a darker line in the centre of the anterior extremity, denoting 
an internal organ. Two very conspicuous black specks, resembHng eyes, are seated just 
at the origin of the anterior pellucid part. 

' The account of this genus, so far, has been taken from Diesing's *Syst. Helminth.' p. 128. 


" Some of tlicse animals appeared among a number of the decaying corpnscula from 
the Flmtra carbasea, which they frequently penetrated as if in quest of food."— J)aly(jj 

31. PONTONEMA, Leidy. 

Proceed, of Acad, of Philad. vol. vili. (1856) p. 49. 

Gen. Char. " Body capillary^ narrowing towards the extremities. Head continuous with 


the body, truncated or obtuse, and surmounted with angular papillse, cirrated. Eves 
none. Tail obtuse. Generative aperture ventral, near the middle of the body. 
(Esophagus long, cyUndro-clavate ; gizzard none, intestine straight, capacious; anus 

cntral and poster 


1. P. VACILLATUM, Lcidy. 

Journ. Acad. Philad. 2nd sen iii. 144, et in Proceed. Acad. Philad. viii. (1856) p. 49. 


Body cylindroid anteriorly, with longitudinal rows of short cirri in addition to those 

of tlic head ; posteriorly incurved ; tail short, thick, conical, obtuse. Length to 9 
breadth to |th of a line." 

" Ilab. Found on the sea-shore of Ehode Island, beneath stones, between tides. 

2. r. MAEINUM, Leidy. 


" Body cylindroid ; head convex ; mouth surrounded with angular papilla. Cirri 4 
the side of the head. Tail long, narrow, conical, obtuse. Length to 3 lines." 
" Hab. Found at the bottom of a sound on the coast of New Jersev." 

3. P. MtJLLERi, Diesincf. 

rina, M tiller, Anim 
Meth. (1824) 778 



-De Blainville, in Diet. d. Sc. Nat. 

Anguillula marina, Oerst. De region, marin. 1844, 63 & 69. 
Enchdidium marinum, Ehrenb. 



Corpus subaequale, retrorsum acutatum. Caput truncatum. Os cirrhis .... Longit 

/// 31 

^ ''Hub. Inter mucosa palos marines obvestientia, et in aqua marina servata frequenti 

sime (0. F, Milller). In profunditate 0-8 orgyiarum, estate, in fretu Oeresund (Oersted). 

" Cum Vibrio marina, MiiUer, ocellis omnino destituta sit, cum EncheUdio mem 

Ehrcnbcrg, identica esse non potest {Oersted, 1. c.)."— Sitzun^sb. der Kais. Akad. 1861, 
(Bd. xlii.) S. 623. "" 


35. POTAMONEMA, Leidy 

Proceed, of Acad, of Philad. viii. (1856) 49. 

Gex CiTAR. " Body filiform, narrowing towards the extremities. Head continuous witli 

the body, slightly dilated, obtuse. Mouth large, infundibuliform, unarmed. (Eso- 
phagus narrow, flexuous, membranous, graduaUy expanding into a capacious, straight, 




cjlindrical intestine; anus none(?) or exceedingly indistinct. Caudal extremity 
obtuse. Generative aperture of the female near the middle of the body." 

p. >iTii)rM, Leidy. 

" Body cylindroid, most narrowed anteriorly. Head without appendages. Caudal ex- 
tremiiy broad, obtusely conical. Length 5 lines j breadth jth of a line." 

"An active, wriggling, glistening-white worm, found among beds of Vallisneria amerl- 
eana growing in the river Schuylkill, near Philadelphia." 

86. NEMA, Leidy. 

Proceed, of Acad, of Philad. viii. (1856) 49. 

Gen. Chae. " Body ascaridiform. Head without appendages. Mouth unarmed, large, 
infundibuliform ; oesophagus tubular, membranous, expanding into a simple, straiglit 
mtestine ; anus ventral. Tail conical, acute, recurved. Generative aperture near 
the middle of the body." 



Body white, glistening. Length 1 J™'^ ; breadth '050™°^. Tail -115'"™ Ion 


^'^An active, wriggling worm, found about some dead specimens of a black Fhvjgcmea, 
which was infested with a fungous parasite, and attached to stones at the water's edge of 
a small brook near Philadelphia." 

37. IJROLABES, Carter. 

" The generic name of Urolahes, which I have employed, should only be viewed as 
provisional. It has been chosen from the striking habit which, all these worms have of 
attaching themselves to some object by the tail, whether it be by embracing it or by 
adhering to its surface. Hence the tail would appear to be both prehensile and adhesive* 
if not suctorial. Having once fixed themselves in this way, they keep up an undulating 
movement from the tail forwards, which, in the absence of any evident purpose, seems 
more for respiration than anything else."— ^?^?^. of Nat. Sist. ser. iii. vol. iv. p. 99. 

Amongst the ten species described by Carter, there are representatives of several 
genera ; and I have been able to assign positions to three of the species — one in the 
genus Dorylaimus, one in Chrojuadora, and one in Si/mplocosfoma. Of the remainder, 
three (Z7. glceocapsarum, JJ, laUata, and JJ. tentaculata) seem, by the form of their 
oesophagus, almost to belong to the genus Bhahditis, although this is somewhat nega- 
tived by the absence of caudal alee in the male of V. gloeoca-psarim, the males of the 
other two species not havens been discovered. 

1. U. ainrnp^-nc.^..^^ Carter 

^oc. cii. p. 40, pi. iii. fig. 25. 

Female, linear, cylindrical, striated transversely, gradually diminishing towards the 

ead, which is obtuse and without papilljB ; also towards the tail, which is long and 

lumished with a digital termination. Vulva a little anterior to the middle of the body." 



" CEsopLagus commencing with a cup-like buccal cavity, from whicli a narrow straight 
tube extends back to the intestine. Intestine much larger than oesophagus. Musclar 
iheath of oesophagus commencing a little distance from the buccal dilatat 
portion of oesophagus naked, and then having two swellings in its course, one oval and 
tlic other terminal and bulbous. Hepatic organ consisting of a layer of brownish oil 
globules, occuppni^ the interval between the intestine and its sheath throu 

" Ormns of ironeration double, occupying middle third of body." 

o • 


1 " i,«^«;i " 

" She, it" long, and yfy" broad 

"Male, somewhat smaller than the female; tail somewhat shorter and thicker." 

«* TF(fl. 'Wq Gloiocapsa which grows on walls and on the sides of gutters during the 

Island of Bomba}' 


2. TJ. LABTATA, Carter. 

Loc. cit. p. 41, pi. iii. fig. 26. 

" Female, linear, cylindrical, unstriated, gradually diminishing towards the head, which 
is labiated and furnished with two papillae ; also towards the tail, which is conical and 


ited. Vulva much behind the centre of the body, about the point of union of the 
posterior two quarters." 

" Alimentary canal and oesophageal and intestinal sheaths, with hepatic organ, the 
same as in the foregoing species ; but no buccal dilatation. Organs of generation pro- 
bably unsymmctrical, from backward position of vulva." 

" Size, about -}^" long, and yy^" broad." 

" Male, unseen." 


Ilah. The Gloeocapsa of the walls, &c., during the ' rains/ Island of Bombay 

3. U. TENTACULATA, Carter. 

Loc. cit. p. 41, pi. iii. fig. 2/. 

" Female, linear, cylindrical, unstriated, gradually diminishing towards the head, which 
is obtuse and furnished w^ith two short, thick, conical tentacular prolongations closely 


approximated at their base and turned outwards ; also diminishing gradually towards 
the tail, which is conical and elongated. Vulva just behind the middle of the body." 

Alimentary canal and hepatic organ much the same as in the two preceding species, 
but having no buccal dilatation. Organs of generation double, occupying the central 
portion of the body ; their form undetermined." 


Size, about A" long, and Jj" [?] broad 


Mah. The same as the two preceding species 

4. U. ciRRATA, Carter. 

Loc. ci7. p. 41, pi. iii. fig. 28. 

^ ''Female, linear, cylindrical, unstriated, gradually diminishing towards the head, wMcb 
is obtuse and furnished with two linear, short cirri, widely separated ; also diminislung 



gradually toTrards tlie tail, wMch is somewhat curved and obtuse at the extremity 
Tulva consfdcrablj posterior to the middle of body." 

** Alimentary canal the same as in tlie foregoing species, but without buccal dilatation 
Or^-ans of generation undetermined." 

She -h" long, and ^m 

Jfale, unseen." 

Wai. Same as forcgoin 





5. U. PARASITICA, Carter. 

hoc. cit. p. 44j et vol. ii. pi. iv. fig. 50. 


" Female, linear, cylindrical, unstriated ; gradually diminishing towards the head, which 
is obtuse and without papillae, and also towards the tail, which is long and conical.. 
Vulva a little in front of the middle of the body." 

" (Esophagus commencing in an expanded oral orifice, immediately becoming narrowed 
into a straight, uniform tube, naked at the commencement, but soon surrounded by a 
sheath, which goes on increasing in width to the point of union of the oesophagus and 
intestine, after which it continues of uniform calibre to the termination of the latter. 
Organs of generation double, occupying the middle third of body." 

" Size, 

" Male, unseen." 

1 " 



Rab. Peritoneal cavity' of Nais alhida ; in more or less abundance durinsr the 


hen this Nais makes its appearance in the Gloeocctpsa mentioned, Island of Bombay 

6. U. ERTTHROPs, Carter. 

Loc. cit. p. 42, pi. Hi. fig. 29. 

" Female, linear, cylindrical, minutely striated transversely, ocellated ; gradually dimi 
nishing towards the head, which is 

which is long and conical 

obtuse and without papillae, also towards the tail 

Vulva just about the middle of body. (Esopha 


mencmg with a cup-like followed by a globular dilatation, after which it becomes 
narrow, uniform in width, and pursues a straight course back to the intestine. Intestinal 
sheath presenting a constriction just after its commencement, which gives it a globular 

orm, part of which only is lined with the hepatic organ. Organs of generation double, 
occupymg the middle third of the body." 

Ocelli consisting of two globular bodies, situated a short distance from the head, and 

etween(?) the peritoneal and muscular sheaths of the oesophagus, opake, of a rich 
carmine colour in their posterior three-fourths, and the anterior fourth or corneal portion 
f^lmsh opalescent." 






1 II 

^ttle, the same 



^uie, ine same as the female, but with the posterior part of the body termmatmg more 
^•^^ptly, and the taH mor^ nftpr,nnfprl " 




Silty clots of Oscillatoria floating in the salt-water main drain of the town of 



"Vide note, p. 77 of this Memoir. 




7. U. INFREQUENS, Carter 

Loc. cit. p. 43, pi. iii. fig. iO, 



Female^ the same as the foregoing species, but a little larger in every way " 
Alimentary canal and organs of generation the same generally. Ova under^ 
segmentation \ and the embryo developed in the ovisac, but not liberated there " ° 

" Ocelli^ the same in situation, but semi-opake and of a yellowish colour throuohn t" 

" SizCf undetermined." 

"Male. Same as the female, but with a short curved tail, presenting on each side of 
the inner curvature a membranous expansion supported on setaceous ribs, which extends 

from the tip of the tail to some little distance above the 
same as in the foregoing species ; form of testis undetermined 

Organs of generation the 


Hab. The same as last 

Note appended on June 17, 1865 

Whilst this memoir has been going throuc'h tlie 

press, I have completely satisfied myself of the general correctness of Schneider 
(Reich, and Du Bois-Eeym. Archiv, 1863) regarding the nature and arrangement of the 
nervous system in Ascaris megalocephala ; and in another memoir, laid before the Royal 
Society of London on the 15th of this month («0n the Anatomy and Physiology of the 

Ncmatoids, Parasitic and Free 

with observations on their Zoological Position 

Affimtics to the Echinoderms "), I have described and figured this system as it 

A. hmbricoides, A. osculata, and A, marginata. The arrangement which has now beei 
recognized in these and other species, either by Schneider or myself, will, I heheve 
prove to be the typical condition of the 

although the difficulty 

of actually demonstrating it is often extreme 

lystem in the Nematoids generally 

I am still 

opmion however, that the so-called "oesophageal ring" met with occasionally in both 
tree and parasitic species is not to be considered a portion of the nervous system of these 


Reasons for this belief, as weU as many new facts and views concerning the 

anatomy of this interesting group of animals, are contained in my last memoir above 
mentioned. ^ 











73, ' omitted before first footnote. 
78, note, line 1 2, instead of par n 
82, line 22, instead o/(Schwanzdi 




2h LiNHOMOMius read ^21. Linhomcexjs. 

2/* 166 read 






The same letters refer to similar parts in all the figures. 

c. Mouth. 

6, Pharynx. 

i/. Pharyngeal teeth. 

i''. Pharyngeal processes. 

c. (Esophagus. 

cf* Median swelling of same. 
c". Terminal swelling of same, 
c'". Valvular apparatus of latter 

d. Intestine. 

rf'. Hepatic cells. 
e- Anus. 
ef. Anal glands. 
/. Vulva. 
/'• Vaginal glands. 
g. Male spicules. 
Accessory pieces. 

h. Seminal tube. 

u Supplementary male organ 

k. Abdominal gland. 

A/. Excretory orifice of same. 

L Floating gland-cells. 

m. (Esophageal ring. 

n. Ocellus. 

0. Lateral canals. 

p. Integument. 

/?^ Cervical markings of same 

q. CephaUc papillae. 

r. Caudal sucker. 

/. Sucker-tubes. 

s. Genital papillae or suckers. 

t. Caudal ala of male. 

f. Rays supporting same. " 

w. Ovum. 

V. Sperm-cell. 


scale of 150 : 1, i. e. are representations 

magnified 150 diameters — the exceptions being figs 
magnified 100 diameters. 





the anterior and 

aspect — the animal lying on its side. 







Plate IX, 


1. Monhystera dispar^ n. sp. ; anterior extremity of female. 

2. Posterior extremity of female. 

3. Monhystera rivularisy n. sp. ; anterior extremity of male. 

4. Posterior extremity of male. ■ 


5. Monhystera hngicaudata^ n. sp, ; anterior extremity of fe 

6. Posterior extremity of female. 

7- Monhystera filiformis^ n. sp.; anterior extremity of femal 

8: Posterior extremity of female, 

9. Monhystera stagnalis^ n, sp. ; anterior extremity of female 

10. Posterior extremity of female. 

11. Posterior extremity of male. 

12. Monhystera disjuncta^ n. sp. j anterior extremity of male. 

13. Posterior extremity of male. 

14. Monhystera ambigua^n. sp. ; anterior extremity of male. 

15. Posterior extremity of male. 

16. Tripyla jylomeranSy n. s^y.; anterior extremity of m;ile. 

17. Posterior extremity of male. 

18. Tripyla salsa^ n. sp. ; anterior extremity of female. 

19. Posterior extremity of female. 

20. Trilobus gracilis^ n. sp'. ; anterior extremity of female. 

21. Posterior extremity of female. 

22. Posterior extremity of male. 

23. Trilohuspellucidus^n, sp.; anterior extremity of female. 

24. Posterior extremity of female. 

25. Mononchus truncatus, n. sp.; anterior extremity of female 
2Q, Posterior extremity of female. 

27. Mononchus papillat us ^ n. 9p.; anterior extremity of femal 

28. Posterior extremity of female. 

29. Mononchus macrostoma, n. sp. ; anterior extremity of fcin 

30. Posterior extremity of female. 

31. Mononchus tunbridgensisy n. sp.; anterior extremity of fei 

32. Posterior extremity of female. 

33. Mononchus crisiafus, n. sp. ; anterior extremity of female. 

34. Posterior extremity of female. 

34a. Ironus ignavus, n. sp.; anterior extremity of female. 
345. Posterior extremity of female. 

36. Posterior extremity of female. 



h - 



40. Posterior extremity of male. 

41. Dorylaimus ohUmcaudatus, n. sp.; anterior extremity of female 

42. Posterior extremity of female. 

43. Dorylaimus tenukaudatus, n. sp., anterior extremity of female. 

44. Posterior extremity of female. 

* M. dkjuncta and M. ambigua, and also RhabditU marina, are marine. 





Plate X. 




of female. 

46. Posterior extremity of female 


tremity of female 

filiformiSy n. sp. ; 

anterior ex- 

49. Posterior extremity of female. 

50. Dorylaimus polyblastusy n. sp. ; anterior ex- 

tremity of male. 

51. Posterior extremity of male, 

52. Dorylaimus papillatus^ n. sp. ; anterior ex- 


tremlty of female. 

3. Posterior extremity of female. 
64. Dorylaimus torpiduSy n. sp.; anterior ex- 
tremity of female. 

55. Posterior extremity of female. 

56. Posterior extremity of male. 

57. Dorylaimus iners^ n. sp, ; anterior extremity 

of female. 

58. Posterior extremity of female. 

59. Posterior extremity of male. 
Sda.Anf/iiilhila aceti, Ehrenb.; anterior extremity 

of female. 
59i. Posterior extremity of female. 
59c. Posterior extremity of male. 
^0. Rhabditis marina^ n. sp.; anterior extremity 

of female. 

61. Posterior extremity of female. 

62. Posterior extremity of male. 

63. Rhabditis hngicaudata, n. sp. ; anterior ex- 

tremity of female. 

64. Posterior extremity of female. 

65. Rhabditis ornalay n. sp. 'j anterior extremity of 


66. Posterior extremity of female. 

67. Posterior extremity of male, ventral aspect. 

68. Rhabditis acris^ n. sp.; anterior extremity of 


69. Posterior extremity of female. 


of female. 


anterior extremity 

72. Posterior extremity of female. 



4. Diplogaster albus, n. sp. ; anterior extremity 



of female. 


tremity of female. 

n. sp.; anterior ex- 

77. P- 

78. Posterior extremity of male. 

79. Plectus parietinus, n. sp.; anterior extremity 

of female. ^ 

80. Posterior extremity of female. 

81. Plectus cirralus.n.^p.; anterior extremity of 

lemale. •^ 

82. Posterior extremity of female. 


83. Plectus tenuis^ n. sp. ; anterior extremity of 


84. Posterior extremity of female, 

85. Plectus vela w^ n. sp.; anterior extremity of 


86. Posterior extremity of female. 


of female. 

88. Posterior extremity of female. 

89. Plectus parvus, n. sp. ; anterior extremity of 


90. Posterior extremity of female, 

91. Plectus triiiciy n. sp.; anterior extremity of 


92. Posterior extremity of female. 

93. Plectus granulosus^ n. sp. ; anterior ex- 

tremity of female. 

94. Posterior extremity of female. 

95. Plectus fusiformls , n. sp. ; anterior extremity 

of female. 

96. Posterior extremity of female. 


of female. 

98. Posterior extremity of female. 

99. Aphelenchus villosus^ n. sp. ; anterior ex- 

tremity of female. 

100. Posterior extremity of female. 

101. Posterior extremity of male. 

102. Aphelenchus parietinus^ n. sp.; anterior ex- 

tremity of female. 

103. Posterior extremity of female. 

10$ a, Aphelenchus pyr I, n. sp.; anterior extremit} 

of female. 
103 5. Posterior extremity of female. 
103 c. Posterior extremity of male. 

104. Cephalobus persegniSj n. sp. ; anterior ex- 

tremity of female. 

105. Posterior extremity of female. 

106. Posterior extremity of male. 

107. Cephalobus striatus^ n. sp. ; anterior ex- 

tremity of female. 

108. Posterior extremity of female. 

109. Tylenchus Davainii^ n. sp.; anterior ex- 

tremity of female. 

110. Posterior extremity of female. 

111. Posterior extremity of male. 

112. Tylenchus {Vibrio) /n/idj anterior extremity 

of female. 

113. Posterior extremity of female. 

114. Posterior extremity of male. 

115. Tylenchus terricola, n. sp. ; anterior extremity 

of female. 

116. Posterior extremity of female. 


of female. 

118. Posterior extremity of female. 
118«. Posterior extremity of male. 




.Li:.t:.3oc.Vol IKJ Tab. 9 

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Plate XI. 




n * 

19. Symplocostoma longicoUiSy n. sp.j anterior extremity of female. 
-20. Posterior extremity of female. 

121. Posterior extremity of male. 

122. Ventral aspect of anterior extremity, showing buccal apparatus more highly magnified, 

123. Symplocostoma vivipara^ n. sp, ; anterior extremity of female. 

124. Posterior extremity of female. 

125. Posterior extremity of male. 

126. Oncholaimus vulgaris^ n. sp. ; anterior extremity of female^ showing pigmentary 

markine;s of anterior portion of oesophagus only. 

markings of anterior portion of oesophagus only. 

128. Posterior extremity of male. 

128«. Accessory piece, more highly magnified. 

129. Oncholaimus nlnhpr. r\. ssn. • ani-prinr f>\'iri 

130. Posterior extremity of female. 

131. Oncholaimus viscosus, n. sp.; anterior extremity of female^ with adherent fragments 

of sand and Diatomaceae. 

132. Posterior extremity of female. 

133. Posterior extremity of male. 

134. Oncholaimus attenuatus, Dujard.; anterior extremity of female. 

135. Posterior extremity of female. 
13G. Posterior extremity of male. 

}^7- Oncholaimus viridis, n. sp.; anterior extremity of female. 

138. Posterior extremity of female. 

139. Oncholaimus f us cus, n. sp. ; anterior extremity of male. 

140. Posterior extremity of male. 

141. Oncholaimus albidus, n. sp.; anterior extremity of female. 

142. Posterior extremity of female. 

143. Anticoma Eberthi, n. sp,; anterior extremity of female. 

144. Posterior extremity of female. 
I'^b. Posterior extremity of male. 

14G. Anticoma limalis, n. sp. ; anterior extremity of female. 

147. Middle portion of body, showing vagina and vaginal glands. 

148. Posterior extremity of female. 

149. Anticoma pellucida, n. sp.j anterior extremity of female. 
"150. Posterior extremity of female. 

151. Phanoderma CocJcsi, n. sp.; anterior extremity of female. 

152. Posterior extremity of female. 

153. Posterior extremity of male. 

154. Phanoderma albidum, n. sp.; anterior extremity of female, dorsal aspect. 

155. Posterior extremity of female. 




Bastian del 






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Traits . L 11^' ^ Soc.Vol,ZZ!7 'Iae 

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Plate XII, 


156. Leptosomatum elongatmn^ n. sp.; anterior extremity of male^ dorsal aspect. 
157- Posterior evtremity of male. 

■ 158. Leptosomatum graciky n. sp. ; anterior extremity of female, dorsal aspect. 

159. Posterior extremity of female. 

160. Posterior extremity of male. 

161. Leptosomatum figuratum^ n. sp. ; anterior extremity of female^ dorsal aspect. 

162. Posterior extremity of female. 

163. Posterior extremity of male. 

164. Enoplus communis^ n. sp.; anterior extremity of female*. 

165. Posterior extremity of female. 

166. Posterior extremity of male. 

167. The three teeth more highly magnified. 

168. Enoplus Dujardiniiy n. sp. ; anterior extremity of female. 

169. Posterior extremity of female. 

170. Posterior extremity of male. 

171. Enoplus pigmentosus, n. sp. ; anterior extremity of female. 

172. Posterior extremity of female. 

173. Enoplus inermis, n. sp.; anterior extremity of female, dorsal aspect. 

174. Posterior extremity of female. 

J ■ 

175. Posterior extremity of male. 

176. Enoplus brevis, n. sp.; anterior extremity of female. 

177. Posterior extremity of female. 

178. Linhomceus hirsutuSy n. sp. ; anterior extremity of female. 

1 79. Posterior extremity of female. 

180. Linhomceus elongatus, n. sp.; anterior extremity of male. ' 

181. Posterior extremity of male. 

L 4 

In the members of this geuus, the pigmentary markings of the anterior portion of the cesophagus only are 



r r 


\ ^J\ i.-L.. 

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J ■ I 



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1 ' 4 

oli.'iif del 

X iOC' 


Plate XIII 



182. Tachyhodites natanSy n. sp. j anterior ex- I 216. Posterior extremity of female. 

treraity of female. 
183. Posterior extremity of female. 
184 Posterior extremity of male, 
1S5. TachyJiodites parvus^ n. sp. ; anterior 

tremity of female. 
186. Posterior extremity of female. 



187«- Anterior extremity seen from above^ showing 

lateral convex projections of integument. 

188. Posterior extremity of male. 

189. Theristus veloXy n. sp. ; anterior extremity of 



190. Portion of body, showing vagina and unequal 

vaginal glands. 

191. Posterior extremity of female* 

192. Sph(erolamus hirmtus, n. sp. ; anterior ex- 

tremitv of female, 

193. "Posterior extremity of female. 
J 94. Posterior extremity of male. 
1946E. Single-grooved accessory piece. 

195. Comesoma vulgaris^ n. sp.; anterior extremity 

of female. 

196. Posterior extremity of female. 


of female. 


199. Posterior extremity of female. 

200. Posterior extremity of male. 

of female. 


202. Posterior extremity of female. 

203. Posterior extremity of male. 

20A. Spira Icevis, n. sp.; anterior extremity of 


205. Posterior extremity of female. 

206. Posterior extremity of male. 


of female. 

207fl;. Lateral aspect of portion of anterior ex- 

tremity^ seen from above. 

208. Posterior extremity of female. 

209. Posterior extremity of male. 

210. Cyatholaimiis ocellatus, n. sp.; anterior ex- 

tremity of female. 

211. Posterior extremity of female. 

212. Posterior extremity of male. 
212a, Spicules and accessory pieces. 

213. Cy«//.o/./iv/.t(s ccecus, n. sp.; anterior extremity 

or lemale. "^ 

214. Posterior extremity of female. 

215. Cyatholaimiis ornatus, n. sp! ; anterior ex^ 

tremity of female. 

217» Cyatholaimus punctatus^ n. sp.j anterior ex- 
tremity of male. . 

218. Posterior extremity of male.. 

219. Cyatholaimus striatus^ n. sp. ; anterior ex- 

tremity of male. 

220. Posterior extremity of male. 

221. Spilopkora elegans, n. sp. ; anterior extremity 

of male. 

222. Posterior extremity of male. 

223. Spilophora iruequalis/ u. sp.; anterior ex- 

tremity of female. 

224. Posterior extremity of female. 

225. Posterior extremity of male. 

226. Spilop/iora rohusta^ n, sp, ; anterior extremity 

of female. 
226a, Lateral spiral cervical marking of integument. 

227. Posterior extremity of female. 

228. Spilophora costata^ n. sp.; anterior extremity 

of male, 

229. Posterior extremity of male^ showing also 

gradual fading of longitudinal markings. 

230. Chromadova nudicapitata^ n. sp. ; anterior 

extremity of male. 
230a. Three conical pharyngeal plates. 

231. Posterior extremity of male. 

231a. Portion of body^ seen from ventral aspect, 

showing spicules and median integumental 


232. Posterior extremity of female. ^ 

233. Chromadora vulgaris^ n. sp. ; anterior ex- 

tremity of female. 

234. Posterior extremity of female. 

235. Posterior extremity of male. 

236. Chromadora natans, n. sp. ; anterior extremity 

of male. 

237. Posterior extremity of male^ ventral aspect. 

238. Posterior extremity of female. 

239. Chromadora cmca^ n. sp. ; anterior extremity 

of female. 

240. Posterior extremity of female. 

241. Posterior extremity of male- 

242. Chromadora filiformis^ n. sp. ; anterior ex- 

tremity of female. 
243- Posterior extremity of female. 

244. Posterior extremity of male. 

245. Chromadora mbelloidcs^ n. sp.; anterior ex- 

tremity of male. 

246. Posterior extremity of male. 

247. Chromadora papillata^ n. sp.; anterior ex- 

tremity of male. 

248. Posterior extremity of male. 







-J / 

''^^■'- :'UL de] 



III. Description of some New and Bemarhahh Species of Aristolocliia from jrcdcrn 

Tropical Africa. By Jos. B. Hook:^, M.B., F.R.S., V.JP.L.S., &-c. 

(Plate XIY.) 

Kead February 16th, 18C5. 


1. Aristolocuia Goldieana, Hook. f. ; glaberrima, foliis ovato- vcl triangulari-cordntls 
basi profunde exsculptis acuminatis, floribus maximis, periantliii rcfracti utriculo 

ato subclavato limbo infandibuliformi campanulato ore aiiipliato (rmimto 
obtuse trilobo lobis caudato-acuminatis, staminibus ad 21, columnse lobis nd 12 

Hab. In Africae tropicae occidentalis sylvis ad Eluga a Rev. Episcopo Sierra Leone detecta {Barter, 
n. 3427). In insula Fernando Po, Mann, n. 391. In sylvis ad ostium fluminis Old Calabar, Rev. IV. 
C, Thomson. 

Fruiex scandens, caule 20-pedali, ramulis gracilibus teretibus. Folia longe graciliter pctiolata, G-S-polK 
longa, 5-6 lata, basi auriculato-cordata sinu profundo lato fere cTauso aunculis rotundutis, acumi- 
nata^ integerrima vel siccitate crenulata^ glaberrlma^ membranacea, subtus pallida; nervis pnniariis 
7-II5 arcuatiSj a nervo tenui basim cordatam folii margmante onentibus, gracilibus; petiolo 6-polli- 
carU. Stipul(E 0. Perimthium medio refractum; pars inferior vel utriculus in ovario sessilis, 8 poll. 
longa, 2^-3 lata^ subcylindricaj obtuse 6-costata, apice clavato incurvo;, dorso arcuata, subito in Umbum 
perianthii contracta, basi angustata intrusa, intus pilis articulatis mollibus aucta ; perianthii par^5 
superior 12 poll, longa, infundibuliformi-campanulata/ multicostata, sensim in limbum symme- 
tricum expansa; limbus subinflatus crasse costatus, inter costaa lacunosus, ore hiante truncato, 
obscure trilobo, lobis subito acuminato-caudatis ; fauce intus cum lamina circumambiente pendula 
aucta. Columna subsessilis, 1| poll, longa, f poll, diametro, intus cava, cavitate infundibuliformi, 
Antherce anguste lineares^ contiguse, 1 poll, longce, columnae adhaerentes. Stigmata erecta, apicibus 
bifidis incurvis. 


Plate XIV. fig. 1 , flower j 2, branch and leaves ; 3, longitudinal section of the throat of the perianth, show- 
ing the position and form of the pendulous curtain j 5, hair from cavity of the utricle ; 6, vertical 
section of the base of the utricle, showing the column ; 7, vertical section of the column ; 8, upper 
part of anthers and stigma ; figs. 3, 5, 7, and 8, all magnified. 

I'or the specimen, preserved in alcohol, from which the drawing of this magnificent 
plant has been made, I am indebted to tbe Eev. W. C. Thomson, by whom it was found 
gro\nng in forests near the mouth of the Old Calabar river in 18^3, and to whom we are 
indebted for many interesting plants collected in the same region. At Mr. Thomson's 
request, it is named after his fellow-labourer, the Eev. Hugh Goldic, of the United Pres- 

Verian Missionary Society. 

The most remarkable characters in the structure of A. Goldieana are,— 1. the number 
of stamens, which, in all tlie 160 species hitherto described, are either six or very rarely 
fi^e, but here amount to about twenty-four, whilst in two other West-African species, 

VOL. XXY. 2 C 


liercafter to be described, they are ten or twelve as in the Malayan genus Tli It 



kvliich they further resemble in the 3-lobed perianth, but from which A. GolV 
liffcrs in the anthers being sessile, inserted in a single series, and in the 6-celled ov 
2. the number of styles or divisions of the column, which are about twelve, each bifiV 
the highest number in described species being six. In habit, size of flower, and colo ' 
it resembles the American A. gigantea, Mart. & Zucc, but diflTers entirely in the form of 
the perianth and structure of the column. 


Another novel pomt in this flower, but of which more information is wanted, is the 
swollen and apparently glandular apices of the stigmatic crura. The true position of 
the stigmatic surfaces is, in other species, marginal and decurrcnt on the lobes ; and if 
so in tliis, it is possible that the glands may be secretory organs, whose object may be to 
attract insects to the column, their agency being obviously essential to fertilization 
as is the case with the rostellum of some orchids, to aid the transport of poUen by sup 
plying the viscid matter which adheres to the limbs of insects. 

The colour of the flower is, according to description, violet, more or less variegated 
with yellow and red-purple ; and the odour, according to the Bishop of Sierra llone, 
resembles that of decaying fungi. 

2. A. TuiACTiXA, Hook. f. ; glaberrima, foliis coriaceis circumscriptione subhastato- 

oblongis auriculato-trilobis coriaceis basi profunde cordato-bilobis, lobis laterahbus 
rotundatis sub-2-lobulatis, intermedio oblongo acuminato, perianthii cur^^ati utriculo 
inflato gibbo, tube cylindrico, limbo explanato 3-lobo lobis patentissunis caudato- 
acuminatis, staminibus 10, lobis columns© subulatis integris. 

Hab. la Africa tropica occidentali ad ostium fluminis Gaboon in Corisco Bay, Mann, n. 1851, Septembri 


Caulis volubilis, 25-pedalis, tenuis, laevis, glaberrimus. Folia petiolata, 2-5 poll. longa, li-3 lata, sub- 
coriacea, superne nitida, lavia, subtus reticulatim nervosa subconcoloria, nervis primariis 3-5 
nervuhsque prominulis, sinu profundo rotundato aperto vel clauso, lobis lateralibus obtusissimis, 
subsinuatis; petiolo f-l^ poll, longo. Stipul(B 0. Pedunculi ad 2 poll, longi. Perianthium 2-3 
poll, longum, plus minus curvum; utriculus 1-1 1 poll, longus et latus, oblique obovoideus, dorso 
truncate membranaceus, sub-6-costatus ; tubus ad li poll, longus, fere 1 poll, diametro, teres, 
ad 12-nervus, ore modice contracto ciliatoj limbus 4 poll, diametro, ad basin trilobus; lobi patentfs 
plani, subaequales, subulato-lanceolati, caudato-acuminati, glaberrimi, marginibus ciliatis. Cohmna 
parva, sessiHs. AnthercB \Q, S^%mo^w lobi 10, subulati, indivisi (?). Capsula lO-\2.^o\\ic2.m, \-\\ 
poll, diametro, 6-costata, costis elevatis, crasse coriacea. 

3. A. Maxnii, Hook. f. ; foHis breviter petiolatis 5-lobis basi cordato-bilobis subtus 

nervosis pubescentibus, lobo medio oblongo acuminato, lateralibus brevibus rotun- 
datis, floribus breviter racemosis, perianthii utriculo parvo inflato, tube curvo 

cnsim dilatato, ore truncate obscure 3-lobo 




Folia ampla, 6 poll, longa 4-6 lata, dure 
erula, nervis elevatis creberrime reticulata, 




basi profunde 2-lobaj lobis imbricatis, sinu angustissimo clauso, lobo intermcdio oblongo vel obovato- 
oblongo abrupte acuminatOj, 2 lateralibus utrinque valde inaequalibus^ inferiorc minore rotundato, 

folii primariis 5 secundariisque validis; petiolo 1-1| poll, longo, robusto, StiptihO. 
racemosi, rachi ^-1 poll, longo, puberulo; bractcce parvae, ovato-subulatag. Pedunculus 
polUcaris. Perianthium 3 poll longum, membranaceum, glabrum ; 





lonL'Us. obo- 


basi I aplce 1^ poll, diaraetro; ore aperto non ampliatOj oblique truncuto, obscure 3-lol>o, non clUato, 
intus fasciculis parvis pilorum obsito. Columna parva stipitata, stipltc antbcris rrqinlotijo* Afffhrrrr 
10, lineares. Stigmatis lobi 10, subulati^ indivisi (?). 


■/■/f'VMvaiaToo vmooioxsmv 

• doij; 'spaig -iUdouy^ 

■ \lXill3 pY^o-^ig 


i'l a^X'AXy TOA 30S tsitiiT shvhi 


IV. On the Anatomy <?/ Doridopsis, a Gems of the Nudihranchiate 3follusca 

By Albany Hancock, F.L.S. 

(Plates XV.-XX.). 

Read January 19 th, 1865. 

BOMDOFSIS has until lately * been confounded with DoiHs, which, indeed, it very 
closely resembles, — though it may always be distinguished by the position and character 
of its mouth, and generally by the softness of its dermal envelope, which is devoid of 
spicules, granules, or any other calcareous bodies whatsoever. It is also usually more 
elongated, with the sides parallel, and is frequently vividly coloured. Six or seven 


species have been described, all from Madras f. A castaneous species also occurs in 
Madeira. They divide themselves naturally into two principal groups, one of which is 
characterized by the smoothness of the mantle, the other by its being covered with soft, 
warty tubercles. 

The species mainly relied upon on this occasion belongs to the latter division, and has 
ken named D. gemmacea. It is three or four inches long, and is rather narrow in pro- 
portion to its length, with the mantle covering the head and foot, the latter projecting 
only a little behind when the animal is moving. The pallia! tubercles are compound, 
and are placed symmetrically in three rows along the back and sides, with smooth 
lozenge-shaped spaces between them. The head is inconspicuous, bulging forward a 
little in front of the anterior margin of the foot, and having the sides produced into 
short angular points. The mouth is in the form of a small circular aperture, pkced a 
little backward in a depression or cleft in the thickened margin of the fofet. The dorsal 
tentacles are retractile within cavities, are placed well forward, and are clavate, with the 
upper portion laminated. There are five retractile branchial plumes, which are quadri- 
pinnate ; they are placed towards the posterior extremity of the middle line of the back, 

surrounding the anal nipple and renal orifice. ^^^ q^^ r o 

forward, on the right side, between the mantle and foot. The foot is rounded at both 

The genital opening is placed well 

extremities, a little more abruptly in front than behind, where it projects slightly beyond 
tbe mantle when the animal is crawling. In front, the margin is thickened and cleft in 
tlie centre, the mouth-opening in the cleft ; in some species a little behind it, where there 
IS a smooth area extending from side to side, and bounded backward by a ridge which 
^<licates, apparently, the true margin of the foot, the thickened margin in front being 
^^e representative of the anterior lamina in Vorls. (PL XV. fig. 3, and PL XX. figs. 3 & 4.) 
Though this species is stated to be three or four inches long, the spirit-specimens dis- 


were scarcely more than one inch and a half in length. 

* lUas described in 1863 by Messrs. Alder and Hancock, in a paper on Madras Nudibranchs in the ' Transactior.s 

^*^eZool.Soc.'vol. v.p. 124. ilbi'^- 

^'OL. XXV. 2d 


Doridopsis nigra has also been dissected, and will be used in tliis paper as the type of 
the smooth diyision to which it belongs. It differs from D. gemmacea chiefly by tlie 
smoothness of the mantle. The branchial plumes, too, axe tripinnate, and are eight in 
number. The specimens dissected were about one inch and a half in length. 

Besides these two species, reference wiU likewise be made to J), tuberculosa, D. ch. 
vulata, D. miniata, and one or two others. 

On laying open the dorsal skin of i). gemmacea (PL XV. fig. 1), the whole of the viscera 
are found to be packed together beneath a thin delicate membrane, similar to that 
which in Doris has been named the peritoneum*. This membrane is attached alon 
the sides to the inner surface of the skin, and, behind, to the anterior margin of the peri- 
cardium, and seems to furnish a pretty complete lining to the visceral cavity. It is per- 
forated with numerous circular orifices (c), no doubt for the passage of the blood from 
the visceral cavity to the skin on its way to the heart. 

The anterior extremity of the alimentary canal is seen in front as a constricted tube, 
passing through the nervous collar. On the right, in front, is the great bulk of the 

productive organs; on the left, and further back, the liver-mass, with the 


stomach or crop lying between it and the genitalia. At the posterior extremity of the 
visceral cavity, above the liver, is the heart enclosed within the pericardium, which is 
apparently enveloped in a fold of the peritoneum. 

D>gestl}:e System. — The mouth (PL XVIII. fig .1) opens downwards and forwards, in a 
depression or cleft in the thickened anterior margin of the foot, and is a small circular 
orifice; there are no fleshy lips as in Boris, but it leads at once into a rather wide 
chamber, with strong muscular walls (PL XVIII. fig. 1 h). Prom the inner surface of the 
posterior waU of this chamber or sac, a nipple-formed proboscis [d) projects exactly in a 
line with the oral or outer orifice (<?) . The proboscis is perforated in front, and is formed 
by the invagination of the posterior waR of the sac ; and on laying it open (PL XVII. %. 2) 
it is found to enclose the anterior extremity of the alimentary tube, the wall of which, 
in front, is fused with that of the proboscis around the perforation ; or, in other words, 
the extremity of the alimentary tube forms the inner wall of the proboscis, the outer 
wall being nothing more than the posterior waU of the sac reflected over it. 

Two or three stout muscular bands (PL XVI. fig. 3 Tc) pass from either side of the sac or 
sheath of the proboscis, and, stretching backwards, become attached to the skin at the 
sides of the body. These are the retractors of the proboscis or sheath, and are the ho- 
mologues of the retractors of the oral channel in Dorisy the sac or sheath being the true 
representative of the channel of the mouth in that animal. A few minute threads 
(PL XVIII. fig. 1 h), apparently muscular, pass backwards from the wall of the sac to 
the outer surface of the alimentary tube, which probably regulate the action of the 
parts on the exsertion of the proboscis. 

Per some distance behind the sac or sheath, the aHmentary tube continues constricted 
(PL XVI. fig. 3 V), and must, in fact, form the inner wall of the proboscis when that organ 
is exserted. The tube then rather suddenly dilates (m), and is shortly again constricted. 
Behmd, at each side of the dilated portion, is placed a glandular nodule (o), which opens 

* " On the Anatomy of Dom," by Albany Hancock and Bennls EmWeton, M.D., Phil. Trans. 1852, p. 208. 



into the tube. These are undoubtedly rudimentary salivary glands ; and as their repre- 
sentatives in Doris open through the posterior wall of the buccal organ, it would appear 
that this dilated portion represents that organ, and the constricted part in front, which 
we have seen forms the inner wall of the exserted proboscis, corresponds to its narrow 
or anterior extremity. Thus it would appear that this dilated portion, with the anterior 
constricted part of the alimentary tube, is really the buccal organ modified. 

The whole of the walls of this modified organ are muscular, the fibres, for the most 
part, being longitudinal and transverse. In the constricted portion, however, the walls 
are much thinner than in the dilated part, in which they are stout and firm. The inner sur- 
face of the whole (PL XYII. fig. 2 g, h) is divided into four longitudinal areas, but other- 
wise is quite smooth, the mucous membrane being entirely without wrinkles. There is 
no armature whatever, nor any process indicating a rudimentary condition of the tongue, 
so universal in the Nudibranchs, — the only exceptions being Tethys and Melibe, wliicli 
are alike deficient in this respect : in these instances, however, the mouth is not trans- 
formed into a proboscis. 

The exsertion of this proboscidiform mouth through the oral aperture must be effected 
by the pressure of the fluid in the visceral chamber, aided, perhaps, by the muscular 
contractions of the walls of the sac or sheath. The sac itself will be everted much in 
the same manner as are the tentacles of a snail, the proboscis being attenuated and 
elongated by the contractions of the transverse muscles in its wall. The retraction of 
this organ, we have already seen, is provided for by the muscular bands passing from 
the posterior waU of the sac or sheath to the skin at the sides of the body. 

Besides the rudimentary salivary glands before mentioned, there are two large follicu- 
lated glands (PI. XVII. figs. 1 & 2,j & i), which lie in front beneath the proboscis, and pour 
their secretion by a single slender duct into this organ immediately within the orifice. 
These glands are of a pale yellowish colour, and their ducts unite almost at once to form 
one common duct, which is at first considerably dilated, thus providing apparently a 
receptacle for the secretion ; it then gradually tapers forward and, after a short course, 
sinks into the muscles of the foot, but may still be followed by dissection until it 
opens into the proboscis, just within the margin of the orifice, by a minute puncture 
(figs. 2b&Sd). 

It is not easy to conjecture the nature of the fluid secreted by these glands. It can 
scarcely be salivary ; for we have seen that the true salivary glands occupy the usual 
position, and, though minute, they may be deemed sufficient when we take into con- 
sideration the simple nature of the buccal apparatus, which is here reduced to a mere 
suctorial tube. Can the secretion thus supplied be a solvent to enable the animal to 
penetrate the calcareous coverings of its prey, and so to reach its food ? Or may it be of 
■ poisonous nature, to paralyze or benumb its victims ? The feeble structure of the 
buccal organ seems to suggest the re(iuirement of some such aid, as, in these animals, 
here is neither cutting nor prehensile organ of any kind. 

Immediately behind the true salivary glands the oesophagus commences (Pis. XV. ^ 
^^'11. fig. 1). At this point of the alimentary tube we have seen that there is a constric- 
^lon; it at once again dilates and passes to the left, then turns to the right, and, crossing 

2d 2 





diagonally backwards, is once more attenuated and sinks into the anterior surface of the 
liver on its way to the true stomach, which is buried in that viscus. The a^sopha^s 
which is considerably longer than the prohoscis, has it waUs somewhat foUiculated, and 
forms a sort of crop or anterior stomach (PL XVII. %. 2 m), which has its mucous mem- 
brane thrown into numerous wrinkles, giving to the surface a honeycombed appearance. 
The stomach (PI. XVI. fig. 2) is rather large, lies in the centre of the liver, and partakes 
considerably of the form of that organ, being rounded in front and bilobed behind. Its 
inner surface presents numerous large irregular depressions, within which are many smaller 
depressions (ff) divided by elevated ridges, giving to the whole a coarsely reticulated 
appearance. There can be little doubt that these depressions, large and small, are the 
biliary ducts, which have lost their tubular character, and are reduced to mere openings 
or depressions in the substance of the liver. Be this, however, as it may, there are no 
distinct channels or ducts, properly so called, for the passage of the hepatic secretion ; 
and it is evident enough that the bile must enter the stomach through the cell-like 
depressions that everywhere exist in its waUs. Indeed the stomach may be looked 
upon as a much-foUiculated sac with the hepatic matter suffused over the surface, and 
giving its secretion everywhere through the walls of the foUicles. Here, then, we 
have a very interesting modification of the hepatic organ ; for we see in it, in tliis 
instance, an intermediate step in development between the complete specialization 
of the organ in the Dorididw and the more or less fusion of it with the stomach in 

the JEolididce. 

A very delicate mucous membrane may be traced. In minute folds, on the ridges that 
separate the cells in the gastric wall. 

The liver (PI. XVII. fig. 1 m) is of a brownish-yellow colour ; it is large and elongated, 
with the anterior margin enlarged a little, rounded, and slightly hollowed. Behind, it is 
cleft for some distance into two lateral lobes [n), which pass backwards, one on each side 
of the branchial circle. 

The intestine {o) issues from the dorsal wall of the stomach a little behind the oeso- 
phagus, and penetrates through the upper surface of the liver. It is rather dilated at 
the pyloric extremity (PL XV. fig. 1 h), and, turning forwards and to the right, it almost 
immediately doubles upon itself, and then, taking a backward course, passes under the 
pericardium, and soon terminates at the anal nipple, situated in the centre of the branchial 
circle. Its walls are rather delicate, the muscular layer being thinner than usual, and 
the mucous membrane not by any means strong. The latter rises into delicate longi- 
tudmal folds, which are best defined in the dilated portion near to the pyloric extremity, 
where there is one fold, very much larger than the rest, that is continued into the stomach 
(PL XVI, fig. 2/). 

The alimentary system of J), nigra (Pis. XV. & XVI. figs. 2 & 1) varies very slightly from 
that of D. gemmacea. The dilated portion behind the proboscis is scarcelv distinguish- 
able, as it is only a very little wider than the proboscis itself. The crop or anterior 
stomach IS well developed, and the constriction before and behind marks it off with 
great emphasis. The mucous membrane of the latter (PL XX. fi-. 1 e) is wrinkled much 
m the same manner as it is in D, ger^rmaoea ; and the proboscis (5) is quite smooth 



in the interior, exliibiting only the tliree or four peculiar longitudinal areas above de- 
scribed in that species. Here, likewise, there is no armature whatever, either in the 
form of tongue, jaws, or collar ; and it may be stated that I have examined with great 
care the oral organ of six or seven species with the same negative result. The intestine 
oiJ). nigra is a short constricted tube (PL XV. fig. 2 m, So PL XVI. fig. 1^), and passes 
backwards at once on reaching the surface of the liver, which is large, elongated, liol- 
lowed in front, bifid behind, and of a brownish-yellow hue. 

In D. atromaculata the proboscis is quite slender, and tapers imperceptibly into the 
crop or anterior stomach, which is well developed. No external head is visible in this 
species, which in other respects is abnormal. The oral aperture is minute, and is 
situated immediately in front of the margin of the foot, ditfering in this respect from 
that of all the other species, in which the mouth invariably opens through the anterior 

n or immediately behind it. In them, however, this margin seems to be formed 
by a lamina similar to that so common in Doris ; while in the species before us there 
is no appearance of such lamina. 

The alimentary tube of D. miniata is in some respects a little modified. The head 
\% small and inconspicuous ; the mouth is very minute, and opens in the usual way in a 
cleft in the anterior margin of the foot. The proboscis, in one of the individuals examined, 
was exserted, and was found to be long and slender. The inner or posterior portion is 
not dilated, but forms, in continuation with the part corresponding to the crop or ante- 
rior stomach, a long, constricted oesophagus, which extends nearly from one end of the 
body to the other, reaching, in fact, nearly to the posterior extremity of the liver. The 
intestine passes from the upper surface of that viscus, and is considerably dilated at 
first; it stretches for some little distance forwards, and then turns to the right and, 
suddenly bending backwards, runs beneath the pericardium much reduced in calibre and, 
ends in an anal nipple situated not, as usual, in the centre of the branchial circle, but at 
the left side, and close to the base of the plumes, there being two before and three be- 
hind a transverse line drawn through it. 

Reproductive System. — The generative organs are arranged upon the same plan as in 
other Nudibranchs ; they are hermaphrodite, being composed of male, female, and andro- 
gynous parts, differing in no material manner from those in Doris. 

The ovary (PL XV. fig. 1 k) is lobulated, and is spread over the anterior of the liver ; all 
tlie other parts {j,j) are placed well forward on the right side, and extend backwards 
about one-third the length of the body. Between the mantle and foot there is a common 
orifice that leads into a very shallow vestibule, through the inner wall of which are three 
openings, one for the exsertion of the penis, another leading to the androgynous organs, 
aiid the third to the female channel. 

The male and androgynous apertures are placed in front of the female orifice, and are 
^^osely associated together, the male being anterior. The penis (PL XVIII. fig. 4^.) is 
^ery slender and linear, much more so than in any Doris I have examined. The glandular 
Jioe connecting the penis with the oviduct is composed of two portions, one much stouter 
than the other. The delicate or outer portion (fig. 2 c) is connected with the root of the 
perns (h), and is much longer than the other {d), which, however, is of considerable 


■ * 

lengtli, and contains, apparently, a minute convoluted tube. This inner dilated T)ort' 
has its inner extremity connected with the oviduct (/) just before the latter sinks int 
the mucous gland of the female parts. The whole of this glandular tube is closely con 
Toluted, and lies in front of the other organs, and was described in the paper before 
referred to, on the anatomy of Doris, as the testis ; but I am now satisfied, for reasons 
afterwards given, that this was a misnomer, and that it must be looked upon as a vas 

The ovary (PI. XYII, fig. 1 s), which is of a full rose-colour, is spread over the anterior 
surface of the liver, and is comparatively of limited extent. It is composed of a few 
well-marked lobes, which are made up of numerous minute lobules. Two main brancLes 
of tlie oviduct are seen to converge as they leave the upper and anterior surface of the 
ovary, and almost immediately to unite, forming a delicate tube {t), which, passing to 
the right, abruptly dilates {u). This dilated portion (PL XYIII. fig. 2 i) is of considerable 
length, and is convoluted into an irregular mass, which is of a reddish flesh-colour. The 
oviduct again suddenly contracts into a slender tube (j), and, almost immediately doubling 
upon itself, communicates with the inner extremity of the vas deferens, and then sinb 
[k] into the anterior portion of the great mucous gland, where, no doubt, after uniting 
with the tube of the androgynous apparatus, it opens into the female channel. 

Originally we looked upon the ovary in the Kudibranchs as a gland merely for the 
purpose of secreting the ova ; but further experience has proved that those natui-alists 
are correct who have asserted that the ovary in these animals is a compound organ for 
the development not only of ova, but likewise of spermatozoa *. I have detected in 
several Nudibranchs separate sacculi or portions of the organ for the development of the 
ova and the spermatozoa respectively, but have not succeeded in determining these parts 
with sufficient precision in Doridojjsis. It will therefore be necessary to the right com- 
prehension of these parts, in this genus, to examine them in detail in some of the other 
forms just alluded to. 

rirst, then, with regard to Goniodoris nodosa, the so-caUed ovary (PL XIX. fig. 1). is 
composed of a wide ramified tube spread over the liver. The ramifications show little 
disposition to symmetry, except that there is a tendency to a pinnate arrangement of the 
secondary branches, the whole forming a system that terminates in the oviduct (c), 
which is much constricted as it leaves the organ. AU the ramifications {d) are thickly 
beset, on the under surface and extremities, with sacculi or diverticula {e\ the ovigerous 
sacs, which are of a darker colour than the tubes, and are filled with ova. The ramified 
tubes themselves contain spermatozoa in parallel order, and apparently in an incipient 
state. Here, then, these tubes seem to be the male secretin- or-an, while the saccuh 
produce the ova. 

O ""O 

1 7?"^''^^'^^ ^^^''^ '^ -^^'^"^ ^««5^rc?wZ«^^^ is composed of a minute ramified tube 

g. 4 d) with the under surface, margins, and ends beset with comparatively large 

rounded sacculi (.) of a fuU yellow colour. These secrete the ova ; the tubes the sper- 

In T 

riojm claviger, the organ is spread over the upper surface of the liver, and is 

* See ' Anatomy of the I»yertebrata,' by Sigbold, translated by Burnett, p. 257. 



composed of numerous large, pale, oval sacculi (fig. Qd), having their upper or externa! 
extremities encircled with nine or ten small rounded sacculi {e) of a yellow colour. 

These are the 


The large central sacculi coniT)ose the testicular 


and were found crammed full of spermatozoa in parallel order, and in various states of 
development. The connexion of the oviduct with the large sacculi was not ohserved ; 
l)ut a minute tuhe or duct was seen uniting them together, creeping over the surface 
of the organ and passing between the ovigerous sacs. The whole organ gives to the 
surface of the liver the appearance of a tessellated pavement, with large, pale, circular 
'centres, smu^ounded by a dark yellow margin composed of numerous rounded pieces. 

In Fohjcera ocellata the so-called ovary, as in the preceding species, is formed of two 
kinds of sacculi ; but in this form they are more nearly of equal size. The testicular 
sacculus (fig. 5 (i) is pyriform, with the small or inner extremity attached to a twig of 
the oviduct (c) ; the broad extremity Is studded with a few irregularly rounded ovarian 

sacculi {e), which open into the former. 

In Bornella digitata the appearance of the parts is very peculiar. The ovary is of a 
greenish colour, with dark dusky-green spots, which are formed by the rounded extre- 
mities of large pyriform vesicles (fig. 10 d). The tapering or inner extremities of these 
gradually subside into delicate tubes, which, uniting, go to form the oviduct (c). The 
large end of these sacculi is studded over with comparatively small rounded vesicles (e), 
which communicate with the former by very short constricted tubes, which, being of a 
black colour, are readily observed. The large pyriform vesicles were found to be filled 
with spermatozoa in bundles, and the small rounded ones, commimicating wdth them, to 
contain eggs. The former were of a pale watery-green colour, the latter of a yellowish 

In Scyllcua pelagica the so-caUed ovary is made up of three globular masses, the 
surface of which has a granular appearance, as if covered with minute cells. On dividing 
one of these masses through the centre, a very beautiful structure is exposed to view. 
The greater portion of the mass is seen to be formed of two concentric layers, the outer 
(fig. 2e) of which is about haK the thickness of the inner (d), and is composed of minute 
cylindrical or fusiform vesicles arranged at right angles to the surface, or in a radiating 
manner. The outer extremities of these vesicles, which frectuently bifurcate, abut upon 
the surface of the mass, giving to it the granular appearance before alluded to. The 
inner layer is composed of vesicles of a similar form to those of the outer layer, but which 
are very much longer, and, radiating in like manner, have their inner extremities united 
in pairs, and joined to delicate twigs or branchlets which converge to the oviduct {c) 
that Ues in the centre of the mass and issues from it to be joined by branches from the 
other ovarian masses on its way to the mucous gland. The outer extremities of these 

^ are conjoined to the inner extremities of the vesicles of the outer layer. Thus 
icles of both layers are in communication with the oviduct ; and here we ha 




^ beautiful modification of the male and female sacculi, those of the inner layer bear 
spermatozoa, while those of the outer produce ova. ^ 

Had I not originally mistaken the ovarian mass for a portion of the Uver, I might 
^^ars ago have satisfied myself of the double nature of the so-called ovary ; for this 


well-marked structure was fully determined and figured in the * Monograph of the British 

Kudibranchs * *. 

The structure of the ovary in Uolis papillosa is very similar to that in Scylha 
Each lobe of the organ represents one of the globular masses of the latter, and is pene- 
tratcd by a branch of the oviduct (fig. 11 c), which passes up the centre of the lobe 
giving off lateral branches, which, dividing and subdividing, radiate towards the cir' 
cumference and communicate with the inner extremities of various systems of two or 
more elongated fusiform vesicles {d), the outer extremities of which are, for the most 
part, bifid, and terminate in one or more ovigerous sacculi {e) \ these, however, are not' 
marked off by any constriction (fig. 12). The vesicles themselves, or the inner'portions 
of them, produce spermatozoa. Thus it may almost be said that, in this form, the 
male and female elements are secreted by different portions of the 



^ From the above-cited examples, there can be little doubt that in the whole of the Nu- 
dibranchs the so-called ovary is a compound organ, producing both the male and female 
elements, each being secreted by a definite part of the organ, most frequently in distinct 
sacculi or vesicles, though the male vesicles occasionally assume the form of ramified 
tubes. ^ Such being the case, it might safely be concluded that this organ is also com- 
pound in Bondopsis, even though the details had not been at all determined ; enouirli 
however, has been observed to warrant the belief, after the above examination 
the ova and spermatozoa are developed in distinct sacculi or vesicles. 

The oviduct in this form ramifies, as a minute tube, throughout the so-called orai 

composed of a vast number of small lobules, each of which is formed by 

cluster of pyriform 

A delicate branch of the oviduct penetrates into the 

centre of each lobule, and distributes radiating twiffs to ihc inner or small extremities 

o *"•"& 

the ovigerous sacs. The twigs are considerably dilated as they reach the sacs, and form 
apparently the male sacculi. Thus it is sufficiently clear that the so-called ovary in 
BoHdopsis is a compound organ secreting both the male and female elements, as it docs 
m^ all the other Nudibranchs referred to. But neither in it nor in the latter is there the 
slightest indication of the invagination of the testicular sacculi within the ovarian, as is 
stated to be the case by Heinrich Meckel f ; nor does it appear that the vas deferens 
is included within the oviduct, as asserted by the same authority. Indeed there can l)e 
no doubt that in the Nudibranchs, at least, the oviduct is a simple tube, and that it acts 
first m the capacity of a vas deferens and then as an oviduct. In the one case the 
spermatozoa will be conveyed by it to the glandular tube connected with the penis, which 

IS the vas deferens proper ; in the other case the ova wHl pass down the oviduct 
into the mucous gland, and so to the female outlet. 

The enormous extent of the glandular tube or vas deferens proper is, nevertheless, very 
extraordinary, particularly in some of the Borides, as, for instance, in Boris tuhercuy^' 
ot Verany, m which not only is the attenuated portion of great length, but the par 
which corresponds to the dilated division in Boridopsis assumes the form of a ' ' ' 

* See Fara. 2, plate 5. fig. 7 of that work. 

t See Keport on Zoology for 1844, published bv the Rav Society. 





eland, made up of a dense mass of convoluted tube. This enormous development can only 
be explained on the supposition that the tube is not a mere vas deferens after nil, but is, 
moi^cover, a gland; and as it is not for the evolution of the spermatozoa, which vre have 
seen are matured in the sacculi in connexion with the ovary, it is probably for the 
purpose of providing some fluid req^uired only during the act of coitus, to be secreted 
in laro-e quantity during a limited period of time. In the bulky and frequently much 
couvoluted mucous gland in connexion with the female channel, we sec another example 
of an oro-an which has to elaborate its secretion during the short time required for the 
deposition of the ova. Hence the great development of these parts of the organism. 
Tlie great mucous gland (PL XVIII. fig. 2ff) appended to the female organs is a large, 

id, rounded mass, somewhat lunate or bilobed, — the whole being of a yellowish 
and more opake than usual. The posterior lobe is seen to be composed of a 
convoluted tube ; the structure of the anterior portion was not determined, but the 
surface of the whole mass is minutely granular. The female channel (e) passes from the 
■ht or convex side of the gland, and is a short, thick tube. It opens externally 
immediately behind the orifice leading into the androgynous apparatus. A small compact 
land (/), with foUiculated walls, lies on the upper surface of the channel, and opens 
into it close to the external orifice. This is also apparently a portion of tbc female 
organs, though it may, perhaps, be functionally connected with the common vestibule 


into which all the parts open. 

The Androgynous Organs.— The tube (PI. XVIII. fig.20 leading to these organs we 
liaye seen to open into the common vestibule immediately behind the male intromittent 
organ, and consequently between it and the orifice of the female channel. ^ It is very 
slender, corresponding in size to the penis which it has to receive during coitus, and is 
considerably longer than the female channel, over the surface of which it takes an undu- 
lating course. The outer extremity opens into the apex of a small conical pouch ; 
rather the extremity may be said to enlarge a little at its termination. The other or 
inner extremity opens into the narrow end of a pyriform spermatheca(m), of a yellowish 
hue, which is fully one-third as large as the mucous gland. Close to the point where 
tliis androgynous orj^an receives the external or vaginal tube, it gives off a small duct ( " 




^hich shortly sinks into the mucous gland, near to the female channel, on its way to 
join the oviduct. Just before it disappears, it is joined by a short tube from a small, 
oval, rose-coloured sac or accessory spermatheca (o). ^ j -i 1 

The reproductive organs of Dorldopsis nigra strongly resemble those just described. 
The male intromittent organ, however, is stiH more minute ; and the vas deferens, though 
divided into a dilated and attenuated portion, is much shorter than in the former specie§. 
The dilated portion (PL XVIII. fig. a.) is of a pale yeUow colour; and the convolutions 
of the minute tube within it are distinctly seen through its waUs. ^ 

The ovary is of a yellow colour, and is more extensively spread over the liver thanit 
is in D. gemmacea. The oviduct {h) is much attenuated ; it is short, and passes directly 
from the anterior portion of the ovary to the mucous gland (g), plaeed at the right side 
of the body. Just as it reaches this organ, it has appended to it an elliptical sac (O^of 
considerable size, which is adherent, by the greater portion of one side, to the duct. 

VOL. XXV. ^ ^ 



sac or enlargement corresponds to tlie dilated portion of the oviduct in the former species 
The dnct shortly afterwards hends suddenly upon itself, and receives a minute tube Uh 
from the inner extremity of the dilated portion of the vas deferens proper, and tlien 
turning to the right {Ic), after a short course, dips (l) into the mucous gland at the point 
where the latter is united to the female channel. 

The mucous gland (g) is lunate, with the convexity towards the right side of the body; 
it is pretty uniformly of a pale yellowish hue. The posterior portion is made up of a 
densely convoluted tube, which at the extremity of the organ is coarse, hut very minute 
next the female channel. The anterior extremity is apparently strongly and irregularly 
laminated or folded in the interior. The female channel (e) is much longer than usual, 
and tapers towards the external outlet. It opens, apparently, into the centre of tlie 
mucous gland. The gland (/), in connexion with the external outlet, is considerably 

larger than it is in the previously described species, and its walls are more strongly 

The vagina (m), or tube leading from the exterior to the spermatheca, is exceedingly 

slender. The outer extremity, though somewhat enlarged, corresponds in size to the 

diminutive penis. This tube is longer than that in the former species, and so is the tube 

which goes from the spermatheca to the oviduct ; and the latter tube is a little swelled (g) 

just before it receives the duct from the accessory spermatheca. The two sperma- 

thecse (?^, p) are nearly of a size ; but in other respects they resemble those previously 

described. The accessory spermatheca was found crammed full with spermatozoa in 

Circulatory and Bespiratoty Systems.— ThQ blood-circulation and respiration appear 
to be much in the same condition as they are in the Dorides. The heart is placed far 
behind upon the dorsal surface of the liver, immediately beneath the skin of the back. 
It occupies a weU-defined membranous pouch, the so-called pericardium, which is large 
in these animals, and is as wide as the visceral mass upon which it rests. In !>• 5'^^»' 
macea the waUs of this organ (PL XV. fig. 1 1) are rendered unusually opake by the 
colouring-matter of the peritoneum, which is of a strong brown hue, and which forms 
the outer layer of the pouch. On laying the latter open, the inner or lining membrane 
of the dorsal waU is found to be thrown into folds or plates (PI. XVI. fig. 4 h), which 
extend from the anterior margin for some way backward. They are of a pale yeUo^v 
colour, and have somewhat the appearance of being glandular. 

The ventricle {c) is pyriform, with the apex placed forward, and has thick muscular 
walls. The auricle, the waUs (e) of which are, as usual, thin and delicate, occupies the 
posterior half of the pericardium, and opens in front through the posterior margin of the 
ventricle. The orifice is guarded by two delicate semilunar valves, and the interior ol 
the ventricle is weU provided with strong carnese columns. The auricle, too, is sup- 
plied with ilGshy columns (/) ; hut they are less numerous, and are delicate and thread- 
like. ^ , 


The arterial system seems to be as complete as it is in Borw. The aorta (PL ^V- ^^■ 
Ik) issues ^'om the anterior apex of the ventricle, and gives off immediately two h^^ 

trunks, T^hich pass backwards and go to supply the liver and ovary. A smaU branch 

m ' 



then sent to the anterior portion of the liver, which it penetrates along Tvith the ceso- 
pha-us, and seems to go to supply the stomach. The aorta then continues to stretch 
forward until it reaches a peculiar ductless gland (PI. XV. figs. li&2h) that lies a little 
behind the nervous centres, and which in Doris we have supposed to he analogous to 
some of the vascular glands in the Vertehrata, when it gives off other two hranches, one 
to the right, the other to the left ; that to the right passes diagonally backwards and 
1 to the reproductive organs at the side of the body, the other enters the blood-gland 
aheady mentioned. The aorta, still continuing to advance, distributes a branch to the 
posterior or enlarged portion of the proboscis, which branch also supplies a twig to the 
nervous collar. It then bends downwards, and sinks into the anterior portion of the foot. 
The blood thus distributed to the various organs, with the exception of that sent to 
the hver-mass, must be supposed to extravasate, after escaping from the various arterial 
ramifications, into the numerous lacunary spaces amidst the tissues, and thus to find its 
way into the great visceral cavity. It will then pass into the skin through various 
apertures provided for the purpose, and, streaming through the spongy tissue of which the 
skin is mainly composed, will reach the great lateral sinuses or veins which terminate 
(PL XYI. fig. 4.ffg& PL XVIII. fig. bdd) one at each side of the auricle. 

The blood that goes to supply the liver and ovary is the only portion of the circulating 
fluid that reaches the specialized respiratory organs ; and here, as in i)or/5, it is col- 
lected by the aid of numerous venous branches into a common hcpatico-branchial trunk 
(rl. XVIII. fig. 5e), which passes backwards along the median dorsal line of the liver; 
and on reaching the point where that viscus bifurcates, it turns upwards and opens on the 
central line into the anterior Hmb of an inner venous or afferent branchial channel (/), 
which IS of a lunate form, with the convexity forward, and the horns passing backwards 
close round each side of the anal nipple. The branchial arteries (g) open into this 
channel, and, passing up the inner surface of the branchial plumes, communicate through 
the leaflets with the branchial veins (h) which run down the opposite or outer side of the 
plumes. These branchial veins debouch, on the other hand, into an outer arterial or 
efferent branchial channel {k), which is likewise of a lunate form, and opens forward 
through the convex margin into the posterior lateral angles of the auricle by two wide, 
short branchio-cardiac veins {II, and PL XVI. fig. 4 i ^), one a little on either side of 
tlie median bne. 

Thus the blood that circulates in the liver-mass, and passes through the special rcspi- 
ratoiy organs, is mingled with that from the other viscera, which has been returned to 
auricle) after having been only imperfectly aerated on its course through the dorsal 
envelope) by the two great lateral venous trunks or sinuses before described. 

I'^om the above description it is evident that the anatomy of the circulator}^ and 
respiratory organs in Dorido^sis and Doris is very similar, the only discrepancies being, 

at while in the former there are two branchio-cardiac vessels, only one is described in 
, flatter; and that the afi"erent and efferent branchial channels are bmate, instead of 
g circular as they are stated to be in Doris. I have reason, however, to believe 

at, when these parts are re-examined in the latter animal, these differences w^ill be 

^Q^iid to disappear. 

2e 2 



Benal Organ^—Thk organ is composed of three parts, namely, tlie pyriform vesicle 
the so-called pericardium, and the renal chamber proper, with its external outlet. 

The pyriform vesicle in Doridopsis gemmacea (PI. XV. %. 4,1c) is larger than usual and 
in some species is nearly half the size of the contracted ventricle. It Hes diao>onally 
below the posterior portion of the so-called pericardium, the broad end opening throng 
the floor of that organ a little behind the margin of the auricle, near to the point wli 
receives the right paUial trunk vein. The orifice {I) is circular, and apparently capable 
of being closed by a sphincter muscle. The other or pointed extremity protrudes into 
a large sac or chamber, the renal chamber proper {g\ with membranous walls, that lies 
on the posterior portion of the liver directly above the branchio-hepatic vein. The point 
is perforated {m) ; and as the under surface of the vesicle is cemented, as it were, to the 
floor of the chamber, the upper waU of the former overhangs the orifice, and acts as a 
valve to prevent the return of fluid through the vesicle into the pericardial chamber. 
The vesicle itself is of a pale yellow colour, and has firm muscular walls ; and the interior 
is lined throughout with numerous longitudinal pinnate laminae. 

Fi-om the connexion of the parts, it is clear enough that the so-called pericardium is 
really a portion of the renal organ. The former is rather larger than usual, and the 
inner surface of the dorsal wall, as we have already seen, is laminated in a peculiar manner 
at the anterior margin. The laminae (PL XVI. fig. 4 b), which are of an opake yeUow 
colour, are thick and close-set at the margin, but die gradually out as they extend back- 
wards. They have a gland-like appearance, though of a firm texture. 

The renal chamber proper (PL XV. fig. 4 g) is of an irregular form, somewhat pointed in 
front, and widening backwards. The dorsal wall is delicate and membranous, but quite 
distinct ; the floor, however, is confounded with the capsule of the liver-mass, and is 
scarcely, if at all, demonstrable. A few small openings {i) in the floor show that the 
chamber is not simple, but sends branches into the liver. The wall of the widened 
posterior extremity is adherent to the dorsal skin of the animal at the base of the bran- 
chial crown ; and here the chamber opens externally through a puncture {j) situated 
close to the right side, and in front of the anal nipple. 

The extensive vascular ramifications in the waUs of the renal chamber proper in Dork 
have not been observed in Doridopsis ; neither has the glandular lining of the organ 
been seen. It is only under favourable circumstances that these characters can be 
detected ; and many specimens may be opened before one is found that exhibits them. 

The renal organ does not vary much in the few species that have been examined. The 
pyriform vesicle (PL XVI. fig. 1 1) in 2). nigra is large, with the sides nearly parallel and 
the lower extremity scarcely at all pointed. In D. tuberculosa it is very short, thick, and 
well and regularly formed, as indeed it usually is in these animals. The internal peri- 
cardial iammse are always present ; and in D. nigra (PL XVII. fi-. 4 b) they do not die 
gradually out, as they do in D. gemmacea, but terminate abruptly behind. 

^ Sgstem.-The nervous centres are composed of the cerebral and buccal, or, 
^ they have been termed in Doris, the supra- and infra-oesophageal ganglia. The former 
L.'Ic!^'''\TJ^^^^ concentrated, forming a continuous nervous mass encircllB.^ 
the p.oboscis. It (PI. XX. fig. 5) is lobulated, however, so that the component gan 



can be distinguished ; and thus the mass is seen to be formed of the usual three pairs 
of o-ano-ha — namely, the cerebroid {a a), the branchial (5), and the pedal (c). The two 


former are fused into a transversely elongated mass, which lies across the upper surface 
of the proboscis. The pedal form a similar but smaller mass beneath that organ. 

The cerebroid compose the central portion of the upper mass, and lie one on each side 
of the median line, across which they are fused. Their anterior margin projects a little 
Leyond that of the branchial ganglia, which are placed on either side, forming two 
rounded lateral lobes. The pedal ganglia are two oval masses, with their outer ex- 
tremities fused to the under surface of the branchial, and their inner extremities united 
to each other across the median line below the proboscis, thus completing the nervous 
collar around the base of that organ. The branchial ganglia are likewise united below 
the proboscis by a slender commissural cord {j), the ends of which are united to the 
lateral portions of the ganglia. At the attachment of the right extremity there is 
a minute rounded ganglion {Jc), apparently the homologue of the visceral in Doris. This 
commissure corresponds to the third cord of the sub-oesophageal collar of that form. 

The cerebroid have attached to the upper sm^face of the anterior margin, next the 
median line, a pair of well-developed, rounded, sessile ganglia, the olfactory (c?), each of 
Tvhich gives a large nerve {e) to the dorsal tentacles. Three other pairs of nerves (/) 
come off from the under surface of the anterior border of the same £?anf?lia external to 

the olfactory, and go to supply the anterior part of the oral apparatus. There are no 
optic ganglia or nerves, the eyes (p) being sessile on the upper surface of the cerebroids 
at the external margins of the olfactory ganglia. 

The branchial ganglia give off each from the upper surface towards the lateral margin 
three pairs of large nerves {g), all of which are distributed to the mantle. Two other 
pairs {h) come off at the junction of the branchial with the pedal ganglia, and go, appa- 
rently, to the external envelope at the sides of the body, though these were not satis- 
factorily traced to their destination. Prom the outer posterior margin of the pedal 
ganglia issue three stout nerves (i), all of which go to supply the foot. 

The buccal ganglia (m and fig. 2^), or the infra-oesophageal, are a pair of small pyriform 
todies placed close together on the under surface of the oesophagus or crop, immediately 
^ front of and between the rudimentary salivary glands, consequently at the posterior 
extremity of the enlarged portion of the proboscis, which we have seen corresponds to 
the buccal organ of Doris. These ganglia are united to each other by a very short com- 
ciissure, and to the under side of the cerebroids by two exceedingly long commissural 
cords (fig. 5Z), which pass from the pointed extremities of the ganglia. The great length 
of these cords is necessitated by the action of the proboscis. From the broad or opposite 
extremity of each ganglia a nerve {n) is given off, which is applied to the surface of the 
JBsophagus or crop, and has been traced as far as the point where the latter enters the 
liver.niass. This pak of nerves is equivalent to that which we have named in Doris the 
gastrccesophageal or par vagum. Here, however, it wHl be observed that there are no 
gastro-cBsophageal ganglia, but that the nerves come off directly from the buccal ganglia. 

These nerves and their sano-lia. together with the minute visceral ganglion in con- 

j^Ct-Xi^XXW., VV./J3 

with the right branchial, are the only indications of a splanchnic system that 


hare been observed, tbougb there is no reason to suppose that tbis portion of the nerrous 
apparatus is less perfect than it is in Boris. It is only under very favourable circum- 

stances tliat the sympathetic ganglia and the numerous delicate 


iicxlon with them can be fully traced. A great number of specimens may be examined 
before this can be done satisfactorily ; therefore my not having observed them in tlic 
comparatively few individuals that have been dissected of Doridopsis is not at all to be 
wondered at, especially as I have made no determined search for them. 

The cerebral ganglia exhibit in a remarkable manner the globular structure usually 
observed in the brain of the Nudibranchs. In D. gemmacea the cerebroid and brancMal 
gano-lia arc entirely composed of numerous irregular rounded nodules, which give to 

the surface of these organs a very striking appearance. In D. nigra the cerebroid 
ganglia (fig. 6) are each broken up into four or five pretty regularly formed and sym- 
nletrically arranged masses, while the branchial are more minutely divided into globules. 

The Organs of the Senses. — If the sense of smell resides in the dorsal tentacles (and 
there seems little reason to doubt the fact), it is apparently as well developed as it is in 
Doris. The tentacles have the upper portion laminated or pinnate, in the same manner 
as it is in that genus ; and the olfactory ganglia are quite as large. 

The eyes are sessile on the anterior margin of the cerebroid ganglia, close to the outer 
margin of the olfactory ganglia. They lie consequently beneath the skin, and there- 
fore cannot be very efficient organs of vision. They are, nevertheless, well developed, 
though minute. The black -pigment cup is deep and well formed, and bas lying within 
it mouth a globular crystalline lens, before wbich is placed an arched transparent 

There are no organs in these animals to which the sense of taste can be assigned, 
unless it be supposed to reside in the proboscis ; and tbat it docs so seems not at all 
unlikely. It can scarcely be doubted that these animals enjoy the advantage of tms 
sense ; and as they possess neither tongue nor lips, nor any other surface that comes in 
contact with the food but tbat of the proboscis, it foUows as a matter of course that this 
suctorial tube must be the seat of taste, if it exists at all in tbese animals ; and if 
it is to be of any service to them in testing the quality of their food, it must reside 
at the anterior extremity of the organ ; at least it would be most conveniently situated 

If we adopt these conclusions as probable, this proboscidiform mouth may throw some 
light on the question as to the seat of taste in the other Nudibranchiate Mollusca. Here 
we have an animal without a tongue or outer lips, and in whicb taste, if it exists, mu 
be located in the proboscis, and most probably at its anterior extremity. Thus e 
f^uestion becomes simplified ; and what we have to do is to determine, if possible, wia 
part of the oral apparatus in Doris, for instance, corresponds bomologically to the ex- 
tremity of the proboscis. Eirst of all, if we examine carefully the anterior termination 
of this organ, there is observed a slight transverse ridge (PI. XVII. figs. 2 / & ^^j 
a little way within the orifice, immediately behind the opening of the duct of ^^ 
anterior salivary (?) glands, the margin (/) of the orifice of the proboscis being slign . 


Xow, if we turn to the oral apparatus in Boris tuherculata, we find that directly in 
front of the anterior extremity of the buccal organ there projects into the channel of the 
mouth a transverse fleshy lamina, the inner lip ; and in advance of this the oral channel 
terminates in the outer lip. It would seem that the ridge within the termination of the 
proboscis represents the anterior extremity of the buccal organ or buccal lip in J)orw, 
and that the thickened margin surrounding the orifice of the proboscis is the homologue 
of the inner lip, the channel of the mouth in front of this point being cnlar"-cd and 

developed into the sheath or sac of the proboscis. The margin of the external opening {e) 
in the sheath corresponds to the outer lip in Doris. If, then, we are correct in assin-nin'^- 
the function of taste to the anterior extremity of the proboscis, it may be fair to assume 
that it resides in the inner lip of Doris, a part which has already been pointed out as the 
probable seat of this sense*. This, of course, is not conclusive ; for it may have happened 
that the function of the parts has changed. It is, however, satisfactory to be able to 
observe that in Eolis, a genus which is provided with cutting jaws, there is likewise a 
similar inner lip. 

Touch is probably specialized in the small tentacular points at the sides of the head. 
As these are exceedingly short, they can only be serviceable in ascertaining the quality 
of the surface of bodies over which the animal is moving, and thus to assist it in the 
selection of its food. 

The auditory capsules were not observed, though there is no reason to doubt their 

Having now completed our examination of the anatomy oi Doridopsis, organ by organ, 
it IS quite clear that, with one exception, the internal structure agrees with the external 
conformation in showing the close relation of these animals to Doris. Indeed there is 
no mternal or external character, with the above remarkable exception, that would 
induce the systematist to separate generically these two forms, unless the deficiency of 
spicula in the skin or the peculiar character of the head and position of the external 
oral opening should be thought sufficient. No one could have surmised that, in an 
animal with all the other parts arranged so completely on the type of Doris, the powerful 
^uscular buccal organ, with the spiny prehensile tongue of that genus, should be turned 
into a delicate suctorial proboscis ; nor, after having witnessed this fact, is it easy to 
comprehend how such an important change in the alimentary system should not have 
rawn along with it some necessary and extensive modification of the other structures in 

tlie general economy of the animal. 

Surely the mode of sustentation in Doridopsis is very different from that of any other 

ttdibranch. It is true that in both Melibe and Tethtfs the tongue is equaHy deficient ; 

^or IS there any spiny prehensile organ of any sort, or jaws, the oral apparatus being 

^^^ced, as it were, in these two genera to a mere enlargement of the anterior extremity 

° esophagus, guarded in front by fleshy lips. The change in these cases is restricted 

to T ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^® suppression of the lingual organ. But in Doridojysis, in addition 

^ be atrophy of the tongue, the buccal bulb is itself modified, as we have seen, into a 

* Pliil. Trans. 1852, p. 243. 


delicate suctorial proboscis. This modification is so remarkable, that, taken in c 
junction with the deficiency of spicula in the mantle, we have thought it sufficient t 
justify us in establishing a new family for the reception of all the i)om-like animals 
so cliaracterized. Thus DoridopsidtB now makes the third family in the suborde 


Plate XV. 

Fig. 1. Dorsal view of the viscera, undisturbed, of Doridopsis gemmaceax a, dorsal skin of the animal, 

turned back; i, peritoneum laid open and reaected; c, circular apertures In ditto; d, anterior 
portion of the proboscis ; e, posterior or enlarged portion of ditto ; /, oesophagus or anterior 
stomach ; g, liver ; h, intestine j z, ductless gland, in connexion with the blood-system, overlyin^ 


/, dorsal wall of the so-called pericardium ; m, cerebral ganglia, giving off nerves to the various 

organ s 

Fio- 2 

Dorsal view of the undisturbed viscera of D. nigra, seen through the transparent peritoneum: 
a a, dorsal skin laid open and turned back ; h, anterior portion of the proboscis ; c, crop or 
anterior stomach; d, liver j e e, reproductive organs; /, female channel; g, gland In connexion 
with ditto ; h, ductless gland in connexion with the blood-system ; i, the so-called pericardium; 
/, ventricle, seen through the wall of ditto ; l, aorta ; /, cerebral ganglia, giving off various 


Fig. 3. View of the anterior portion of the foot and head of D. nigra-, a, mantle; b, foot; c, thickened 



Fig. 4. View of the renal chamber proper, the dorsal wall laid open, of D.gemmacea: a a, liver; J, in- 
testine ; c, anal nipple ; d, ventricle of heart, turned forward ; e e, portions of the wall of the 
so-called pericardium;//, dorsal skin of animal; gg, renal chamber proper; hh, dorsal wall 
of ditto, turned back; ii, apertures of branches of the renal chamber, penetrating the liver; 
J, external orifice of the renal chamber, with a needle passed through it; k, pyriform vesicle; 
/, orifice of ditto, leading Into the so-called pericardium; m, orifice of ditto, leading into the 
renal chamber; n, portion of the pericardial floor attached to the vesicle; o, branchial plumes; 
p, efferent branchial channel, cut through ; q, nerve. 

Plate XVI 

Fig. 1. General view of the viscera of D. nigra, the digestive system turned a little to the left sides 

a, anterior portion of the proboscis ; b, posterior or enlarged portion of ditto ; c, salivary glands? 
d a pair of glands, opening Into the anterior extremity of the proboscis ; e, oesophagus or aa- 
tenor stomach; / liver; ^, Intestine; hh, mucous gland of the female reproductive organs; 
», glandular tube, leading to the penls-tbe vas deferens ; jj, spermathec^ ; k, oviduct, cut 
through ; /, pynform vesicle connected with the renal organ ; m, a shred of the pericardial floor 
at ached to ditto ; n, ventricle of the heart, turned to one side ; o, portion of the floor of the so- 
called pericardmm ; p, portion of the auricle ; q, cerebral ganglia, distributing nerves to the 
vanous organs ; r, olfactory nerve : 5.,.,.nnrfn ...f fW,,.^ . , ^„„.i„.. r.Ur.A rnnnected with 



r 2 View of the stomach, laid open, of D. gemmacea^ showing the reticulated character of its walls : 

a liver- J, posterior lobes of ditto; c^ ovary; d^ oesophagus or anterior stomach; ^, intestine, 



r 3 View of the anterior portion of the alimentary tube of D. gemmacea : a, portion of the peritoneal 

membrane- bj ductless gland connected with the blood-system; c, anterior portion of the 
aorta, giving a branch to the enlarged division of the proboscis; dd, two glands opening into 
the anterior extremity of the proboscis ; e, cerebral gangha ; //, nerves given off from ditto ; 
q one of the buccal ganglia ; h, commissure connecting ditto with the cerebroid gangh"a ; 
t one of the oesophageal nerves ; j, posterior wall of the sac or sheath of the proboscis ; 
hhl, retractor muscles of ditto; I, anterior portion of the proboscis; m, posterior or enlarged 
portion of ditto ; n, CESophagus or anterior stomach ; o, salivary gland. 

Fig. 1. The so-called pericardium of D. gemmacea, laid open, showing the ventricle and auricle, the 

latter hkewise laid open : a a, dorsal wall of the pericardium, turned back ; h, laminae at the 
anterior margin of ditto ; c, ventricle ; d, auriculo-ventricular orifice ; e e, wall of the auricle, 
laid back; /, fleshy columns of ditto; gg, openings of the great lateral pallial trunk vein or 
• sinus ; k, small orifices leading apparently into the skin ; i i, branchio-cardiac channels, leading 
from the efferent branchial channel; J, efferent branchial channel; Ic k, openings of the lateral 
portions of ditto; I, orifices of the branchial veins; m, pyriform vesicle, bulging through the 
floor of the so-called pericardium ; «, orifice of ditto, opening into the pericardium ; o, branchial 


Plate XVII. 

Fig. 1. View of the alimentary system of D. gemmacea, the other viscera having been removed : a, ante- 
rior extremity of the animal ; b, branchial plumes ; c c, dorsal skin ; d, posterior wall of the 
sac or sheath of the proboscis; ee, retractor muscles of ditto; /, minute muscular bands to 
regulate the movements of ditto ; g, anterior portion of the proboscis ; A, posterior or enlarged 
portion of ditto ; t, one of the salivary glands ; j, two glands opening into the anterior extremity 
of the proboscis ; k, duct of ditto ; I, oesophagus or anterior stomach ; m, liver ; n, posterior 
lobes of ditto; o, intestine; p, anal nipple; q, renal orifice; r, pyriform vesicle in connexion 
with the renal organ; s, ovary; /, oviduct; u, enlargement of ditto; vv, hepatico-branchia 


nerves; z^ external opening of the reproductive organs 


Fig. 2. Anterior portion of the ahmentary tube of D. gemmacea, laid open : a, portion of the anterior skin 

of the animal ; b, sac or sheath of the proboscis ; c, posterior wall of ditto, partially mvagmated ; 
' d d, two of the retractor muscles of ditto ; e, oral opening ; /, orifice of the proboscis, with the 

margin thickened; g, anterior portion of the proboscis; h, posterior or enlarged portion ot 
ditto, exhibiting three or four longitudinal areas in the inner surface, continuous with similar 
areas of the anterior portion ; i, two glands opening into the anterior extremity of the proboscis ; 
J, duet of ditto; k, enlargement of the duct; /, orifice of ditto; I', ridges immediately in 
front of the orifice ; m, oesophagus or anterior stomach, exhibiting the corrugations of the inner 

surface ; n n, salivary glands. , r i. * t i 

•'is- 3. Anterior extremity of the proboscis, showing the continuation of the Juct of the two glands 

through its wall : a, thickened margin of the orifice of the proboscis ; J h, ndge, the homologue 
of the buccal lip in Boris ; c, duct ; d, orifice of ditto, leading into the proboscis. _ 

% 4. The so-called pericardium of D. nigra, laid open : a a, dorsal wall of the ; lammo. 


^"OL. XXV. 



c, ventricle ; f, auricle ; g, one of the great lateral pallial veins ; h h, branchio-cardiac ch 

t, pyriforra vesicle, seen through the floor of the pericardium ; /, orifice of ditfn Uo^- ^ ' 

r..nPnr.i;nn,. ^"^0, leading into the 


Plate XVIII. 



tenor wall of the sheath j g g, retractor muscles of ditto j h, delicate muscular bands to regulate 
the movements of the proboscis ; i, anterior portion of the proboscis - j, posterior or enrar^ed 
portion of ditto; k, two glands, opening into the anterior extremity of ditto; I, duct of 'the 
glands y m, enlargement of ditto. 

Fig. 2. Reproductive organs, with the parts spread out: «, internal margin of the general external orifice • 

b, retracted penis; c, attenuated or outer portion of the vas deferens; d, enlarged or inne^ 

portion of ditto; e, female channel; /, 

; . . ' ' """"'' J' *"''''' fe'^'i"" in connexion with ditto; g, mucous ^^land; 

^, oviduct; ^, enlarged portion of ditto; /, constricted portion, communicating with the vas 
deferens; i, continuation of the oviduct, sinking into the mucous gland; /, vaginal channel, 

ienfimo' in flip cvkr^vmotT^rir*.^ . r^ ^ xi .1 ... 

- ' X J ■'? — '- --^xxxxi^^^^xii^ uiLLu Willi auutissorv sperraa- 

^^^'^ ' ^^ ^^<^^«^ory spermatheca; p, tube from ditto, penetrating the mucous gland. ' 
Fig. 3. Reproductive organs of D. nigra : «, retracted penis ; b, attenuated or outer portion of vas dc 

fercns ; c, enlarged or inner portion of ditto ; d, constricted tube, connecting ditto with the 
oviduct ; .female channel ; /, small gland in connexion with ditto ; g g, mucous gland ; A, on- 
duct; z, enlargement of ditto; y, constricted portion of ditto; k, continuation of ditto after its 
union with the vas deferens ; /, extremity of ditto, sinking into the mucous gland ; m, vaginal 
tube; n, spermatheca; o, tube connecting ditto with accessory spermatheca,;.; q, enlargement 

Fi. a M V 1 / "' '''^' ^'"^ '"''''^'^ spermatheca, sinking into mucous gland. 

i^i.. 4. Male and androgynous apertures oi D. gemmacea, exposed to view: «, vas deferens; h, male 

aperture; c, extremity of penis; d, vaginal tube; ., orifice leading into ditto. 
^1.. 5. Diagramof the branchial circulation : a, ventricle of the heart, dilated; A, auricle of ditto; c,root 

ot the aorta; dd, great lateral pallial veins; e, hepatico-branchial vein, passing below the 
heart ;/: afferent branp]i,"Ql ^i^o^ 1. i ,., . . ^ . ° 

1 , ...., ^xcxx^iixrti veins, running down the outer or under surface ot auto; 

", artery and vein of a branchial leaflet; k, efferent branchial channel; //, branchio-cardiac 

annels : m. nnnl r.i'r.r^7« 

channels ; m, anal nipple. 

Plate XIX 

F.g. 1. O^^rj of Gonlodoris nodosa: a, liver; b, oesophagus; c, oviduct; ^^, male ramifications or 

saccuh ; e e, female sacculi. r o , , , , 2 & 3. Under and upper views of terminal lobes of the same ovary, more highly magnified: ^,n.a!e 

ramifications or sacculi; e e, female sacculi. 

(The letters of these figures, as far as they are applicable, indicate the same parts in all the 
figures of this plate.l '> it y 

ovary of Doris tuhercuh 

Fio- T Tt..« u- ,, "^'J ^^ ^'J'lis moerculata. 



Fig. 8. Side view of ditto. 




fig. 9. An ovarian mass or lobule of Scyllcea pelagica, cut through the centre^ to show the internal 


FiK- 10. Ultimate lobule of the ovary of Bornella digitata. 
Kg. H- Ovarian lobule of Eolis papulosa^ seen in section. 
Fig. 12. A few of the sacculi of ditto^ more highly magnified. 

Plate XX, 

Fig. 1. Anterior portion of the proboscis of D. nigra laid open : a, thickened margin of the proboscis; 

bfCy anterior and posterior portions of ditto^ showing the three longitudinal areas of the in- 
terior; d^ oesophagus or anterior stomach; €y corrugations of the internal surface of ditto; 
ffy salivary glands ; g^ two glands opening into the extremity of the proboscis ; h^ duct of 
ditto J ij orifice of duct. 

Fig. 2. Anterior portion of the alimentary tube^ turned forward^ so as to show its under surface: a, an- 
terior portion of the proboscis ; 6, posterior portion of ditto ; c, oesophagus or anterior stomach ; 
dy salivary glands; e^ buccal ganglia;-/^ oesophageal or par vagum nerves; ^j two glands 
opening into the anterior extremity of the proboscis; ^^ duct of ditto; i, anterior extrcmily 

of aorta. 

gemmacea : a, pallial margin ; A, foot 

Cy thickened anterior margin of ditto; d^ smooth area immediately behind the margin; c^ head, 


Fig. 4. View of the anterior portion of the foot and head of D. rubra : a, foot ; h, thickened anterior 

margin of ditto ; c, smooth area of ditto ; d, lobes at the sides of the head ; e, oral aperture. 

Fig. 5. Dorsal view of the cerebral ganglia of D. gemmacea x a a, cerebroid ganglia; bh, branchial 

ditto ; c, pedal ditto j d, olfactory ditto ; e, olfactory nerves ; //, three nerves distributed to 
the anterior part of the oral apparatus ; g g, pallial nerves ; h, nerves supplying the skin at 
the sides of the body; i, pedal nerves; /, commissure uniting the branchial ganglia; k, a mi- 
nute ganghon, apparently the homologue of the visceral in Dom; /, commissure connecting 
the buccal to the cerebroid ganglia ; m, buccal ganglia ; n, oesophageal nerves ; p, eyes. 

% 6. Cerebral ganglia of D. nigra : a, cerebroid ; b , branchial ; c, pedal ; d, olfactof)- ; e, olfactory 

nerves ; /, nerves supplying the anterior part of the oral apparatus; g, pallial nerves ; h, pedal 
ditto; i, commissure uniting the pedal ganglia; 7, ditto uniting the branchial; k, ditto uniting 

V • / ■ 

the buccal to the cerebroids ; I, eyes. 

View of the under surface of the same ganglia, the collar having been opened, and the pedal 
ganglia turned to one side: «, cerebroid ;~ 5, branchial ; c, pedal; rf, commissure uniting the 
cerebroid across the median line; e, ditto uniting ditto to the branchial; /, ditto uniting ditto 
to the pedal; g, ditto uniting the branchial to the pedal; h, ditto uniting the pedal below the 
proboscis; i, ditto uniting the branchial; jj, ditto uniting the buccal to the cerebroid. 
^'g- 8. Eye Qi D. gemmacea, much enlarged: a, black -pigment cup; h, lens; c, cornea. 


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T.— J I^i^i of the Exogenous Plants found in the Anamallay Mountain J in Southern 
India, tdth Descriptions of the New Species. By Capt. E. H. BeddoKe, Officiating 
Conservator of Forests in the 3Iadras Presidency. Communicated hu Dr. T. Thom- 

son, F.L.S. 

Read April 17, 1862, and March 16, 1865. 

(Plates XXI.-XXYII.) 

The Anamallay Mountains rise to an elevation of nearly 9000 feet ; tlicir base is about 
1000 feet above tbe sea. The teak-forests are of great extent, and all the fine teak is 
found between 1500 and 2500 feet elevation. At these elevations it is very fine, and 
grows to a very large size. I have measured trees 20 feet in circumference. The teak- 
forest is dry and comparatively open, and is swept through by the fires in Pebruary or 
March. Other fine timber-trees are abundant, chiefly the two black woods, Dalbcrgia 
latifolia and J), sissoides, the Yen Tek {Lagerstrcemia microcarpa), several Terminalias, 
FithecoloMum xylocarpum, and Pterocarpns marsupiiim. The underwood is chiefly 
formed of Bendrolobium cephalotes, Pueraria tiiherosa, and Cycas. Orobanchs, terrestrial 
Orchids, and Balsams are abundant. Of Ferns, the most abundant are Cyelodium Cumin- 
gimium, Nephrodium molle, and Lastrea cochleata. Bamboo abounds, generally forming 
large copses in the moister parts of the forest. Teak grows in small quantities up to 
3500 and 4000 feet elevation ; but it is stunted and scraggy at these higher elevations. 
The moist forest (or Shola) forms large tracts on these mountains, and has quite a different 
vegetation to the dry forest. The trees are often of gigantic growth. Euphorbincea^, 
Urticace^, and Anonacete abound ; and the trees are quite covered with epiphytic Orchids 
and other parasites. . Gigantic creepers {Mezoneuron cucuUatum, Xanthoxylon tetra- 
spemim, Fntada, Tiliacora, and many others) quite cover many of the trees. Ferns and 
Balsams are very abundant. These forests are moist all the year round, and are never 
touched by the fires. The underwood is chiefly formed of Acanthaceous plants. Strohi- 
Imthes tetraptera covers miles. I have described several new trees from these moist 
forests ; and a good many that are very common have recently been described by Mr. 
Tliwaifces, in his enumeration of Ceylon plants. I feel convinced that there are many 
new ones still to be discovered, as there are many trees that I have not been able to 
procure m flower. Above 4000 feet these moist forests alter considerably in vegetation ; 
I^uracesB and Myrtace^ become very common. Above 5000 feet there is no dry forest, 
tte country consisting of grassy tracts and Shola-forests, which are not nearly so dense as 
the moist forests at a lower elevation, nor are the trees nearly so large. The Bracken 
^^teris aquilina) is very abundant on these mountains, from 3000 feet upwards. Modo- 
^ejidron, Anemone, and Ramincnhs commence at 5000 feet. Balsams abound towards 
the summit of these mountains ; most of the species are quite distinct from those of the 
^edgherries and Pulneys. I have described the new species in a paper in the Madras 
Journal of Science. It is a curious fact, that the Bose and the Strawberry are not to be 

^OL. XXV. 



found on these mountains, though they are both so abundant on the adjacent mounta* 

the [N'eilohemes and Pulney 


Cyathocalyx zetlanicus. Champ. ; very common in the moist forests, up to 2500 feet. 


UxoNA PANNOSA, Dalzell ; very common in the same localities as the last species ; called 

Chen ndree by the hill tribes, and much valued for its fibre. 

PoLYALTHiA coFrEOiDES, Beuth. ; moist forests, at 3000 feet elevation ; yields a very 

strong fibre, which has a most disagrreeable odour. 

Oeophea erytheocarpa, n. s. ; foliis ellipticis, acuminatis, 2J-34 poll, longis, 1-2 latis, 

junioribus subpubescentibus demum supra glabris, pedunculis axillaribus vel 
supraaxillaribus pubescentibus, petiolo longioribus 3-4-floris, pedicellis puLescen- 
tibus pollicaribus, sepalis petalisque pubescentibus, staminibus 12, biseriatis, exte- 
rioribus inter dum sterilibus, ovariis 6, dense strigosis biovulatis, carpellis oblongis 
rubris, semine 1 scrobiculato. 

A middling-sized tree, very common in moist woods, at 1500 to 2500 feet elevation. 

Oeophea Thomsoxi, n. sp. ; foliis ovato-ellipticis, glabris, longe et obtuse acuminatis, 

lJ-2 poll, longis, 1-11 latis, pedunculis brevissimis, axillaribus, 3-floris, strigosis, 
pedicellis brevissimis, sepalis petalisq^ue exterioribus strigosis, petalis interioribus 
longe et anguste unguiculatis, intus puberulis, staminibus 10-12 biseriatis, orariis 
5-6, hirtis, biovulatis, carpellis globosis pisi magnitudine. 
A small tree, common with the preceding. 

Tab. XXI. Fig. 1. Flower-bud. Figs. 2, 3. Expanded flower j front and back views. Fig. 4. Stamen. 

Figs. 5, 8. Gynfficium. Figs. 6, 9. Carpels. Figs. 7, 10. Longitudinal section of carpel, showing 

ovules, all magnified. 


CoccL-Lrs LArEiFOLirs, DO. ; very common. At 5000 feet it forms a small tree, and 

m the lower forests it is sometimes an erect shrub and sometimes scandent. 


Capparis poemosa, Dalz. Moist forests, at about 3000 feet 
Cappaeis Moonii, Wight. With the last. 


Caseaeea coeiacea, Thwaites, Enum. ZeyL p. 20. Common at an elevation of 6000 feet 

moist woods 


Geewia ACUMINATA, tt. sp. ; arbor parva, ramuKs glabris, foliis oblongis longe acumi- 

' gerrimis glabris, 4-6 poH. longis, 2 poll. latis, petiolo i poU. stipuli^ 

natis int 

pams subulatis, pedunculis bre^-issimis lateralibus vel axiUaribus 2-5-floris, minute 
bnicteolatis, sepalis cinereo-pubescentibus. 
At an elevation of 300Q feet: rarP, 






AyvcoLOSA DENSIPLORA, n. sp. ; ar"bor excelsa, ramulis teretibus, foliis alternis ^ 

lucidis, breve petiolatis, oblongis, obtuse acuminatis, basi rotundatis, 4-5 poll, longis, 
14-2 latis, petiolo J-poll. floribus axillaribus fasciculatis, fasciculis 7-20-floris pedi- 
cellis J poll, longis, floribus (pro genere) magnis J-pollicaribus, pallide flavis, odora- 
tissimis, calyee 4-6-deiitato, petalis iutus villosis, filamentis glabris, ovario biovu- 
lato, stylo erecto, apice .tridentato. 

Tab. XXII. Fig. 1. Flower. Fig. 2. Petal and stamen. Fig. 3. Stamen. Fig. 4. Flower with petals 

removed. Fig. 5. Ovary. Fig. 6. Longitudinal section of ovary, with stamens. 
verse section of ovary. All magnified. 


]iIiQrELiA DENTATA, n. sp. ; alte scandens, ramulis glabris, foliis late ovatis acuminatis, 
hasi subtruncatis leviter cordatis profunde irregularitcr dentatis, 8 poll, longis, 4 
latis, pedunculis 1-li-pollicaribus gracilibus, apice umbellatim multifloris, foemineis 
solitariis, masculis basi bracteatis, in racemum brevem supra axillarem dispositis. 

Tab. XXIII. Fig. 1. Flowering branch. Fig. 2. Flower-bud. Figs. 3, 4. Expanded flower. 

5, 6. Back and front view of stamen. Fig. 7- Fruiting branch. Fig. 8. Fruit. Fig. 9. Longltudi-. 
nal section of fruit. All but figs. 1. & 7 magnified. 






Glycosmis pentaphtlla, Oliver. There are three very distinct varieties of this species 
(if they can be all looked upon as belonging to one species) ; two of the true Penta- 
phyUa group always differ from each other, the one in ha^^ng its anthers attached 
on the inner surface of the filament below its apex, and the other in having its 
anthers terminal, attached to a small apiculate process at the apex of the dilated 




iety of this plant in the moist woods, up to 2500 feet elevation, which 

bears a delicious, eatable, succulent fruit 


covered with ripe fruit in July. 

It o-rows to a good- sized tree, and 

I fully described it in the Madras Journal, 1861, 
imder the name of Cookia dulcls ; but Mr. Oliver does not consider it more than 
a variety of 0. Wildenovii. 
CuusENA i^DiCA, OHver. Common in moist woods, at about 3000 feet elevation. 

I^TiVTiN'GA SCANDENS, Ham. Commou with the last. 

I^rm-GA ELEUTHERANDRA. Dalz. Moist woods, at 3000 feet. Common. 




BRACTEATIJM, Thwaites, En. PL Zeyl. 51 




of our 

western coast, abundant on the Anamallays, Wynaud, and elsewhere in^ moist 
woods, up to 3000 feet elevation, answers well to Thwaites's 

description of C. h 

except that the young leaves 

perfectly glabrous 

I have not seen ft 



Specimen of Thwaites's plant ; and if tMs is a new species, it might be called " C /o. 

pliyllum elatiimr 

Nephelium stipulaceum, n. sp. ; arbor, foliis glabris, abrupte pinnatis, foliolis suboppo. 

sitis 2-3-jugis, 2 inferiorilius minimis obliquis stipulas simulantibus basi petioli 
approximatis, cseteris oblongis obtuse acuminatis, basi subatteniiatis obliquis, 3-4 
poll, longis, 2-3 latis, paniculis axillaribus et terminalibus pilosis, floribus poly. 
gamodioicis, fructu ovali 1-li-pollicari, aculeis debilibus dense vestito, seminibus 
oblongis arillo succulento semiinclnsis, testa fusca, cotyledonibus magnis camosis. 
Yery common in moist woods, at 2000 feet. 

Nephelium erectijm, TLwaites. "Witli the preceding, but rare. 

Harpullia imeeicata, Tliwaites. Very common in moist woods, about 2000 feet. The 

flowers are polygamous. 


FiLiciUM DECiPiExs, Thwaites. Very common up to 4000 feet. 

Sably limoniacea, Wall. At an elevation of 3500 feet 


Beddomea indica, nook. f. Gen. pi. 1. 336 ; frutex scandens, foliis pedalibus impari-pm. 

foliolatis, foliolis ovatis vel oblongis, obtuse acuminatis, apicem versus 


subcrenulatis, subtus plus minus lepidotis, 4-7 poll, longis, 2-2^ latis, pedunculis 

pubescentibus axillaribus racemosis rel paniculatis, floribus breviter pedicellatis 
minute bracteolatis, sepalis extus pubescentibus. 

Laxsium anamalatanum, n. sp. ; arbor mediocris, foliis 6-9-pollicaribus impari-pm- 

natis glabris, foliolis 3-5 ellipticis obtuse acuminatis, basi attenuatis, integris, 3-4 
poll, longis, li-2 latis, floribus in spicas axiUares dispositis, sepalis petalisque 5 
tubo stamineo obsolete 10-lobo, antheris alternatim brevioribus, ovario sessili stri- 
goso trilobo triloculari, loculis biovulatis, stylo vix uUo stigmate obtuse trilobo, 
fructu magnitudine uvse magna?, bHoculari, seminibus in loculis solitariis arillatis. 


BisoxYLUM BiNECTAuiFERUM, Hook. f. In moist woods, at elevations of 2000-3000 feet. 

There is another species of this genus, which I have only seen in fruit. It is an 
enormous tree, and is called Parapet by the hill tribes. It is probably an unde- 
scribed species. The fruit is quite round, larger than a billiard-ball, of a bright 
yellow colour, very hard, roughly tubercled, 3-4-ceUed ; the seeds bluntly i^^' 
sided, attached by their whole inner face to the central placenta, with a reddish- 
brown testa, and the radicle immersed between the large fleshy green cotyledons. 

Amooka Rohituka, Roxb. In moist woods, at 3000 feet. 

HiLNEA EoxBTTRGHiANA, W. & A. In moist woods, at 3000 feet. 

Heyxea tkijuga, Wall. In moist woods, at 3000 feet. 


nis GiGAXTEA, n. sp. ; scandens, trunco diametro 4-5-pollicari, cortice suberoso, ramuHs 


glabris tcretibus, foliis simplicibus exacte cordatis sinu profundo, longe acuniinatis 
et mucronatis, 6-8 poll, longis, 5-6 latis, supra glabris, subtus tomentosulis, crcnatis, 
crenaturis argute dentatis, 5-iierviis valde reticulatis, petiolis foliis J vel J brevio- 
ribus, cirrhis bifidis, stipulis glandulosis, pedunculis petiolo brcvioribus cyniosis, 
cymorum ramis 3-5 apice umbellatis, vel rauios 2-3 apice umbeUutos gcrentibus, 

floribus minutis viridibus. 
Anamallay forests, in moist woods, at 2000 feet elevation. An enormous climber. 

YiTis AKAMALATANA, u. sp. ; glabra, foliis ramorum juniorum simplicibus ovato-lanceo- 
latis, adultorum plerumque trifoliolatis, petiolo 1-2-pollicari, foliolis ovato-lancco- 
latis longe acuminatis, argute serratis, subtus conspicue reticulatis, 3^-4 poll, longis, 
2 poll, latis, petiolo partial! brevi glanduloso, lateralibus valde inoequilateralibus 
basi obliquis, cirrbis ramosis ad divisiones minute stipellatis, floribus laxe cymosis, 
pedunculo foliis breviore. 
A very large creeper, growing on banks of rivers, at 5000 feet. My flowering spe- 

cimens are not very perfect. 


Of the new species described by me in the Madras Journal of Science, Impatiens 
gracilis is the same as I. acaulis, Arn. I have one species in my herbarium still 
undescribed ; but my specimens are not perfect enough to enable me to describe it, and 
I haye lost the notes that I made at the time of gathering it. It belongs to the section 
Scapiflorae, and has large oblong cordate leaves, very long bracteated scapes, floriferous 
towards the apex ; flowers on long slender pedicels much smaller than those of /. rivalis 
and J. acaulis, but with enormously long spurs. It is one of the most beautiful of the 
genus. I found it in moist woods at 4000 feet elevation on the AnamaUays, and also 
on the Neilgherries ; it is very abundant about Professor Owen's coffee-plantation on 
the Sisparah Ghat. 

^AyTHoxYLON TETRASPERMUM, W. & A. Common in moist woods. From the wood of 
this creeper, when cut through in two places, abundance of water exudes, which is 

DiPETALUM BiLocuLARE, Dalz. Commou in moist woods, at 2000 feet elevation. 
EvoDu TRiPHTLLA, DO. Very common. Yields a strong timber. 


^IiCEOTRopis LATiFOLiA, Gardn. Common in woods, at a high elevation 
^iCROTRopis RAMiFLORA, Wight. Commou with the last. • 



ZEYLANicUM, Thwaitcs. Common in moist woods, up to 2500 feet 


^^ONYiixjs PTERocLADus, Hohen. {M angulatus, Wight). Comm 
^ONYMus DicHOTOMUs, Heyne. Common. 


EuoxYJirs HETOLTTTTTS, WIglit. Common. 

EuoNYMUS CRENTLATUS, "Wall. Common. 
I hare an undescribed species of Fuonymns, with downy leaves, but I have only been 

able to find it in fruit. 


Glycicap.pus eacemosa, Dalz. Very common. 

Canahh-m sxKicTUM, Eoxb. The black dammer-tree. Very abundant in moist woods, 

up to 3000 feet. 


!MoAcriiRA GELO^'IOIDES, E-oxb. Common at 3000 feet elevation, in moist woods. 


CiiOTAT.AiiiA ELEGANs, n. s. J lierbacca erecta, glabra, foliis apice acuminatissimis, nervis 

vix conspicuis, anguste linearibus 4-6 poll, longis, 2 lin. latis, stipulis nullis?, 

. raeemis terminalibus multifloris, bracteis axi adnatis, ovatis, longe acuminatis, flori- 
bus flavidis longe pcdicellatis, calyce ad medium fisso labio superiore bifido, legu- 
mine stipite brevi crasso insidente oblongo sursum crassiore glabro polyspermo. 

Grassy places at 4000 feet. A very distinct species, with very curious bracts. 

Ceotalaiua LAN ATA, n. sp. ; fruticosa erecta 12-15-pedalis, caule angulato, foliis ob- 

longis ovalibus v. suborbiculatis mucronatis, 4-5 poll, longis, 2-2^ latis, supra 
glabris, subtus cum ramulis tomento albo dense lanatis, stipulis maximis transverse 
lunatis, raeemis terminalibus, calyce pubescente ad medium fisso labio superiore 
bifido, bracteis ovatis longe acuminatis, floribus masnis flavis, leorumine glabro poly- 

O"'" ">^-.--, — o 

Common on dry ground, at 4000 feet. 

Crotalaeia HrMirusA, Grab. At 4000 feet. 

Ceotalarta acicularis, Ham. At 4000 feet. 

Crotalaria triqletra, Dalz. At 4000 feet. 

Crotalaria multtflora, Benth. At 4000 feet. 

Crotalaria loxgites, Wight. At 4000 feet. 

Crotalaria Priestleyoides, Benth.* At 4000 feet. 

Crotalaria Heyneana, Grab. Common in the teak-forests, up to 3000 feet 

Crotalaria dubia, Grah. Common with the last. 

Crotalahia stipitata, Grab. Common up to 3000 feet. 

CROTALAELi OBTECTA, Grah. Up to 3000 feet. 


(§ ^AL^ciNiE), n. sp.; perennis adscendens v. er 
obovatU oblongisve utrinque pilosis, raeemis capitatis paucifloris. calvcis mfo 


TexiUum lequantibus, legumine sessili glabro calyce breviore. 

♦ > 


SxiTHiA CAPITATA, Dalz. At 3000 feet, common. 


Smithia setulosa, Dalz. Common at 3000 feet. 

PESMODruM osMOCAEPOiDES, DC. Very abundant in the teak-forests, 


Desmodium podocarpum, DC, var. Gaudneri. In moist forests, at 3000 feet. 

Desmoditjm betuloides, n. sp. ; caule a basi ramoso angulato adpresse sericeo, foliis 
unifoliatis oblongo-lanceolatis acnminatis, snpra glabris, snbtus pallidis dense ad- 
presse sericeis, 2J-4 poll, longis, lj~lf latis, stipulis magnis scariosis lanceolatis 
acuminatis, stipellis 2 filiformibus ad apicem petioli l-lJ-poUicaris, racemis termi- 
nalibus minute glanduloso-pubescentibus, bracteis lanceolatis, pedicellis brevibus 
strigosis 2-3 fasciculatis, calyce strigoso bilabiato, labio supexiore integro, inferiore 
profunde bifido, legumine lineari 4-5-pollicari, glanduloso-bispido, sutura utraque 
leviter sinuata, articulis 6 8 elongatis subellipticis. 


Commou in moist forests at 2000 feet. 


.Uysicarpus racemosus, Bentb. At 3000 feet elevation, on grass lands. 

PuERARiA TUBEROSA, DC. TMs destructive creeper forms, with Dendrolobkim cepha- 
lotes, the chief portion of the underwood in the teak-forests. 

ViONA WiGHTii, Bentii. ; scandens, caule strigoso, stipulis adnatis, foliis trifoliatis, foliolis 
superne adpresso-pubescentibus subtus moUiter sericeis 2-2J poll, longis, l-lj latis, 
petiolo l-li-polL, pedunculis axillaribus incrassatis 5-8 poll, longis, apice plurifloris, 
floribus odoratis magnis lilacinis brevissime pedicellatis, tuberculis glandulosis 
insidentibus, calycis lobis longe subulatis strigosis, legumine tereti, juniori strigoso, 
adulto glabro. 
A very specious plant, well worth cultivating. Common at 3000 feet elevation, 

D^:^■BARu Hetnei, W. & A. Lower forests. 


lA FERRUGiNEA, W. & A. Lower forests 
lA ROSTRATA, Benth. Lower forests. 

Ainosu aiNDOLLii, W. & A. 5000 feet 


su ALBICANS, Benth 


TYLosu MOLLIS, Benth. (Dunbaria Morsfeldii, Miquel) . AU three common at 3000 feet 

^^TTU SPLENDENS, W. & A. At 3000 feet elevation. 

I have three species of this genus from these hills, which seem undescribed j two, 
however, are onljr in flower, and the third only in fruit ; so that I wiU not attempt 
^t present to name them. 

^i'CHosu FiLiPEs, Benth. At 4000 feet elevation, common. 



Wall. Foot of the hiUs 

^ERGu Gardxeriana, Benth. 6000 feet elevation 


Dalbekgia sissoides, W. & A. Jjowev forests. This is the smaller blact wood : tlie 

wood is much darker than D. latifolia {Eetee marum), and is called Eroopootoo 

■ - 


Derrts panicitlata, Benth. Banks of rivers, at 3000 feet. 

Deeris ITeyneaxa, Benth. At the elevation of about 5000 feet. 

Mezoneuron cucullatum, AV. & A. The stem of this plant, when cut across, yields 

pure water, just as that of Xanthoxijlum. tetraspermum does. 

PiTHECOLOBiTJM ANAMALATANUM, n. sp. ; ramulis pctiolis paniculisque fusco-puhescen- 

tibus, foliis 6-8-pollicaribus, pinnis 6-8-jugis, 3-41 poll, longis, foliolis oblong 

falcatis superne fere glabris, subtus parce pubescentibus 3-4 lin. long 
latis, glandulis concavis 1-3 petiolo infra pinnis insertis, una inter utrumque jugum 
pinnarum exacte intermedia, capituKs sub-12-floris, calyce aureo-puberula, corolla 
calyce duplo longiore extus puberula, staminibus longe exsertis, ovario longe stipitato 
pubescente, legumine puberulo cochleato, seminibus 8-10. 

A middling-sized tree, common at 6000 feet. 

K early allied to P. suhcoriaceiim, Thw., but seemingly distinct in the smaller leaflets 
and more numerous pinnae. I have not seen a specimen of Mr. Thwaites's plant. 


OsBECKiA RETICULATA, n. sp. ; frutcx crcctus 4-5-pedalis, caule strigoso, fohis ovatis 

hasi cordatis 5-7-ner\nis, subintegerrimis, 1-3 poll, longis, lf-2 latis, utrinque 
dense adpresse strigosis, subtus profunde reticulatis, petiolis 3-10 lin. longis, dense 
strigosis, floribus terminalibus breviter pedunculatis maximis, calycis tubo campanu- 
lato dense squamoso, squamis valde setosis setis basi latis, limbi lobis obsoletis, 
antheris 8 baud rostratis, stylo clavato apice incurvo. 
This very handsome shrub occurs at elevations above 6000 feet. 

;B£Ckia gracilis, n. s. : frutex erectus, s-racilis. subsrlaber, foliis distantibus angus e 

j^^VVW-^.-, ^^^O 

lanceolatis acuminatis leviter creniilatis trinerviis, iitrinque parce adp 
supra (in sicco) valde riigosis, 2^3 poll, longis, \ poll, latis, petiolo 1 


i-2 lin 


pedunculis terminalibus et axillaribus 2-3-floris, floribus magnis breviter pedi 

latis, calycis tubo setis paucis remotis, lobis 4 deciduis ciliatis setarum lascic 
terminatis, petalis 4 obovatis, staminibus 8, antheris erostratis, stylo recto 

At 4000 feet elevation. A species with much the appearance of 0. longicoUis 



SoxERiLA ROTUNDiEOLiA, n. sp. ; hcrba acaulis bulbosa 4-8-pollicaris, foliis glabris longe 

petiolatis rotundatis basi cordatis, lobis approximatis, sese invicem obtegem 
7-nGrviis, nervis infra valde conspicuis, rubris, scapis foliis longioribus apice o 
3-6 secundos gerentibus, pedicellis brevibus crassis, floribus roseis majusculis pe a 
obovatis retusis. 
:Moist rocky places, 4000-6000 feet. 

SoyEETLA ACAULIS, n. sp. ; acaulis, foliis ovatis basi cordatis leviter crenatis, creiiatiui^' 



etosis superne sparse albo macnlatis, maculis setosis, subtus crystallinis, ad ncrvos 

sparse' pilosis demum utrinque glabris, scapis folia sequantibiis apice 6-20-floris 

pedicellis brevibus recurvis, ciini calyce parce glanduloso-setosis, calycis lobis parvis 

acutis, petalis roseis ovatis vel oblongis acnminatis, antheris angiistc cordatis flavis, 

' stylo staminum longitudiiie obtuse papilloso. 

iloist rocky places up to 3000 feet. 
SONERILA TEXELLA, n. sp. ; caule erecto, foliis oppositis, l-lj poU. longis, 7-8 lin. latis, 

' petiolis 4-8 lin. longis, canaliculatis, ovatis, apiculatis, tenuitcr serratis, 3-5.ncrvii8, 
sfepe obliquis et basi in^qualibus, supra pilis longis albidis remotis tectis, subtus 
fere glabris, parium inferiorum internodiis elongatis, pedunculis 1-3-floris glabris, 
antheris cordatis acuminatis, capsula glabra. 

Eocky places, at 3000 feet elevation. Allied to S, Amottlana, Thw. 
Pachycevtria, Blume. Tbere is a very beautiful, undescribed species of tliis genus 
growing in great abundance on Bhododendron arboreim on tbe higher ranges ; but 
my specimens are too imperfect for description. 



Eugenia geacims, n. sp. ; arbor parva, ramulis puT^erulls. foliis potiolatis lancoolatis 
utrinque aeuminatis glabris supra lucidis, 3-4 poll, longis, 1-lJ latis, petiohs ^-polli- 
caribus, pediceUis axiUaribus vel pedunculis brevibus axiUaribus aut supraaxU- 
laribus insertis. solitariis, longis, sracilibus, l_lf poUiearibus, cum calyce pul,erubs, 

o^^? o 

petalis 4 albis calycis lobis duplo longioribus, fructu oblongo poUic 

Banks of streams, at elevations of 3000-4000 feet 



■bis 2 

3.fidis, foliis 3-5.1obis supra scaberrimis 

atis, diam. 4-5-pollicari, floribus 

pubescentibus irregulariter profunde serratis, ^^^^^- ^"-.i^^^V:" ! ^^ .j 
'v.. .o._.e.-e ..T..P nmm infoemineis majore et majus lacmioso, m 

albis, masculis racemosis, calyce quam 

mentis 3, rarius 4, discretis, tubi parti gibbosse insertis, antheris ^«^^^^f 'f"; 
Talde hirsuta, fcemineis axillaribus solitariis aut binis bractea lanceolata, ^el sa^pms 
acemosis bracteis magnis laciniatis glandulosis suifultis, bacca globosa. 

^loist woods, up to 4000 feet 

not perfect enoug 

h for 

Itave another undescribed species; but my specimens ^le m,t i ^^^ 
description : it has nearly glabrous, very glandular, deeply 3-lobed lea^ 
^erry, with the seeds immersed in a fetid green pulp. 


B^ocu AN.MALAVAKA, u. sp. ; acaulis, tbliis renifbrmibus -1^ ^ ^M^ 

sublobatis longe petiolatis, junioribus dense A-^^^^^^rumque foliis multo long 
subtus crystallinis, stipulis magnis scariosis, scapo piei _ h ^^^^.^ 
dichotomo cymoso multifloro, floribus masculis et foemmeis c i 
^anks of streams in moist forests, at 3500 feet elevation. ^ ^ 


Begonia cREyATA, Dalz. CommoiL in moist woods, up to 3000 feet 



LoRANTHUS Cleghornii, h. sp. ; glaber, foliis oppositis ovatis obscure nervosis coriaceis 

2J-3J poll, longis, 1^ latis, racemis axillaribus vel termlnalibus multifloris, pedi- 
cellis breyissimis, bractea parva calycem amplectente, calyce integro vel yix dentato 
ovarium vix superante, corolla obscure aurantiaca recta glabra, basi ventricosa, ultra 
medium sequaliter 4-fida, segmentis lineari-cuneatis, bacca oblonga. 
On BJiododendron arhoreum, 5000 to 8000 feet elevation. 



Argostemma Courtallense, Wiglit {=zA. connatum, Dalz.) ; 

ARGOSTEiiMA VERTICELLATTJM, Wall. {=A. glaherrimtim, Dalz.). 

These four species are found on banks of streams, in moist woods, at 3000 to 4000 
feet elevation. 

Ophiorhiza falcata, n. sp. ; erecta, glabra, foliis lanceolatis utrinque angustatis, subtus 

pallidissimis, stipulis magnis triangularibus vel subulatis, cymis axillaribus termi- 
nalibusque longe pedunculatis, ramis reflexis secundis subternis, quorum 2 bipar- 
titis, bracteis magnis falcatis, calyce minimo, corolla in alabastro angulata, basi 
gibba, tubo infra lobos angustato, extus glabro, fauce intus supra antberas 


• ? 

Moist woods, at 3000-4000 feet elevation. 

Hedyotis BrxiFOLiA, n. sp. ; frutex magnus, glaber, ramis teretibus, foliis breviter petio- 

latis valde coriaceis late ovatis glabris lucidis, ner\ds inconspicuis, 4-6 lin. longis, 
3 lin. latis, marginibus recurvis, stipulis latis basi connatis vaginantibns, sursum m 
dentes filiformes margine ciliatos dorso piloses divisis, pedunculis terminalibus vel 
in axillis superioribus \ poll, longis trifloris, floribus subsessilibus, bracteis filifor- 
mibus ciliatis, calyce cyatbiformi dentibus 4 erectis subciliatis, coroUse fauce lobisque 
villosis, filamentis inclusis vel exsertis, antberis oblongis, stylo longe exserto, cap- 
sulae coccis osseis. 

At 6000 feet. Allied to m articiilaris, E.. Br., but distinguisbed by its very 
sbininoj, veinless leaves. 


Grl-milea LONGiroLiA, n. s. ; frutex magnus, glaber, foliis cuneato-oblongis breviter 

abrupte acuminatis, 8-12 poll, longis, versus apicem 2-2f poU. latis, basin versus 
sensim attenuatis, petiolo 1-2-poUicari, stipulis lanceolatis acuminatis deciduis 1-- 
poUicaribus, cop^mbis breve pedunculatis, multifloris floribus, midescentibus niagmSj 
bracteis minutis acutis, calyce breviter dentato, corollse tubo brevissimo, fauce a 
antberarum insertionem villosa, bacca oblonga, calycis limbo coronata. 
A large handsome sbrub, in moist woods, at 2000-3000 feet. 


Hedyotis glabella, R. Br. Very common in bamboo-jungles. 
Saprosha indica, 3)alz. Common in moist woods, at 3000 feet 
PiVETTA SIPHON ANTHA, Dalz. At 6000 feet elevation. 


Valeriana microphylla, n. sp. ; herbacea erecta, glabra, foliis radicalibus longe petio- 
latis pinnatis, 3-4-pollicaribns, pinnis 10-12-jugis J-pollicaribus suboppositis glabris 
aro-ine ciliatis, integris, terminal! interdum denticulato, oblongis, marginc inferiore 

plerumque lobnlo parvulo auctis, caulinis paucis, inferioribus radicalibus similibus, 
superiorum pinnis anguste linearibns, corymbis densis ad ramificationes ^illosis, 
bracteis lanceolatis puberulis . 

_ ■ 

Grassy plains, at 6000 feet. 


Ardisia SEREATirOLiA, n.sp.; frutex magnus, ramulis pedunculis petiolisque rufo-yillosis, 
foUis petiolatis lanceolatis ntrinque acuminatis argute serratis, 6-9 poll, longis, 1^-2 
Ms, supra ad nervos sparse; villosis demum glabrescentibus, infra dense rufe villosis, 
pedunculis axHlaribus solitariis, pedicellis 2-3 fasciculatis 6-8 Uneas longis sub- 
glabris, calycis lobis lanceolatis acuminatis subglabris, alabastro acuminato caljrce 
bis terve longiore, corolla glabra stylo filiformi. 

Moist woods, at 2000-3000 feet 


PvOSPiDios VACciNioiDES. DC. Commou in moist woods, up to 4000 feet. It is a lofty 



Smiocos uosEA, n. sp. ; fruticosa, glabra, foliis elHptico - oblongis abrupte ^™^ ^^ 
mucronatis, supra medium argute serratis, puberulis, 5-7 poU. longis, 2-2^ atis, 
petiolo 3-4-lineari, racemis l-3.poU. puberuHs, floribus roscis breve pediceUaA-. 
calyce bracteolisque puberulis, fructu oblongo apicem versus attenuato glabro. 
In moist woods, at 2000-3000 feet. . 

SiMPLocos TINIPLOI.A, n. sp. ; arbor parva, ramis glabris, foliis petiolatis ovato-obb^^^^ 
serratis, IJ poll, longis, 1 latis, petiolis i-polL, pedicelHs axillaribus --^^^^^ 
Hneas longis, floribus llbis, bracteis 2 ovatis ad basin calycis Vf'^J^^^^ 
triplo lon,ioribus, sti^mate obtuse trHobo, ovario triloculan, fructu oblongo glabro. 

At 5000 feet elevation 


Chonbeospekmtim SMiLACi^OLirM. WaU. Moist woods, 2000 feet elevation 




In moist woods, at 8000 feet 

MIA &RAUDirLOKA, "Wall. "With the last. 2 


Parsoxsia spiralis, Wall. ; 



Tabern.i:montana dichotoma, Boxb. \ 

Clegiiornia acuminata, Wight. ; 
All in moist woods, at 3000 feet. 


noYA PArciPLORA, Wifirlit. Vcrv common in moist woods, at 4000 feet. 

r _ 


BiDARiA TiNGENSjDecaisne. 4000 feet elevation. 

Ceropegia caxdelabrl'M, Linn. At 4000 feet elevation. 

Ceropegia vinCzEeolia, Hook. Very common about the teak -forests. 

Ceropegia oculata, Hook. Common in moist woods, up to 4000 feet. A very variable 


Ceropegia maculata, n. sp. ; radice fibroso, caule volubili tereti glabro maculato, foliis 

ovatis acuminatis maculatis minute punctatis glabris ad basin laminae glaiidiila 
minuta munitis, 2^3 poll. longis, 1 J-2 latis, petiolo subpuberulo canaliculate pollicari, 
pedimculis petiolo parum brevioribus glabris, pedicellis 7-10 umbellatis pedunculiim 
sequantibus v. paullo longioribus, fioribus viridi-purpureis, sepalis subulatis, coroUae 
limbo tubo dimidio breviore lobis ciliatis, coronte staminese lobis exterioribus bipar- 
titis interioribus sequilongis alternantibus, folliculis teretibus 4-5-pollicaribus. 
Common in moist woods, at 2000 and 3000 feet elevation. Much like C, candek- 

brum, Linn. ( C. intermedia, Wight) in foliage and general appearance ; but the structure 

of the staminal corona is quite diiferent. 

Ceropegia ensifolia, n. sp. ; radice bulboso, caule volubili glabro, foliis anguste linea- 

ribus mucronatis basi angustatis, supra pilis paucis adpressis subtus glabris pallidis 
brevissime petiolatis, 4-7 poll, longis, \ poll, latis, pedunculis axillaribus folio 
dimidio brevioribus vel subsequantibus pubescentibus umbellatis, apice pluribrac- 
teatis,- bracteis ovatis oblongis vel subulatis, umbellis interdum proliferis vel m 
paniculam abeuntibus, pedicellis pubescentibus, fioribus ex albo vii'idescentibus 



mentis calycinis glabris subulatis corolla tubi partis ventricosse dimidio bre 

olla3 segmentis tubum sequantibus vel super 

lobis exterioribus brevibus emarginatis ciliatis cum interioribus longe ligidatis 
alternantibus, folliculis elongatis teretibus. 
In rocky places, at 2500 to 3500 feet. Common. 
Ceropegia eimbriata, n. sp. ; radice bulboso, caule erecto subpuberulo, foliis siibses- 

silibus anguste ensiformibus basin versus angustatis margine minute ciliatis supra 
puberulis subtus excepta costa glabris, 5-6 poll, longis, 2-3 lin. latis, pedunculis 
axiUaribus brevibus (6-8 Hn. longis) paucifloris, pedicellis pedunculum sequaiitibus, 
basi bracteis paucis subulatis munitis, corolla viridi-purpurea fimbriis a^^^'P^^' 
pureis, tubo sursum angustato sepalis subulatis quadruplo longiore, Hm^o lobis 
tubum sequantibus, cum fasciculo pilorum glanduligeromm alternantibus, corou 



staminese segmentis exterioribus brevibus argute bifidis ciliolatis intcrioribus 
longis ligulatis exterioribus intus medio adnatis, follieulis longis teretibus. 
Pry rocky places, 3000 feet. 

A very beautiful species. The tufts of gland-tipped hairs arc concealed Trithin the 
corolla until the segments expand ; they then hang down like a fringe round the apex of 
the tube. It is always an erect plant in its wild state, though becoming a creeper when 
brought into a garden soil. 

Ceropegia geacilis, n. sp. ; radice fibroso, caule volubili glabro, foliis breviter petiolatis 
ovato-ellipticis acuminatis minute ciliatis, supra parce pilosis pellucido-punctatis, 
subtus lucidis costa excepta glabris, pedunculis petiolo longioribus 2-5-floris, iloribus 
maxirds, tubo brevi basi ventrieoso, limbi lobis tubo longioribus medio augustis- 
simis sursum latioribus, coronae stamineae lobis exterioribus brevibus prof undo 
bifidis pilis longis ciliatis, intcrioribus alternantibus distantibus longe ligulatis. 
Moist forests, 4000 feet. Nearly allied to C. oculata. 


ExACUM MACRANTHUM, Am. Very abundant on the higher ranges. 

It has more rounded and thicker leaves than the specimens from Ceylon in the 

Hookerian herbarium, and rather larger flowers. 
ExACUM WiGHTiANUM, Am. 4000 feet elevation. 

ExACTTM Perrottetii, Gris. With the last. 

ExACUM PEDUNCULARE, L. This and the two next inhabit the lower forests. 

EiAcuii PETiOLARE, Gris . • . 


Ophelia GRACILIS, n. sp. ; caule erecto, gracili, glabro, quadrangulo, foliis distantibus 
ovatis vel rotundatis obtusis sessilibus 6-8 Hneas longis, corynibis terminalibus laxis, 
bracteis ovato-lanceolatis, pedicellis apicem versus parum alatis, calycis lobis 4 lancco- 
latis acuminatis, corolla 4-partita, lobis calyce vix longioribus filamenta super- 
antibus, foveis glanduligeris mediis inconspicuis. 
At 4000 feet elevation. 


^^Mhera permollis, Nees. 

All the species occur in moist forests, up to 4000 feet 


A^ INDICA, "Wight. 

Epithe^^ carnosum, Benth. 






AKGYRELi rrLGENs, Chois. Moist forests, 3000 feet elevation. 
Akgyreli elliptica, Chois. Teak-forests, abundant. 


(a.) POPULiroLiA. Teak-forests. 

(/3.) HiRsrTA. Most abundant in the teak-forests. 
BiVEA crxEATA, Wight. Most abundant in the teak-forests. 
Ipomcea bracteata, "Wight. Common up to 3000 feet. 
Ipomcea pileata, Roxb. Common up to 3000 feet. 

Ipomcea Pclneyensis, n. sp.; dense strigoso-pubescens, caule procumbente tereti, foliis 

alternis distantibus anguste cordatis, 2 poll, longis, 6-8 lin. latis, petiolo 2-6 lin. 
longo, floribus axillaribus solitariis breviter pedunculatis, braeteis 2 linearibus caljci 
approximatis, floribus magnis lilacinis, sepalis 2 interioribus linearibus, 3 exteriora 
ovata longitudine superantibus. 


Toeenia PARYiPLOiiA, Ham. Common on the lusher rano-es. 

o"^-' *"^o 

CEyTRAXTnEEA PROCUMEEXs, Beuth. In the teak-forests. 
Pedicularis Perrottetii, Benth. Common on the higher ranges. 


TnrxBERGiA Mysorensis, T. And. Moist woods, at 3000 feet. 

Thunbergia ILwtaynii, Wall. Abundant on slopes of hills, at 3000 feet. 

Strobilanthes TETRAPTERrs, Dalz. Eorms the underwood in most of the forests, a' 

2000-3000 feet. 

Strobilanthes LrRiDus, Wight. Common in moist woods, at 5000 feet. 

Strobilaxthes MiciANTHus, Wight. Common with the last. 

Strobilanthes trifidus, Nees. Moist woods, at 2000 feet. 

Strobilanthes anceps, Nees. Moist woods, at 2000 feet. 

Strobilanthes gracilis, n. sp. ; frutex 16-18.pedalis, caule tereti glabro, foliis sessili 

bus basi auriculatis anguste lanceolatis longe acuminatis, basi attenuatis 
serratis utrinque glabris, 4-6 poll, longis, l-li latis ; panieuUs terminalibus v 
a^s supcrioribus laxe multifloris, glanduloso-puberuHs, floribus oppositis. di 
tibus bractea parra lanceolata suffultis, calycis lobis lineari-lanceolatis puberulis 
corona Hlacma, staminibus 4, capsula acuta basi attenuata calyce J longiore. 
Moist woods, at 6000 feet. A very handsome species. 

Strobilanthes Andersoni, n. sp. ; frutex 20-pedalis, caule tereti hirsuto, foliis peti^ 

^tis ovatis acuminatis serratis, Q-poUicaribus 2-4^ poU. latis, petiolo hirsuto 
Pou. longo, peduncuHs axillaribus, foliis multo bre^ioribus, floribus in capituli^ 

rel ex 



dense bract eatis congestis, bracteis magnis ovatis obtusis glabris vel mar^iuc ciliatis 
calycis lobis anguste lanceolatis ciliatis, corolla glabra magna pallidc carulea, sta- 
minibus 4. 
In moist woods, at 6000 feet, with the preceding. A very fine species. 

BAfiiERiA PENTANDRA, Am. Abundant, 4^000-6000 feet. 


DICR.EA ALG^FORMis, n. sp. ; frondibus aphyllis, atroriridibus, compressis, multipartitis, 
segmentis loriformibus pluries dichotomis lobis linearibus obtusis, floribus rersus 
basin segmentorum lateralibiis, involucri dipbylli basi squamis 2 brevibus suifulti 
foliis ovalibus obtuse galeatis carnosis, involucelio integro pcUucido florcm. lu- 
yolrente, staminodiis 2 subulatis, vel 3, tertio filamento adnato, antberis bilocu- 
laribus, loculo interiore pauUo altius inserto, stigmatibus 2 subulatis dcflexis, pcdi- 
cello fructus elongato, capsula 8-costata. 

In streams, up to 3500 feet; abundant on rocks. The flat black fronds resemble 
some species of sea- weed. 

Tab. XXIV. Fig. I. Flowering frond, natural size. Fig. 2. Portion of same, magnified. Fig. 3. Por- 
tion of floriferous frond. Fig. 4. Portion of fructiferous frond. Fig. 5. Bud covered by involucre. 
Fig. 6. Bud, after opening of involucre. . Fig. 7- Involucel enclosing bud. Fig. 8. Expanded flower, 
with involucre. Fig. 9. Flower, more highly magnified. Fig. 10. Stamen. Fig. U. Pollen. 
Fig. 12. Longitudinal section of ovary. Fig. 13. Transverse section of ovary. Figs. 14, 15. Fruit. 
16. Transverse section of fruit. 

Mniopsis selaginoides, n. sp. ; rhizomate minuto, squamaeformi, caulibus fasciculatis 
erectis 1-3-pollicaribus teretibus gracilibus carnosulis, sterilibus basi nudis apicem 
versus folia longe filiformia 2-5-pollicaria basi semiteretia superne anguste lori- 
formia gerentibus, fertilibus a basi squamis imbricatis triquetris acutis rigidis apice 
fohiferis tectis, folio cum apice squamae persistentis articulate deciduo, floribus in 
caulibus squamosis terminalibus solitariis, involucre oblongo urceolato, apice bidon- 
tato, staminodiis 2, staminibus 2 monadelphis, stigmatibus 2 integris vel lobatis, 
capsula Isevi. 
In streams, up to 3000 feet ; very abundant. All the leaves of this species fall off 

oefore tlie flowering-season (December) ; but the scales are persistent. 

AB. XXV. Fig. 1. Plant, natural size. Fig. 2. Branch, with scales and leaves. Fig. 3- Branch, with 
scaleless leaves towards apex. Fig. 4. Scale and leaf, magnified. Fig. 5. Scale after leaf has fallen 

off, magnified. 

tural size. Fiff. 7 

%. 8, 9. Scale. Fig. 10. Involucre. Fig. 11. Involucre, opened. Fig. 12. Flower, with invo- 
lucre removed. Fig. 13. Stamens. Fig. 14. Longitudinal section of ovary. Fig. 15. Transverse 
section of ovary. 


^ORTEA CREKULATA, Gaud. This dreadfully stinging plant is very common in moist 
^ ^oods, from 3000 to 5000 feet elevation. 
^OEiEA TEEiyiiXALis, "Widit. Common in moist forests, at no great elevation. 




Common in moist forests, at no great elevation 


Pile A Wightii, Wedd. 

Common in moist forests, at no great elevation 
Common in moist forests, at no great elevation. 

Very abundant in moist forests, at 2000 feet 

Abundant on rocky hill- sides 


Lecanthus Wightii, Wedd. 

to 3500 feet elevation. 

PROCms LAEVIGATA, Blume.- Moist forests, 3000 feet elevation. 
ELAT0STE3IA LiNEOLATrM, Wight. Beds of rivers, up to 4000 feet. 
Elatostema cuneatltm, Wisrht. Common. 

damp places, from 2500 



Elatostema sesslle, Eorst, S. crspiDATUM. 
Elatostema surculosum, Wight. Common. 
Boehmeeia Malabaeica, Wedd. 

BoEn:\rEEiA platyphylla, Ham., -^ 

2000 to 4000 feet. 


MoEocAEPus LOXGiFOLirs, Blumc. 
PorzoLziA IxnicA, Gaud., var. tet; 



Common in moist woods, from 2000 to 4000 feet 


moist woods, fr 

Common in moist woods, from 2000 to 4000 feet 
Common in moist woods, from 2000 to 4000 feet. 




Bare at 4000 feet 

Hyetaxandra hirta, Miquel, vars. y. I 
IIyrtaxandea caudata, Miq. 

Common up to 3500 feet elevation 

Common up to 3500 feet elevation 

Hyrtanandea ciliaeis, Miq. («.) 
Eyrtaxaxdea terxata, Miq. («.) 

Hyetaxaxdra scabra, Miq 

Common up to 3500 feet elevation. 
Common up to 3500 feet elevation 

One form grows to a very large shrub 


Common up to 3500 feet elevation 

Exc^ECARiA oppositifolia. Jack. 
Balechampia BiDENTATA, Blume 

Very common up to 4000 feet, in moist forests 

Cleidiox Javaxictjm, B1. 
Croton drupacetjm, Boxb 

At 3000 feet elevation, on rocky hill-sides 
Abundant in moist forests, at 2000 feet elevation. 
Very common up to 4000 feet elevation, both 


scandent plant, and a tree. C. baccifenm, L., and C. aromaticum, L. (herb. Hook.) 
seem both to belong to this species. 


Crotox OBLoxGiroLiuM, Eoxb 
Crotox ARGrTrn, Heyne. 
Ceotox HYPOLErcos, Dalz 

Moist forest 

very common at 2000 feet elevation 

There is another, undescribcd 

Moist forests ; very common at 2000 feet elevation 

species in the lower moist forests, but my sp 






arc ouly in fruit ; its leaves are silvery Leneatli, as in C. hjpolcucos, but it grows to a 
free ; there seems to be the same in the Hookerian herbarium, from Borneo, unnamed. 

Blaciiia tmbellata, Baill. Banks of rivers, 3000 feet. 

DiMORrnocALYx GLABELLrs, Tliw. A common tree in moist woods, at 4000 feet 

Tab. XXVI. Fig. 1. Branch of female plant. Fig. 2. Female flower^ detacliecL Fig. 3. Petal Fig. 1. 

Ovarvand disk. Fig* 5. Longitudinal and^ fig. 6^ transverse section of ovary (figs. 3-6, magnified). 


Fi^'-s. 7, 8. Fruit, with persistent calyx. Fig. 9. Branch of male plant. Fig. 10. Flo\vcr. Fig. 11. 
Corolla, opened. Fig. 12. Andraeciura and calyx. Fig. 13. Stamen. Figs, 14, 15. Abnormal 
flower and andnecium, from a Concan specimen (figs. 10-15 magnified). 

Des:5I0STEMON ZEXLANicrs, Tliw. Abundant in moist forests, at 2000 to 3000 feet. 

Tab. XXYII. Figs. 1, 2. Branches of male plant, in bud and flo^Yer. Fig. 3. Bud. Fig. 4. Flouer. 
Fig. 5. Corolla, opened. Fig. 6. Calyx and andr^cium. Figs. 7? 8. Stamen. Fig. 9. Branch of 

^ r ^^ 

female plant. Fig. 10. Bud. Fig. 11. Calyx and ovary. Fig. 12. Longitudinal section of ovary. 
Fig. 13. Transverse section of ovary. Fig. 14. Fruit. Fig. 15. Transverse section of fruit. 

Agrostistachys Indica, Dalz. Commoii at 4500 feet elevation. 
Epistylilm coedipolium, Baill. Moist woods, at no great elevation. 
Epistylium floeibundum, Tliw. Moist woods, at no great elevation. 
EpisTYLirM POLYPHYLLUM, Tliw. Moist woods, at no great elevation. 
Epistylium riMBEiATUM, Baill. Moist woods, at no ffreat elevation. 


L'us. Two species. In moist woods, np to 4000 feet 

PiERARDLA MACEOSTACHYS, Wiglit. Abundant ; moist woods, np to 4000 feet. Truit 

eaten by tbc bill tribes. 
Cycloste:mon zeylanicijm, Thw. Very abundant in moist woods, at 2000 feet. The 

timber is very str 


Hemicyclia sepiaeia, W. & A. Common witb the precedin 


5000 feet 

Neilgheerense, Tliw. A very common tree in moist woods, abov 

^OL. XXV. 



INN Soc^/o' ^■t;t^'s .^1 



■ J 


W^^ -i-*^ ^^4 

.v^ ..^ 

Ornnhea Th om s o niJBedd 

* iL 

Trans. Linn Sog.Vol.XXV.Tab 22 

D^ i ?c^(LimtedJlidiL'mdoii 

Anacolosa denslflora Bedd 

Trans. LiTTN. ,:)Ou.V^l.:<XV., Tab. 23. 

-^ ^iUi. 




d '" ^M. a t a , 



^nV;- Ir 

Trans. Linn. SocVolIIV; Tab.24. 



VlT,. _. i Brooic5,Imp 

Dicr^a al^yeformis, Bedd. 

Trans. Linn. Soc.yoi.IIY tab 25 

"i et lith 

'•- ■ Imp 

M.niopsis Selaginoides^Bedd 


Trans Linn. Soc.VolXXV Tab.2C. 








! -. 

t I 

I J. 



Trans Linn Soc \L;, XXV/^'^'^ ^^ 


,'! 'am Lca;^: 


. On Gripidea, a Neio Gemis of the Loasaceae, icitli cm accoiai/of sonie Fecidhritics 
(Jie SI rue I lire of the Seeds in that Family. By JoH?^ Miers, F.B.S. ^L.S., Covi- 
'mnd. Ord. Imp. Bras. Mosce. 

(Plate XXVIII.) 

Read April 20, 1865. 

btlie collection of plants from the interior of Brazil, made by Mr. Weir for the Royal 
Horticultural Society, there is a species belonging to the Loasacece so much at variance 
with others of that family, that it will form the type of a new genus, for which I propose 
the name of Gripidea*. Its chief peculiarities consist in having only five stamens oppo- 
ate each of the five larger petals, in the shape of its stigma, the structure of its 
capsule, and the organization of its seeds. Its largo scabrid leaves, upon long petioles, 
are opposite, suborbicular, cordate, and divided into five unequal lobes, which are croscly 
denticulated. It has axillary and dichotomously ramified panicles, whose branches arc 
fomished at their origin with nearly sessile bract-Kke leaflets, while a solitary flower 
iiponalong pedicel issues from the sinus of each dichotomy. The flowers have ^ five 
%r petals, which are hooded in a peculiar manner ; the ovary is ahnost entirely mfe- 
nor, leaving a short pulvinate portion ebove the segments of the calj-x ; the style is erect, 
aad terminated by a stigma of three linear lobes, broadly fringed on their margins, the 
0^ itself being unilocular, with three somewhat spiral, longitudinj^l, sessile, placenti- 
ferous lines, upon which numerous ovules are crowded. The capsule, of thin chartaceous 
textui-e, is of a long cylindrical shape, somewhat narrower towards the base, and is cro^vncd 
^th the persistent reflected leaflets of the calyx, the pulvinate cap, and the remnant of 
«ie style : it is marked by numerous spiral ner^n.u^es, and finally spUts into three ribbon- 
%a hehcal valves, that remain joined together at the summit and base, and which 
^ on their margins numerous small and almost scobiform seeds. 

^rom these characters it wHl bo seen that the genus belongs to the section Jlehete- 
:^^*, diifering from most of the genera of that section in its adnate parietal placentoe : 
^ ^^ respect it approaches Scyphanthus ; but the latter genus has a far more attenuated 
^P^e, ^Meh opens by three teeth in the apex, and finally splits into three linear s raight 
«^^ceous v^ves, which separate also at the top, and thus become entirely free ; the two 
^^ are likewise at variance in the nature of their seminal integuments, the form of 
J^e°i%o, the shape of thcii- petals, the number of their stamens, in their stigma, the 

^ A^^!^^ ^^ ^^^^ inflorescence, and in then' general habit. .^ m • i- 

., ^t^ough Caiophora agrees with it in its capside, which bursts along its sides mto 
■^^V^^ valves," adliering together at their extremities, it is at variance with it m the 
'"^^^ of its stamens, in its stigma, but more espeeiaUy in its three spiral bilamellar 





placentae, whicli project far into the middle of tlie cell, tlrns rendering it almost S-locular- 
the structure of the seed of Caiojjkorcc will bo presently shown to be very different. 

2jl>'mQ}ibachkc also differs from it in many of its floral characters, hut more espociallT 
in the very dissimilar shape and structure of its spiral capsule, its peculiar mode u'l 
placcntation, and the development of its seeds. 

The structure of the seed in Gripidea presents features that command attention. This 
at first sight, seems as if it had a long transparent wing at each extremity ; but wliea 
examined under a lens, these wings are seen to form part of a curved long cvlindrid 
sac, pointed at both ends, with two constrictions near the middle, being fire times tli? 
length and twice the breadth of a dark opake body which appears to float in its centre; 
this integumental sac is formed of stout cancellated bars, with large elongated and some- 
what hexagonoidal spaces, formed of a thin pellicular colomdess membrane, marked with 
small pellucid spots ; there is no apparent aperture in any part of the integument, no 
hilar scar by which it may have been attached to the inner flotant body or to tlie 
placenta, nor the smallest trace of a duct or tracheal vessel of any kind that could fonn 
the channel of nutritory communication between the placenta and the enclosed nucleus. 
The seed bears much resemblance to that of Diclijqstega, belonging to Burmmmcta, 
figured in the Linnean ' Transactions,' vol. xviii. pi. 37. The inner body, when removed, 
is found to be quite free from the integument just described ; it is oval, black, opalxc, with 

sculptured surface, formed of hexai^onoidal hollows, and is terminated at its upper end 


by a funnel-shaped membrane, open at its apparently laciniated mouth, and formed 
slender cancellated bars, with transparent spaces so finely attenuated as to van 
graduaUy into an almost insensible pellicle, which perhaps extends to the 
remaining adherent to the outer coating; but if so, it cannot be traced on account of it 
extreme tenuity :' at its lower extremity this integument is more pointed, andvanislie 
m a similar manner ; but we cannot perceive the smallest vestige of any raphe or clialr- 
either in the transparent extremities or in the thick opake middle portion of this 'm 



when this second coating is removed, we find a third, membranaceous 
cut, reticulated coating, which closely invests the oval-shaped albumeu, and 
5 entirely devoid of vessels ; the embryo, which is nearly the length of the albu- 
(iuito straight, terete, with its radicle pointing upwards, the latter being some- 

hat longer tlian the two semi-cylindrical cotyledons, which are equal to it 

pcctcd, by the examination of ovules in their early stage of growth, that, fro^ 
eater tenuity of their membranes, some li-ht would be thrown on this ano-" ' 


^^^ 1 was disappointed : the integuments of an ovule half advanced to matui'it.v ^ 
similar m shape to those of the ripe seed, the outer coating is even more to and tn^ 
inner body can be moved within it with even more facilitv, appearing to be qiute ^ree, 
^ second integument, now more transparent, is expanded in a similar mannei 

els can ^ 

ft or 

,]! t , ""'^'' " I'°^'-<'A1 microscope no trace of any nourishing vessels c, 

clXa ""' ''°^' '''"' "' "''""■ •'^t'-c^itj' to denote the presence of either micropj- 

sco'lir"'''',''" "" °^^''y ""^ *''<^ PW-w-l °f «'e maturity of tlie flower, its Tcry nuBe*; 
obitorm ovules are soeu divaricately suspended from, and densely imbricated upoB, ■ 



thr^ ncrTG-like lines of parietal placentation : tlie ovule at this stage mucli resembles 
the seed in shape, but is without any constriction ; the outer delicate lax integument, 

atcd and attenuated at each, extremity, shows in its middle an oblong T)ody of 
denser texture, as before mentioned : the only cir-cumstance worthy of note is, however, 
of some value, as we here ascertain the position of the hilar point of suspeusiun, wliic 
Uat the iij)per extremity; and from this we learn its relation to the direction of the 
embryo, which is not to be detected in the ripe seed taken from a capsule after 

The foregoing details naturally suggest the inquiry, What is the nature of these 
seminal envelopes, Avhich, in an anatropous seed, exhibit neither a raphe nor a chalaza ? 
I am aware that many botanists will regard this question as too trivial in its nature 
to merit discussion, and wall consider the condition of the seminal tunics of no import- 
ance in a practical point of view, because it affords them little assistance in determining 


the genus or species to which any plant may belong. On the other hand, any condition 
of the seminal tunics at variance with the ordinary rule of development becomes a matter 

F ' 

of extreme interest to those w^ho have made physiological botany their study; they will, 
of course, endeavour to ascertain the canse of the want of the usual organic connexion 

between the two integuments above mentioned, as well as of the total absence of those 
nourishing vessels, which ordinarily extend from the placenta to the chalazal base of the 
seminal coatings, and w^hich w^e have been tauii^ht to believe "are essentially necessary to 

the development and gro^vth of seeds. 

There can be no doubt of the facts above stated ; and it is of some importance to know 
that it is not a solitary instance, for I find the same circumstances repeated under still 
more manifest conditions in other genera of the same family. In J3 a donla, for example, 


the seed is very different in form and appearance ; it is orbicular, extremely compressed, 
^tli a central opake disk, surroimded by a delicately reticulated translucid wing, from 
a pomt on the margin of which it is attached to the placenta in a horizontal position. 
% introducing the point of a knife into the margin of this wing, and carrying it round 
rts circumference, it becomes divided into two platter-shaped halves, thus showing the 
;^S to be a portion of an entire, flattened, integumental sac, enclosing an opake body 
«^ the hollow of the discoidal central space, where it rests without the appearance of any 
a;tachment whatever between it and the sac ; there is only a deposit of loose cellular 
^i^sue between them, in the form of opake-white i>-ranules. When viewed under a 
'^^ci'oscope, this delicate outer integnment appears uniformly and finely reticulated ; 
^^sel of any kind, no cicatrix, no trace of either raphe or chalaza, no indication of any 
'^^.^nic connexion between it and its enclosed disk can be detected: the central disk- 
yf^ body is formed of an extremely thin mass of albumen, covered by a colourless pel- 
^^'^r membrane, too delicate to be detached in an entire state ; and though both are very 
^^arent, they show no trace of vessels of any kind; were they present, they could 
J fed to be detected in membranes of such great tenuity. The albumen contams an 
'^o^o, with a terete radicle pointing to the remote placentary point of attachment on 
J ^argiu of the seed ; the cotyledons are flat and orbicular, their diameter being equal 
'''' length, and twice the thickness, of the radicle. We may contrast this structure 



with tliat seen in Eccroniocarpus and otlier Bignoniaceous genera, where the seed lias 
opakc disk, surrounded by a broad annular membranaceous wing, as in Barfonln^ tliere 
a manirost Iiilar point is seen on the edge of the disk, not on the wing, and a distinct 
linear rajjhc extends across it, from that hilar point, till it reaches the opposite ed»e of 
the disk, at the ehalazal point where the two integuments adhere together. It is quite 
different in Hartoniciy where, owing to the absence of a raphe and chalaza, the inner 
integument floats in the centre of the outer membranaceous sac, without any visible 
point of attachment between them ; in this case, the great transparency of the two inte- 
gimients renders a mistake impossible. 

A third instance of the same anomalous structure is found in BlumenhacUa, where 
the outer coating of the seed is a cancellated lax integument resembling that of Grqndea ; 
it is three times the length and twice the breadth of an inner oval body which is very 
dark and opake, and which floats in the centre of the large vacant space, without the 
smallest apparent organic connexion between it and the outer cancellated tunic: tliis 
inner body has a thin covering of white cellular tissue of papery consistence, though so 
lax as to be easily wiped oif by a slight friction ; beneath it, is a firmer, brown, hut deli- 
cate integument, with a rugous surface, having a small depression with a minute papilla 
at its apex, and a scarcely perceptible mamillary projection at its base, without any 
scar or thickening of the integument ; nor is there the slightest vestige of a raphe, which 
would certainly be seen if it were present, for this coating, when removed, is transparent 
and, as well as the others, regularly reticulated ; this third integument tightly invests a 
fleshy albumen, which shows the same apical depression and almost imperceptible basal 
protuberance as in the investing tunic ; it encloses an embryo with a superior terete 
radicle, and oblong flattish cotyledons equal to it in length and somewhat broader 
than it. 

^ The seed of Caiopliora, which has not hitherto been correctly described, presents a 
similar phenomenon; its outer tunic is long and cylindrical, but, unlike the former 
instances, it closely invests the inner integument j it is provided at its apex with a per- 
sistent black polished process, and is singularly furnished from top to bottom with about 
twelve broad, equal, longitudinal, radiating wings, whose breadth equals the diameter of 
the tunic ; the cyKndrical portion is transparent and regularly reticulated, but the wings 
are marked along their margin and at equal distances by simple transverse bars, T^•hich 
make as many rectangular areolar s^iaces, filled by a hyaline delicate membrane faintly 
striated by oblique and nearly parallel veins ; the wall of the cyHnclrical portion, though 
qnitc transparent, shows no indication of a raphe. The second tunic is opakely white, 
as m Blumenhachia, and is in like manner formed of rather lax cellular tissue; it i^ 
free from the outer coating, as weU as from the third integument, except at its apes, 
Where it adheres by a point to the apical black strophiolar process before mentioned ; it 
Closely mvests the third delicate reticulated brown coating, which resembles that of 
Blumcnbachia, and has a minute black speck at its summit and base ; but there is no 
81^ oi any nourishing vessels upon any of the three integuments. The embryo, hnbedded 
m tue axis of fleshy albumen, is long, narrow, perfectly terete, with a superior radicle 
some^^Uat longer than its cotyledons, which are equal to it in thickness. 


In Scypliantlius, the striicture of the seed is similar to that of Loqsa, that is to say, it 
is anatropous, of an oval shape, with a short terminal strophiolar expansion ; it is opake 
and deeply pitted or foyeolated ; and when this outer tunic is removed, the ridges which 
separate the external pits just mentioned are found to consist of cancellated bars, with 
inten-ening pellicalar spaces, analogous to the outer integument of Grijoideai but, as in. 
all the previous cases, there is no visible raphe, nor any appearance of a chalaza, either 
upon it or on the delicate integument which invests the albumen. 

In Jlaphisanthe the seed is of an oval form, rendered trigonous by three narrow longi- 
tudmal ridges ; the outer integument, as in some species of Loasa^ is very thick, with a 
minutely buUated surface, being rigid and brittle, formed of numerous corneous cells, and 
easily softened in boiling water ; it has a strophiolar projection in its apex : the inner 
capacity of this thick tunic has twice the length and nearly double the breadth of the 
inner body seen within it ; this inner body is of an oblong shape, and consists of the 
albumen, covered by a pellicular and finely reticulated integument, with a black apical 
micropylar point, by which it is attached to the strophiolar process, so that it is thus 
suspended in the summit of the vacant space ; and it has another minute dark speck at 
Its lower extremity, which is far removed from the bottom of the cell of the outer integu- 
ment—a fact of considerable importance in this inquiry ; it is covered by an extremely 
pellicular white intermediate envelope, as in the preceding genera, but which in this 

instance, rather adheres to the outer tunic ; this envelope, from its great tenuity, might 

% escape observation. It is worthy of remark, that there is no appearance of a raphe 
in any of these integuments. This genus has a spiral cylindrical capsule, much resem- 
bling that of Qripidea ; but its placentation is nearly that of CaiopJjora, that is to say. 
It has two lamellar seminiferous plates upon each of the three spiral lines of placentation, 
which nearly reach the centre of the cell. This genus differs from Gripidea in the from 
its petals, ui the number of its stamens, its placentation, and in the struct lu^e of its 


^^ Ancyrosffmma and Mentzelia the seeds are oval; in the former, suspended by a 

^ strophiolar process, which looks like a transparent membranaceous funicle ; their 

°^ r^eoatmg, as in Gripidea, is foveolatcd and divided by prominent bars into elongated 

^^agonoidal areoles, the interspaces being formed of very reticulated membrane ; this 

iDg, as m Scyphanthus , closely invests an extremely delicate inner integument, ^^"ith 

^J smaller square reticulations, which give it the appearance of being transversely 

^ ed, but there is no vestige of any tracheal vessels in either of these translucent 

apex ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^' ^^iQ\i is perfectly white, there is a smaU black spot at the 

^xT\ ^^^ ^* ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ minute as to be scarcely visible. In both genera, the 

W shaped as in Scyphanthus, is imbedded in the axis of the albumen. 

^"hasnlu ^"^^''^"^^'^'^ ^^^ proposed by Lilja, in 1841 (Linueea, xr. 263), upon the Loasa lateritia. Hooker; 
**PP«rs to ^^° ^'^^"'^^'I'^t'ged by botanists. Klotzsch was evidently \>Tong in making it identical with Cawjjhora; 
•l^ii forn, ^^ ^ ^^^^^ Senus. I have examined another plant, which corresponds in structure with the type, and 
2. i2°^;;;;;«°^ species, viz.- 

^ <Je mZT!^^ ^'^"^"""'^ :— Loasa Ochagavise, Phiiippi (Linn^a, xxviii. 6.41). Chile, r. s. in herb, meo, Cordil- 




I have been precise in tlie description of tlie seeds in all the foregoing genera, because 
of the uniformity in the want of a raphe in their seminal integuments, which is a feature 
of too remarkable a character to be passed oyer without special inquiry. By analogy, it 
must be presumed that at an early stage in the grow^th of the ovule, which in the Loasaccis 
is certainly anatropous, some means must have existed for conveying the nutriment from 
the placenta to the base of the ovule, and for effecting, through the chalaza, the secretion 
of the amniotic fluid ; for Mr. Eobert Brown, the highest of all authorities on this 
subject, has shown* that the function of the chalaza is not only to assist in tlie nu- 
trition of the proper membranes of the seed, hut for the higher purpose of secreting 
the amnios, the albumen being that portion of this fluid which remains after all tlie 
rest has been absorbed in the development of the embryo. He, as well as Mirbel, \\iio 
followed in the same path, showed that in an atropous ovule there is no need of a raphe; 
but where the ovules are more or less anatropous (or, as they have been improperiy 
termed, inverted f), the raphe becomes the essential channel for conveying mitrition 
from the placenta to the chalaza, and that it uniformly belongs to the outer integu- 
ment I ; hence it followed as a rule, that any external coating of an anatropous seed, void 
of a raphe, must he of extraneous origin, derived generally from a growth of the placenta, 
or more rarely from an expansion of a caruncular swelling of the foramen of the outer 
proper integument, and is therefore in its nature arilloid. The enunciation of these facts 
as a general law, together with the disclosure of the circumstances under which the em- 
bryo-sac is evolved and fertilized, were rightly regarded as the most brilliant accession to 
our knowledge in modern times, and justly obtained for their great discoverer the high 
distinction of " Eotanicoruui Princeps." 

Taking these facts into consideration, w^e must either suppose that in the original 
integmnents of the ovule in the Zoasacece a raphe once existed, which by some process 
of absorption has disappeared, or we must imagine that the evolution and growth of the 
ovule must be effected by some other functional contrivance, yet unknown, diffgreu 
from the ordinary laws of development. There is little in the appearance of the integu- 
ments to support the former supposition ; for if we imagine the vascular cord to have 
disappeared, we certainly ought to perceive the vestiges of its course in the irregu- 
larity of the areoles in the reticulation of the outer coating, but no such irregularities 
can be discerned. Under the second supposition, I confess my inability to form a^y 
satisfactory conjecture ; the only one that occurs to me is the possibility that, by some 
Idnd of capiUary action, the proper nutriment may be conveyed through the ceUs ol ^^ 
lax and scarcely aggregated tissue of the intermediate pellicular coating; but this ivo 
apply only to CaiojjJipra, Blimenhachia, and a few others, but not to Gripidea, ^v 
the structure of the intermediate integument is very different. On the other hanU,^^ 
might be imagined that the lax intermediate coating is the vestige of the o^i^^^'^^^j 
tunic of the ovule, which has withered and become absorbed, while the outer sem^i 
integument may have originated from an expansion of the foramen or of the place 


^nn. Trans, x. 35 

" " ^" t^e Development of the Yegetalle Ovule, called Anktronous," Ann. Nat. Hist. 3rd scries, iv. 

^ . ContrJl' 


Bot. i. 200. 

+ Gen. Rem. p. 5o. 



in whicli case it ^yould be an arilloid, certainly not an arillus, which is always an cma- 
nation from the chalaza : this view might be suj)ported by the fact of the suspension of 
the inner body of the seed in BapMsanlhey and its attachment at tlie suminit within 
the much larger capacity of the outer integument; but this supposition is again con- 
tradicted by the structure of the seed of Bartonia, where the inner body has no such 
organic connexion, either at the apical point of suspension or at the opposite extremity. 
Indeed, the whole seminal structure of the Loasacece offers an enigma whieh can only 
be solved by careful observations upon the living plants, by watching the succesisive 
growth of the ovules from their earliest stages, and tracing the channel through which 
nutrition is conveyed from the placenta for the secretion of the amniotic fluid, the growth 
of the albumen, and the perfection of the embryo. 

It may here be noticed, that Brown observed a similar anomaly in the integument of 
the seed in OrcUdacem ; he showed (Linn. Trans, vol. xvi. 710) that it is entirely without 
vessels, and that the funicle at its origin is never vascular, being inserted in the ripe 
seed upon the outer integument, close to one side of its open foramen, and can hardly 
be traced beyond that point. It is singular that this great botanist should have al- 
lowed this anomaly to pass Avithont pursuing it further; but he probably abstained from 
this, under the idea he once evidently entertained, that this outer tunic is an arillus 
(irodr. 310). It is true that he afterw^ards traced the growth of this tunic from its 
earhest pullulation, and observed its gradual and anatropous expansion (Linn. Trans, vol. 
sn. 710) ; he there described this tunic under the name of testa, and we may perhaps 
ascribe lus reticence concerning the cause of so unusual an occurrence in the outer tunic, to 
his mability to discover the structure of the opake nucleus contained within it, the nature 
01 ^nich, owing to its minute size, has not yet been determined. Subsequently Prof, 
iienn-ey (Linn. Trans, vol. xxi. plate 2) figured the gradual anatropous growth of the ovule 
^ Orcjiis up to the period of its fertilization, and he there shows the absence of tracheal 
vessels in the funiele, as well as in both coats cf the ovule. I have noticed that in the 
o^ary and capsule of Orchids there is an abundant supply of nourishing vessels, but they 

entu:ely confined within the lines of placentation. I have also shown a very similar 
**>^cture of the seeds in Burmanniacecd (Linn. Trans, vol. xvii. plate 38, fig. 4, and in 
^ol- XX. plate 15, figs. 17 & 18). 

all the foregoing descriptions, the use of the terms usually given to the seminal in- 
egments has been avoided, because, in these instances, they do not exhibit the features 
^ ich are universally regarded as necessary to the condition of testa and tegmen. 



^ I'eference to what has hitherto been chronicled concerning the Loasacece, it may 
j"*; ^e^fii^ked, that numerous species of Loqsa and its congeners have been described 
^ botanists, but no one appears to have directed his attention to the peculiar organiza- 
^^n of the integumental covering? of their seeds; at least I can nowhere find any distinct 





sioa either to the existence or absence of a raphe or chalaza in the seeds of that 

the universal silence on that point tends to confirm what I have stated. In 
^^ systematic works of DeCandollc, Endlicher, Lindley, and others, it is merely said 
bih!m^^ ^^^^es and seeds are anatropous, with the radicle in proximity to a vertical 

frof. Agardh is the only botanist who has made particular reference to this 





subject; but bis conclusions are ambiguous, and may be questioned with mucli reason. 
lie a"T<'("s with others in regard to tlieir anatropous development ; at least, be says* ILt 

the onilcs of Loasa, Caiophorcty and Blmnenhachia are pendulous and " epitropous " (a 
term employed by him to denote an ordinary anatropous ovule with a ventral raphe, m 
contradistinction to his term "apotropous" where, as in Ilex, the pendulous ovule h- 

a dorsal raphe t) ; be states, in addition, that in Microsperma {Eticnide) and m Bar- 
ton la the ovules are heterotropous, a term now seldom used, but which implies that tlie 
hihitn, or point of its attachment, is placed midway between the micropyle and cha- 
laza, or, in more ordinary language, amphitropous. This supposition is at variance with 
the drawing of the seed of 3£icrosj)erma, given by Sir "Wm. Hooker in his ' Icones,' 


plate 234. fig. 5 ; Zuccarini also says that the seed in this genus has an orthotropous 
embryo, with flat linear cotyledons in the axis of albumen. Prof. Agardh is equally 
mistaken in regard to the seed of Bartonia, for the structure explained in the foregoing 
details is f[uite opposed to its heterotropous development. In the work just quoted, he 
shows the figure of an ovule of Caiopliora (plate 18. fig. 8), where it is anatropous, "vnth a 
ventral raphe, which latter feature is not mentioned in the text ; he adds anotlier uf 
Lod-^" (fig. 7), which is anatropous, without any indication of a raphe : in the explana- 
tion of these figures, he repeats that the ovule is nearly straight and heterotropous ia 
Microsperma, curved and epitropous in CaioptJwra, adding that it is amphitropous in 
BlumenhacUa, and nearly campylotropous in many species of Loasa. These declara- 
tions must be held doubtful, until they are supported by other authority ; they are 
certainly not consistent with the diagnoses of the several genera of Loasacecs in Endli- 
cher's ' Genera Plantarum,' where in every case the embryo is said to be orthotropous, 
or only slightly curved, and anatropous, which I have found to be true in every mstance 
that has fallen under my notice, and I have shown in the previous details that the seed 
is not amphitropous in Blumenhachia . 

It may also be noticed that^ in 1823, when few species of Loasa were known, Schrader 
divided the genus into two sections :— 1», where the seeds have an ariUus, the radicle 
pointing to the hilum ; 2°, where they have no aril, the hilum being lateral. I li^^^ 
never met with a seed in this family with a lateral hilum ; one instance only occurred to 
me where the radicle was sHghtly curved, but there it still pointed to the hilum, wliicli| 
correspondingly, was removed fi-om the geometrical apex of the seed— a residt ^^-lncll 
attributed to the effect of pressure during growth. 

We may hence infer, as a general rule, the exceptions to which are doubtfuh ^"^^^^ 
the ovules and seeds in the Loasacew are simply anatropous, with integumental cover- 
ings which have no visible raphe, that they are either horizontally attached to the placenta 
or suspended from it, and that the embryo is constantly orthotropous, or very shgW 1 
curved m the axis of albumen, with the radicle turned towards the hnum. 

Havmg shown that Gripidea differs in many essential respects from all other genei^ 
of the famdy, I now proceed to enumerate its characters. 

• Theor, Syst. p. 262. 



• Gripidea, sren. nov. 

Cdu cylindncusj spiraliter strlatus, tubo Infero cum ovarlo connato, limbi laclniis 5^ acutis, aequalibus, 
reflexis, persistentibus. Petala 10^ calyce Inserta; 5 majora ejus laciniis alternaj glbboso-inflaffl^ 
aplce obliqua, et pileolato-cucullataj imo unguiculata; 5 altera multo minora^ laciniis opposita^ gib- 
boso-concava, unguiculata, ad aplcem contracta^ truncata et brevissime triloba, lobis reflexis, dorso 
triseta. Stamina fertilia 25, in phalanges 5 ad ungues petalorum majorutn fasciculata, erecta, sub- 
inclusa; stamina sterilia 10, ante petala minora geminatim affixa : ^/a/?2ew/a fertilium pctalis aequi- 
longa, filiformia^ glabra, imo breviter latiora; sterilium ananthera, subulata, compressa, pilosa; 
wdhrm miniraae, ovatse, 2-locellatae, rimis longitudinalibus dchiscentes. Ovarium subcylin- 
dricum, pro majore parte Inferum, parte supera pulviniforme, 1-loculare^ placentis 3, parietalibus, 
subspiraliter longitudinalibus, ovula plurima creberrime imbricata et subdivaricatim suspcnsa 
gerentlbus. Stylus simplex, pilosus. Stigma trifidum, laciniis longiusculls, acutis, erecto-conni- 
ventibus, margine fimbriato-laceratis. Capsula membranaceo-testacea, elongata, cylindrica, imo 
paulo attenuata, caljcis laciniis reflexis coronata, apice pulvine styloque apiculata, hinc demum 
operculatim 3-fissa, nervis plurimis eleganter striata, 1-locularis, 3-valvis, valvis circa coronam caly- 
cinam etiamque ad basin arete cohaerentibus et lateraliter apud suturas modo torsili hiantibus. 
Semina numerosissima, parva, circa margines valvarum ad placentas 3 toruloso-flagelliformes demum 
solutas creberrime suspensa; integumentum externum elongatum, crumenatum, laxissimum, fortiter 
reticulato-cancellatum; tunica intermedia multo minor, soluta, et in centro natans, crassa, foveolato- 
reticulata, obscura, extremitatibus laxis in pellicula tenuissima evanescentibus; integumentum in- 
/erwww simplex, tenuissimum, reticulatum, albumen arete vestiens; albumen ovale, carnosum ; em- 
hyo inclusus, paulo brevior, cylindrico-oblongus, radicula supera, crassiuscula, cotyledonibus ejus- 
dem diametro paulo brevioribus. — Herb^ Brasilienses scandenteSy scabrido-jnlos^ ; folia opposita, ex- 
ftipulata, suborbicularia, inciso-hhata, cordata, imo S-nervia, longe petiolata ; paniculae axillares et 
terminales, bast nudce, tandem dichotomy j flores S(jepius solitarii, pedicellati, in sinibus dichotomiarum 
orti, imo bracteis foUosis donati ; petala majora^ viridi-aurantiaca, minora rubescentia. 

1- Gripidea_scabra, nob.; herbacea, ramis succulento-fistulosis, striatis, ruguloso- 
verruculosis, petiolisque retrorsim rigide pilosis ; foHis latis, inaequaliter 5-lobis, imo 
profunde auriciilato-cordatis, lobis acutis, subsinuatis, eroso-denticulatis, e basi 
5-nerviis, utrinque scabridis et vix adpresse pilosis, supra viridibus, subnitentibus, 
subtus pallidioribus, opacis, petiolo limbo ^quilongo, subito deflexo; paniculis op- 
Positis, patentibus, pedunculo nudo, folium ^quante, apice dichotome ramoso, ramis 



^^ bracteatis, bracteis gradatim minoribus, foliaceis, subsessiUbus, dent 

floribus in dicbotomiis solitariis, pedicellatis. In Brasilia meridionali 

^«^c. Jieg. Rort Corvo, inter Coritiba et sinum Paranagua, in prov. San Paulo 



no. 465) 

^ere is little to add to the above description, and tbe accompanying drawing of the 
^t- The larger petals are greenish on the summit and back, and of a bright orange 
2^ along the broad compressed margins ; the smaller petals, considered by many as 
»^anal processes, are of a pale reddish colour ; all the filaments are white, the fertile 

the anthers are very 

^^ are nearly the length of the petals, and very slender 
' ^ P^le yellow colour, and dorsally affixed upon a fleshy 

^' I'^^^E^^SPEEATA, nob. : Mentzelia aspera, Veil, (non Linn.) PI. Plum p. 224 


tab. 96 ;-herbacea, subprocumbens, ramis suceulentis, pilosis; foliis 





altcrnis, cordato-orbicularibus, acutis, lobato-incisi.s, lobis 5-7 subsequalibus aequi- 
longis acutiusculis serrulato-dentatis, e basi 5-7-nemis, utrinque asperato- 
hirtis, petiolo limbo subreqiiilongo ; inflorescentia e ramulo novello aut axillari vel 
tenninali, pedunculo bifloro, imo 2-bracteato ; bracteis oppositis, sessilibus, ovatisj 
acutis, deuticulatis ; iioribus breviter pedicellatis ; sepalis parvis, denticulatis ; stami- 
ml)us 5 in qiioque petalo majore absconditis; petalis minoribus multo abbreviatis; 
capsula elongata, turbinato-cylindrica, xigide pilosa, valvis 3 spiralibus, seminibus 
plurimis rainutis. In Brasilia. 

I have no knoTrledge of this species beyond the short description of Velloz and Ms 
drawing of the plant, as above quoted : it evidently belongs to this genus, agreeing in 
the structure of the flower, in the number of its stamens, and in the form of its cap- 
sule. The leaves are 2-2^ inches long, 2-2| inches broad, with a basal sinus 3 lines 
deep, the petiole measuring lf-2 inches ; the peduncle is 1 inch long, the sessile bracts 
6 hnes long and 5 lines broad, the pedicel about 3 lines long; the sepals 1 line bug; 
the larger petals 6 or 6 lines long, the shorter ones 1 or 2 lines in length ; the spiral 
capsule is If inch long, and 4 lines in diameter ; it is unilocular, with numerous seeds 
attached to three helically longitudinal and parietal placentae. 

I may here mention that the Mentzelia urens of Velloz {loc. supra citat. tab. 97) is the 
Zociscf j)cirmJlora of Schreber, and his Loasa urens {loc. cit. tab. 98) is the Blumenhachla 
latlfolia of St.-Hilaire. 



Fig. 2. One of the larger petals and a fascicle of five fertile stamens. 

Fig. 3. One of the smaller petals shown in three different positions, each with three dorsal setse and t«o 

sterile stamens : all of the natural size. 

Fig. 4. The ovary surmounted by the calyx, pulvinate cap, style and stigma : magnified. 

Fig. 5. The same cut open, showing the three spiral hnes of parietal placentation with numerous sus- 
pended ovules : magnified. 

Fig. 6. One of the ovules: highly magnified. 


.^iiiu,. liiucii iiia'j 

Fig. 8. A capsule, showing its mode of dehiscence : of the natural size. 

Fig. 9. One the spiral placenteB : of the natural size. 

Fig. 10. The same : magnified. 

Fig. 11. A seed : of the natural size. 

Fig. 12. The same: macnified. 

Fig. 13. The same, with half of the outer integument removed, showing the position of the re 

termediate tunic and its enclosed nucleus. 
Fig. 14. The same tunic and nucleus removed. 

Fig. 15. The inner integument covering the albumen enclosed in the former. 
*ig. 10. A longitudinal section of the albumen with the embryo imbedded in it. 
*'g. 17. The embryo extracted :-all magnified on the same scale. 


I R.M\ S L INN . So C . Vor ,.1AV^. 1 r- 



-*- > 

./_> / irf ///^t^ ^ 


- i- 

G. ^.jcti'j 

1 V- ^ 



Tig. 1^. A seed of Barfonia sinuata, PresI, of the natural size. 

Rg. 19. The samcj magnified; 

Fig. ?U. The same, seen edgeways ; 

Fi^. 21. The outer integumental sac, cut open, with the nucleus removed ; 

Fig. 1-2. The nucleus, consisting of an inner integument covering the albumen ; 

Fig. 2.3. The same, seen edgeways ; 

Fig. 24. The inner integument removed and cut open ; 

Fig. 25. The albumen containing the embryo ; 

Fig. 26. The embryo extracted. All magnified on the same scale. 

Fig. 27. A seed of Blumenbachia insiynis, Schrad., of the natural size. 
Fig. 28. The same, magnified ; 

Fig. 29. The outer integument cut open and removed ; 

Fig. 30. The intermediate integument ; 

Fig. 31. The Inner integument enclosing the albumen ; 

Fig. 32. A longitudinal section of the albumen, with the embryo Imbedded in it ; 

%■ i^. The embryo extracted. All magnified on the same scale. 


% 35. The same, magnified ; 
ig- 36. A transverse section of the same, showing the position of its wings ; 

^' 37. A longitudinal section of the same, showing the size and marking of two of the wings, the 

apical strophiole, and the enclosed nucleus suspended from it. All magnified on the same 

^y ^"i j-» I ,« * 


■S- 8. A portion of one of the wings, showing the rectangular areoles filled with a delicate reticulated 

membrane more highly mao-nified : 
^' ' ^"^ '""er mtegument covering the albumen ; 
^' '^^' '^ longitudinal section of the albumen, in which the embryo is imbedded ; 

■g- -^l- Ihe embryo extracted. All (except fig. 38) magnified on the same scale. 

Tie 4^ T ^^ ^"P^isanthe Ochac/avice, nob., of the natural size. 
^l ■ ^ '^^ same, magnified. 
«=■ ^- A longitudinal section of the same, showing the nucleus suspended from the summit, within the 

^uch larger space of the thick outer integument, and therefore free from it at tlie base : also 


rr ■- 


gwiucu. . 

^' The albumen Invested by the inner integument, showing the black apical point 
Js suspended, and the small dark speck on its base : more magnified. 

from which it 

^'Oi. Siv. 




YII. Supplementary Observations on Me SpliEeriae of the Hoolcerian Ucrha) 

By Frederick Cueeey, M,A,, F.B.S.y Sec. L.S, 

Read June loth, 1865. 

Tee present paper is intended as a supplement to two previous communications on 
tke same subject, publislied in the 22nd volume (pp. 257, 313) of the Society's Trans- 
ictions; audits object is to point out which of the species there figured have been 
teeribed from authentic specimens, and, with regard to the non-authentic specimens, 
to state by whom the plants have been named. As this paper was on the point of going 
to the press, Sir William Hooker's long and distinguished career was brought to a 
close ; and I must therefore express to Dr. Hooker alone my gratitude for the liberahty 
ttd kindness shown to me by his lamented father and himself in affording mc every 
opportunity for a careful reexamination of their valuable collection. I wish also to offer 

my thanks to Mr. Berkeley for his obliging assistance in determining the handwntmg 
« several of the specimens. 

It ^ill be seen upon examination of the following particulars, that the Herbarium 
«Bitains a large number of authentic specimens, besides many which, without being 
»l»wlutely authentic, are almost, if not quite as valuable, from having been identified by 
W«8, and pubhshed by him in the * Scleromycetes Suecise,' or described in the * Systema 
Jycologicum.' The other specimens have for the most part been named by Sk AYilliam 
''"er,:\Ir. Berkeley, Dr. Greville, or Dr. Klotzsch, botanists whose opinions will be 
*«^ted with confidence by all mycologists. 

Ill the ' Botanische Zeitung' for 1864, p. 189, Fries has published some "Adnotata" 
•some of the species described in my previous papers, which it wHl be useful to notice 
*• I proceed.* 

^bave adopted the usual plan of placing the mark (!) against the names of those 
P'sts of wHch the Herbarium contains authentic specimens. 



^ 8. (Coa 


GriiXNii, Berk 

8- (CoEDYCEPg) MiLiTAEis, L. Collected by Carmichael, and named by Klotzsch. 

«e can be no doubt about this species. 
\( W,u) Hi^LORMis, Berk. ! Mr. Berkeley considers this plant ^^^^^^^^ 

^'-eon Cord,ceps and Poronia. Fries (Summa Veg. Sc. p. 382 and ^ov^ Sjmb 
;j'; P- 113) speaks of it as a Poronia. Tulasne (Sel. Fung. Carp.yol. u._p. 29J 
y^ it may form the type of a separate genus, and notices some points ot 


^ce to Xylana mdunciilata. Dicks 



* Adnotata ad eel. Fr. Currey Dissertationem : Synopsis, « • 





4. S. (Xyiaeia) PEDr^^cULATA, Dicks. A British specimen named by Berkeley 


British specimens named by Berkeley 

6. S. (CoRDYCEPs) OPHIOGLOSSOIDES, Ehrh. Specimens named by Mougeot and Klotzsch. 


7. S. (XtLARIA) INVOLUTA, Kl. ! 

8. S. (XrLAEiA) GriANENSis, Mont. ! (Syll. p. 202). 

9. S. (CoRDYCEPs) CAPiTATA, Holmsk. ; Er. S. M. vol. ii. p. 324. Specimens named by 


10. S. (Hypoxylon) Ccenoptjs, Mont.'l Pries (Adnotata) remarks, "Eons : Er. in Linn. 

p. 542, inter Hypoxyla nee ad Xyl 


11. S. (Xylaeia) polymorpha, Pers. ; Er. S. M. vol. xi. p. 326. British specimens named 

by Berkeley. The measurement of the sporidia given in my former paper is wrong ; 
it should have been 0-0008 to 0'0009 inch. 

12. S. (Hypoxylon or Poronia) Heliscus, Mont. ! (Syll. p. 209.) 

13. S. (Hypoxylon) rhopaloides, Mont. ! 

14. S. (Hypoxylox) crenulata, Berk. ! Decades, no. 484. This seems a true Hy- 
poxylon; but the fructification is very unusual, for in that genus the sporidia are 

15. S. (Xylaria) digitata, Pers.; Er. S. M. vol. ii. p. 326. Specimens named by 


16. S. (Xylaria) Hypoxylon, L. ; Er. S. M. vol. ii. p. 327. There are many specimens of 

this in the Herbarium. It is a species as to which there can be no doubt. 

17. S. (Xylaria) microceras, Mont. ! 

18. S. (Xylaria) multiplex, Kunze. Named by Klotzsch. 

19. S. (Xylaria) corniformis, Mont. ! Eries (Adnotata) remarks, " Eons : Er. Elench. 

11. p. 37, Summ. Veg. Scand. Montagnei forma, ad banc relata, videtur species 

20. S. (Xylarly) ianthino-velutina, Mont. ! (Syll. p. 204). 

21. S. (Xylaria) carpophila, Pers. ; Er. S. M. vol. ii. p. 328. Described, I thint, 

from a specimen given me by Mr. Berkeley. The one in the Herbarium has no fruit. 

22. S. (Cordyceps) alutacea, Pers. CoUected by Mr. Broome at Rudloe in Wiltsliire, 

and named by Mr. Berkeley. Eries (Adnotata) remarks, " In Summ. Veg. Sc 
banc speciem inter Cordicipites et Hypocreas intermediam esse monui; iUar^^n 
receptaculum, forma, vegetatio, harum asci et spor^e. NonnuUas examinans exotioas 
Fracidias (S. V. Sc. p. 382) qu* genus a Xylariis omnino autonomon sistunt, ciUQ 
his plane convenire observavi ; differt modo colore laitiore, ut Cordicejjs mm''^ 
ab ophioglossoide. Eracidiae plures oeque moUes et fragiles ac F. alutacea." 

23. S. (Hypoxylon) Sagr^ana, Mont. This is a Cuba specimen from Kunze, but 

have compared it with an authentic specimen from Dr. Montague. 

24. S. (Cordyceps) purpurea, Er. 



25. S. (CoRDYCEPS) MiCEOCEPHALA, Tul. I havG described this and the last plant from my 


own specimens. The species cannot he mistaken. 

26. S. (CoRDYCEPs) E;OBERTSiij Hook. ! 


26 a. S. (Cordyceps)typhina, Pers.; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 553. Described from my own spe- 
cimens. It is a well-known species. Pries (Adnotata) remarks, " Valde laetamur 
eel. Auctorem hujus nexum cum Cordicipitibus confirmasse. In statu vigente 
semi^er, verticalis, et asci et sporse omnino C. militaris. ! " 

Div. 2. PoRONiA. 
27. S. (Poronia) punctata, Sow. Swan Eiver specimens named by Berkeley 


Div. "3. PULYINAT^. 



28. S. (Hypoxylon) multiformis, Pr. S. M. ii. p. 334 ! Scleromycetes Suecia3, n. 44. 

29. S. (Hypoxylox) durissima, Schweinitz. Klotzsch has marked this " S. durissima, 
Sz.-/' but it is marked S. annulata, by Schweinitz himself. The species only differs 
from S. multiformis, Pr., in the annulato-marginate disk at the apex of the perithccia, 
and it may be doubted whether this is a sufficient specific distinction. The cha- 
racter cannot be seen without a lens. 

30. S. (Hypoxylon) fragiformis, Pers. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 332. Prom the Scleromycetes 
Sueciae, nos. 41 b. and 41. 

31. S. (Hypoxylon) annulata, Mont. (/3. depressa), Mont. ! (Sylloge, p. 213). Pries 
(Adnotata) remarks, " Pons est Pr. Elench. ii. p. 64, c. var. ; cfr. Nov. Symb. Myc." 

32. S. (Hypoxyeon) concentrica. Bolt. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 331. Named by Klotzsch. 

33. S. (Hypocrea) gelatinosa, Tode ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 336. This is the fructification in 
a specimen from Tunbridge Wells in my own herbarium, and in one from Massa- 
chusetts given me by Mr. Bloxam. All the Kew plants are barren. 

34. S. (Hypoxylon) vernicosa, Schwein. Named by Berkeley. 

35. S. (Hypoxylon) argillacea, Pr. Obs. i. t. 2. f. 5. Named by Berkeley. 

36. S. (Hypocrea) rufa, Pers. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 335. Named by Klotzsch. The plants 
look black to the naked eye, but under a lens the red tinge of the fresh condition 
is quite perceptible. 

37. 8. pruinata, K1. Linn. vol. viii. p. 489. Marked ">S'. farinosa, n. sp." by Klotzsch. 
Quaere if identical with S. pruinata, KL ? 

38- S. (Hypoxylon) fusca, Pers. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 332. Prom the Scleromycetes Sueciae, 
Ko. 42. 

^9. 8. (Hypoxylon ?) parmularia. Berk. ; from the Pungi PFcnoei. The plant 

niarked Spharia parmularia by Mr. Berkeley is certainly an Hypoxylon, and, I thmk, 

liot distinct from S. coli<Erens, P. ; but there seems to have been some mistake ; I 

siispect that the label of this plant belongs to no. 167 post, and vice versd. 

2 31 2 



S. (IIypoxylon) "coh^uens, Pers. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 335. Prom the Scleromycetes 

Suecia3, no. 43. 

S. (Hypoxylon) eubricosa, Pr. El. ii. p. 63. Named by Berkeley. I doubt if this 
plant is riglitly named ; but it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between 5y. 
mxijlon cohwrens, H. multiforme, and H. rubricosum. 

Div. 4. Connate. 

42. S. (Hypoxylon) rubigikosa, Pers. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 340. Prom the Scleromycetes 

Suecise, no. 142. The sporidia are sometimes curved in a side view. 

48. S. (Hypoxylon) atro -purpurea, Tode ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 340. Prom the Scleromy- 
cetes Suecise, no. 75. 

44. S. (Hypoxylon) perforata, Schwein. ! Pr. S. M. ii. p. 340. 

45. S. botryosa, Pr. S. M. ii. p. 342 ! Prom the Scleromycetes Suecise. 

46. S. (Hypocrea) lateritia, Pr. S. M. ii. p. 338. These specimens are from Mr. 

Stephens's herbarium. In Eabenhorst's *Pungi Europsei/ no. 317, the sporidia 
arc the same except that in most tl^e endochrome is bipartite, giving them a um- 
scptate appearance. I see no reason now to think that they become brown m age, 
as suggested in my former paper. 

47. S. (Hypoxylon) serpens, Pers. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 341. Prom the Scleromycetes 

Suecise, no. 47. 

48. S. (Hypocrea) hyalina, Schwein. ! Pr. S. M. ii. p. 339. 

49. S. (Hypoxylon) Sassafras, Schwein. ! Pr. S. M. ii. p. 343. 

50. S. (Hi-pocrea) citrina, Pers. ; Pr. S. M, ii. p. 337. Named by Schweinitz. 

51. S. (Hypocrea) lobata. Named by Schweinitz. Pries (Adnotata) remarks, ''¥' 

s. Eyimcrea lobata, Schwz. ; minime vero Wormskj. et Pr. S. M. Est Eyp^^^'^ 
Schweinitzii, Pr. El. ii. p. 60, c. synon. supra citato." 

52. S. (Hypocrea) luteo-virens, Pr. S. M. ii. p. 339. Prom a specimen named y 

Mr. Broome. The Kew plants have no fruit. I doubt whether Ei/pocrea lute ■ 
virens, Pr., S. lateritia, Pr., and S. lactifluorum, Schwein., are not aU one species. 

Div. 5. Glebos 


53. S. (Hypoxylon) repanda, Pr. S. M. ii. p. 346 ! Prom the Scleromycetes Sueciff. 

no. 1. 

Si. S. (Hypoxylon) tubulina, A. and S. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 346. Prom the Scleromycetes 

Suecise, no. 341. I think this is a Diatrype, not an Hypoxylon 
55. S. (Hypoxylon) lutea, A. & S. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 347. Pigured from plants 


own herbarium named by Berkeley, but which are certainly the same as /b. ti^ 




56. S. (Hypoxylon) deusta, Hoffm. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 345. From the Sclcromycctes 
Suecise, no. 261. 

67. S. (Hypoxylon) puscospora, Schwcin. ! 

58. S. (Hypoxylon) nummularia, Bull. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 348. Named by Klotzsch. 

59. S. (Hypoxylon) marginata, Pr. El. ii. p. 69. Figured from South Carolina speci- 
mens given me by Mr. Berkeley. It is not, I tliink, distinct from S. annuJala^ suprtl., 
of which it seems to be a small form. 

Div. 6. LiGNos-'E. 

GO. S. (Hypoxylon) uda, Pers. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 358. Figured from plants in my 

own herbarium, which agree externally in every respect with a specimen from the 
Scleromycetes Suecise, no. 324. I could not have dissected the latter without 

• • 


61. S. (Diatrype) discipormis, Hoffm. ; Fr. S. M. ii. p. 353. From the Scleromycetes 
Suecise, no. 71. 

62. S. (Diatrype) flavovirens, Hoffm. ; Fr. S. M. ii. p. 357. From the Scleromycetes 
Suecise, no. 222. 

63. 8. (Diatrype) platystoma, Schwein. ! Fr. S. M. ii. p. 351. Upon reconsideration, 
the points of distinction between this and *S'. stigma, Hoffm., mentioned in my 
former paper are hardly reliable. Fries's specimen of S. stigma has a rimose stroma, 
and the ostiola do not differ substantially from those in the latter species. 

64. S. (Hypoxylon) Vogesiaca, Pers. in litt. Sent by Persoon to Mougeot. 

65. S. (Hypoxylon) virgtjltorum, Fr. ! S. M. ii. p. 351, El. ii. p. 71. 

66. S. (Dlitrype) atro-ptjnctata, Schwein. ! Fr. S. M. ii. p. 351. 

67. S. (Diatrype ?) rhois, Schwein. ! Fr. S. M. ii. p. 356. 

^- S. (Diatrype) Liri'odendri, Schw^ein. ! Fr. S. M. ii. p. 356. 

69. S. (Diatrype) capnodes, Berkeley ! 

70. S. (Hypoxylon) melanaspis, Mont. ! Sylloge, p. 215. 

71. S. (Diatrype) dryophila, Curr. ! 

72. S. (Diatrype) nucleata, Curr. ! 

'3. S. (Diatrype or Yalsa) varians, Curr. ! 
7^- S. (Dl\trype or Valsa) denigrans, Curr. ! 
'5- S. (Diatrype) iNiEQrALis, Curr. ! 

76. S. (Diatrype) Badhami, Curr. I 

77. S. (Diatrype) verruciformis, Ehr. ; Fr. S. M. ii. p. 355. Drawn from specimens in 
my herbarium, which agree externally with a plant from Scleromycetes Sueciac, 
iio. 74, in the Hookerian herbarium. The latter has no ffult. Very different thmgs 
liave been published under the name of S. verruoBfortms. M. Duby teUs me that 



his specimens from the Scleromycetes Suecise, no. 74, have elliptical dark-colouied 
sporidia, and that Desm. Exs. ed. 1, 1272, is the same. 

78. S. (Diatrtpe) favacea, Tr. S. M. ii. p. 354. 

79. S. (Diathype) aspera, Pr. S. M. ii. p. 354. From plants named by myself. I have 

seen no other specimens. 

80. S. (Diateype) stigma, Hoffm. ; Pr. S. M, ii. p. 350. From the Scleromycetes Suecia?, 

no. 46. 

81. S. (Diatrype) btjllata, Ehr. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 349. Erom the Scleromycetes Suecisc, 

no. 46. 

82. S. L'NDULATA, Pers. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 350. Named by Berkeley. 

83". S. (Hypocrea) lexta, Schwein. ! Er. S. M. ii. p. 349. The name " Tode," after tlils 

plant in my former paper is a mistake. >S'. lenta^ Tode, seems distinct from 
S. lenta, Schwein. I do not know the former plant. Eries (Adnotata) remarks, 
" SpJi. s. Hypocrea lenta, Schwz. Non Tode et Er. S. M., quae Diatrypes species. 
Est aS'. Hgens, El. ii. p. 61, nhi banc et prsecedentem inter Hypocreas descripsi, et in 
S. V. Sc. has dnas species expressis verbis ad Hypocreas retuli. NuUus igitur exstat 
inter nos de harum loco systematico dissensus." 

Div. 7. Versatiles. 


84. S. (Diatrype) scabrosa, Dec. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 360. Named by Berkeley, but 

certainly S. pulvis-pyrius, Pers. The size of the frnit is only rather larger than v 


S. (Diatrype) podoides, Pers. Syn. p. 22, excl. syn. Named by Mongeot. Proba 
bly received by him from Persoon, as the next certainly was. 

86. S. PODOIDES, var. l.evis, Pers. ! in litt. to Mongeot. 
S. (Diatrype ?) petigi:nosa, Er. ! in Htt. to Moiigeot 
S. (Diatrype) leprosa, Pers. ! Er. S. M. ii. p. 365. 


89. S. (Diatrype) strtjmella, Er. ! S. M. ii. p. 365. Erom the Scleromycetes Suecis, 

no. 115. The curvature or non-curvature of the sporidia probably depends upon 
the aspect in which they are viewed. 

90. S. (Diatrype) radicalis, Schwein. I Er. El. ii. p. 73. 

91. S. (Diatrype) quercina, Pers. This plant and no. 170 post {Valsa 

probably the same, and quite distinct from S. quercina, Pers., which is c 



allied to, even if it be distinct from, S. verrucceformis, Ehrh. See the suppo 
distinctions pointed out by Tulasne, in Sel. Eung. Carp. vol. ii. p. 99. 

92. S. (Diatrype) lancieormis, Er. ! S. M. ii. p. 362. Erom the Scleromycetes Sueciie, 

no. 73, ^ 

93. S.^ (Diatrype) Hystrix, Tode ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 364. Named by Berkeley, but he ba^ 

since said that the specimen here described, which is an Italian plant from ^ 
JNotans, is not >S'. Hystria;. See Ann. Nat. Hist. May, 1859. 



91. S. (Dl^trype) ceeatospehmAj Tode ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 364-. Named by Berkeley. 
This is a little-known species. M. Dubj has remarked to me concerning it, 
" Species admodum controversa. Tot auctores tot specimina." Tulasnc considers 
tke plant here described to be S. ceratosperma of Mougeot and Nestler, and tliat S, 
ceratosperma of Tode, " fortassis non longe recedat." See Sel. Fung. Carp. vol. ii. 

p. 191. 

95. S. (Diatrtpe) FERRrGiNEA, Pcrs. ; Pr. S. M, ii. p. 363. From the Scleromycctes 
Suecias, no. 305. 

96. S. (Diatrtpe) nigerrima, Bloxam, MS. ! This plant belongs to the Ccuspitosco. 
See Mr. Berkeley's remarks in Ann. Nat. Hist. May, 1859. 

97. S. (Dlitrype) irregularis, Sow. " S. gctstrlua,'' Pr. is in Mr. Berkeley's hand- 

• I « 

<? : but it is doubtful whether the two are identical 

98. S. (Diatrtpe) Mougeotii, Pers. ! in litt. to Mougeot. Pries (Adnotata) remark 
« Sph. s. Diatrype Mougeotii non est Sph. Mougeotii, Pr. El. p. 100, sed meo sensi 
Tar. Sph. Hystricis, El. p. 74.^' 

Div. 8. Concrescentes. 

99. S. FIBROSA, Pers. ; Fr. S. M. ii. p. 384. The specimens at Kew have no fruit. A 
plant in my herbarium, given me by Mr. Berkeley, has the fruit here described. It 
seems to be the same thing as S. extensa, no. 119 post. 

100. S. depressa, Pr. ; Montague, Sylloge, p. 232 ! 

101. S. PARALLELA, Pr. S. M. ii. p. 373 ! Scleromycctes Suecise, no. 3. 

102. S. (Diatrtpe) leioplaca, Pr. ! S. M. ii. p. 370. 

103. S. rniETi, Pers., var. equina. Named by Montague. Pries (Adnotata) remarks, 
" Ex ascis et loco fingimus banc pertinere ad Sj^h. equinam, Pr. apud Mont, et 
S. V. Sc, quse a S2)h. fimeti plane diversa. 

104. S. (Diplodia) Diosptri, Schwein. ! Pr. S. M. ii. p. 372. 

105. S. VELATA, Pers. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 375. Prom the Scleromycctes Sueciae, no. 225. 

106. S. (Diatrtpe) discincola, Schwein. 1 Pr. S. M. ii. p. 368. 

107. S. (Diatrtpe) milliaria ! Pr. S. M. u. p. 370. Prom the Scleromycctes Sueciae, 
no. 113. 

108. S, (Sph^ria) lim^formis, Schweinitz ! Pr. S. M. ii. p. 369. 

109. S. (Sph^ria) spixosa, Pers. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 368. I am uncertain from which 
specimen this was described. There are several in the herbarium, but I could hnd 
110 fruit on reexamination except in one named by Klotzsch, which does not quite 
agree with the description here. Tulasne agrees with Pries in considcrmg S. hmce- 
formis, Schwein., hardly different from ;S'. spinosa, Pers. 

110. S 


111- S. (Diatrtpe) lata, Pers. : Pr. S. M. ii. p. 369. Named by Klotzsch 



112. S. (Srn.'EiiLv) spiculosa, Pers. ; Fr. S. M. ii. p. 369. Named (I think) by Klotzsch. 

113. S. (Valsa) mox.u)elpha, Fr. S. M. ii. p. 382. Named by Berkeley. 

114. S. (DiATiii'PE or Valsa) ^quilinearis, Schwein. ! Er. S. M. ii. p. 374. 

115. S. (Srii^ERiA) DiscuTiEXs, Ecrk. ! Engl. El. p, 245. 

lie. S. STU'ATA, Ciirrey, Phil. Trans. 1857. This is identical with *S'. dissepta, Fr. I 

have since compared it with an anthcntic specimen from the Scleromycetes Suecia), 
and with authentic specimens given me by Dr. Montagne and M. Duby. 

Div. 9. Circumscripta. 

117. S. (Valsa) enteroleuca, Er. S. M. ii. p. 381. Named by myself. I have seen no 

authentic specimens. 

118. S. (Valsa) anomia, Er. S. M. ii. p. 381 ; El. ii. p. 77. Named by Berkeley. It is, 

perhaps, a spha^ropsoid state of >S'. profusa, Er. A plant in the Hookerian Herba- 
rium, marked by Klotzsch >S'. anomia, is S. profusa ; and Tulasne considers the 
two identical. See Sel. Eung. Carp. vol. ii. p. 160. 

110. S. ( V.VLSA) EXTENSA, Er. The only specimens are named by Berkeley. I could find 

no fruit on reexamination ; but my own specimens agree exactly in fruit with this. 

120. S. (Valsa) detrusa, Er. ! S. M. ii. p. 382. Erom the Scleromycetes Sueciae, no. 6. 

I think the endochrome is normally bipartite. 

121. S. (Valsa) Prunastri, Pers. ; Fr. S. M. ii. p. 380. Described from spechnens 

named by Mougeot and Berkeley. 

122. S. (Valsa) Carpini, Pers. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 384. Named by Berkeley. 

123. S. (V.iLSA) SYNGEXESiA, Fr. S. M. ii. p. 382. Named by Berkeley. It is marked 

" S, Franf/ulcsy Pers. in litt.," by Mougeot, which is identified with S. syngenesia 

. by Fries in the ' Elenchus,' vol. ii. p. 78. 

121. S. (Valsa) stellulata, Er. Syst. Myc. ii. p. 380. Erom the Scleromycetes 


125. S. (Diplodia?) jrGLAXDiNA, Schwein. ! Er. S. M. ii. p. 385. This, by a misprint, 

is called S.ji'r/laudlcola in my former paper. 

Div. 10. Ixcusj^. 

S. (Valsa) axgllata, Er. S. II. ii. p. 390. There has been great confusion about 
this plant and S. Meola, Fries has published different things under the name of 
8. o,)gulata. Tliere is a specimen in the Hookerian Herbarium from the Sclero- 
mycetes Suecioe, named S, anrjulata, which has no asci, and elliptical dark-brown 
sporidia 0-0003 inch long. Tulasne, on the other hand, describes (Sel. Fung. Carp, 
vol. ii. p. 101) S. angulata as having fruit like S. verrmceformis. I am quite sa- 
tisfied to abide by the opinion of Messrs. Berkeley and Broome and Tulasne, accord- 
ing to whom this plant is S, taleola, Fr., and no. 128i?os^ is S. leiphcemia, Er. 








127. S. (Y^L^^.) melaspeuma, Pr. ! S. M. ii. p. 389. Prom the Sclerornycetes Sueciic, 
no. 157. 

128. S. (Yalsa) TALEOLAjPr. S.M. ii. p. 390. See remarks under S. angulata, no. 12G supra, 

129. S. (Valsa) fulvo-puuinata, Berk. ! 

130. S. (Valsa) nivea, Hoffm. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 386. Prom the Scleromycetes Suecia), 
no. 76. Tulasne says (S. P. Carp. vol. ii. p. . 183) that he has nerer seen poly- 
sporous asci. In the Kew specimens all the asci are so. 


131. S. (Valsa) foramixI'LA, Pers. ! in litt. to Mougeot. 

b a 

132. S. (Valsa) propusa, Pr. ! S. M. ii. p. 392. Prom the Scleromycetes Suecise. 

133. S. (DiPLODiA ?) EUDis, Pr. ! El. ii. p. 98. Sent by Pries to Mongeot. 

13i S. (Valsa) microstoma, Pers. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 388. Prom the Scleromycetes 

Sueciae, no. 185. 

135. S. (Valsa) dissepta, Pr. ! S. M. ii. p. 392. I originally described this from a spe- 
cimen named by Dr. Montagne ; but I have since found fruit in Pries's own speci- 

n the Hookerian Herbarium, and the plant proves to be identical with my 

8. stir 

136. S. (Valsa) circumscripta, Pr. ! Mont. Syll. p. 220, under " Valsa." Prom Dr 

Montagne' s herbarium. 

13?. S. (Valsa) Kunzei, Pr. S. M. ii. p. 388. Named by Berkeley. 

138. S. (Valsa) coxcamerata, Curr. ! 

139. S. cixcTA, Curr. ! Pries (Adnotata) remarks, " Cfr. homonyma, S. M. ii. p. 387." 
liO- S. (Valsa) Sorbi, Schmidt, Pr. S. M. ii. p. 380. This plant is marked by Mou 

Sphwria acutangula, Pers.," and by Klotzsch " An SpJiaria SorU, Pr 


(Adnotata) remarks, ^^ Spli. s. Valsa SorU sine dubio ad Sph. clrcimscriptas 



^^1- S. (Valsa) sacculus, Scliwein. ! Pr. S. M. ii. p. 378 

^^"' ^' E^TEr.oxANTHA, Berk. ! Decades, no. 110. 

^i^- S- (Valsa) Crat.t^gi, Curr. I The snoridia in this SphcBria are sometimes con- 
stricted hi the centre. 

^^- S. (Valsa) dryina, Curr. 



Div. 11. Obvallat^ 

I' (V^VLSA) coRONATA, Hoffm. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 395. Tulasne says ^^f/^^P^^f 
^'^^ figured hardly differs from S, lelphcemla, Fr. ; and I think he is right See his 
remarks as fn -fi.,-. „„•,._. ^ . -rx_ir.„. ,v « V. Carn. vol. u. p. iJi-j 

lie. s 

■I'ks as to this and as to S. coronata. Hoffm., in S. P. Carj 



LEiPiiyEMLi, Pr. I Syst. Myc. ii. P 


Prom the Scleromycete 


; (^-SA) AMBI..S, Pers. Syn. p. 44; Pr. S. M. ii. P- ^03. Prom the Scleromy 

^0^. XXV. 

Suecise, no. 8 




148. S. (Valsa) turgida, Pers. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 400. Prom the Sclcromycetes Suecia?, 

no. 202, LLiuler tlio name of S. faginea, P. It is called S. turgida in the ' Summa 
Yog. Sc' p. 412, no. 37. 

119. S. (Valsa) stilbostoma, Pr. S.M.ii. p. 403. The specimen at Kew from the Sde- 

romycotes Suecioc has no fruit ; but the figure I have given here is confirmed by 
Tulasnc (Sel. P. Carp. vol. ii. 120). The fruit of the variety Flafanokles (fig. UOa) 
is drawn from no. 186 of the Sclcromycetes Suecise. 

150. S. (Yalsa) querna, Curr. ! 

151. S. (Yalsa) biconica, Curr. ! 

152. S. (Yalsa) rrLcnRA, Curr. ! 


153. S. (Yalsa) sufptjsa, Pr. ! S. M. ii. p. 399. Prom the Sclcromycetes Suecise, no. 229. 

154. S. (Yalsa) Juglandis, Schwein. ! (non Pries). 

155. S. (Yalsa) Abietis, Pr. S. M. ii. p. 398. This plant is probably not distinct from 

S. amhiens, Pers. (See some remarks by Tulasne in ' Sel. Pung. Carp.,' vol. ii. 
p. 190.) 

150. S. (Yalsa) tetraspora, Curr. ! Tulasne (S. P. Carp. vol. ii. p. 176), does not consi- 
der the tetrasporous fructification sufiicient to separate this from Valsa ambiens, Pers. 

157. S. (Yalsa) salicina, Pers. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 401. The fruit here figured is not 

that of S. salicina, Pers., but of S. salicella Pr., as I have ascertained from au- 
thentic specimens. There is an authentic specimen of S. salicina^ Pers., in tlie 
Ilookcrian herbarium, but it is only in a cytisporoid state. S. salicina, Pr., lias 
fruit like that of Valsa ambiens, Pr., from which it is probably not distinct. 

158. S. (Yalsa) intexta, Cuit. ! 

Div. 12. ClRCINAT^. 

159. S. (Yalsa) pulceella, Pers.; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 406. I made a mistake hcve. 

Pigs. 150-152 belong to some other species, probably to .S'. TVahlenbergii, Desm- 
The specimen of Vaha pulchella in the nookerian herbarium is from the Sclero- 
mycetes Suecise, no. 146. The fruit is not quite perfect, but is clearly the same 
plant as one in my own herbarium, of which fig. 153 represents the fruit. (^^^ 
Tulasne's remarks in Sel. P. Carp. vol. ii. pp. 109, 120.) 

ICO. S. (Yalsa) fuepitr^^cea, Pr. S. M. ii. p. 409. Named by myself, but I have some 

doubt about the species. I have seen no authentic specimens. 
161. S. (Yalsa) convergens, Tode ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 410. Named by Berkeley. 

alsa) hypodermia, Pr. ! S. M. ii. p. 407. Prom the Sclcromycetes Suecise. 

S. (^' 

10. 3: 

103. S. (Yalsa) tiielebola, Pr. ! S. M. ii. p. 408. Pigs. 157 and 159 from the Scler(^• 

mycetes Sueciae, no. 384. Possibly fig. 158 is a different species, as suggested ^ 





164. S. (Yalsa) xanthostroma (or chutsostroma), Fr. ! Sumrn. Yeg. Sc. p. 412, no. J^2 
Montag-ne SjU. p. 221. IPvom tlie Scleromycetes Sueciae, no. 414. The oilici 
specimen here referred to is from Dr. Montagne's herhariuni. 

1G5. S. (Yalsa) vestita, Fr. ! S. M. ii. p. 410. I^rom the Scleromycetes Sueci^, no. 230. 

160. S. (Diplodia ?) Meli^, Scliwein. ! Er. EL ii. p. 85. 

167. S. (Yalsa), ? sp. (See obseryations under no. 39 stqji^a.) 

168. S. (Yalsa) 

Pers. Syn. p. 45, Er. S. M. ii. p. 409. Erom the Selcro- 

yceies Suecise, no. 9 

169. S. (Yalsa) Innesii, Curr. ! 

170. S. (Yalsa) arcuata, Curr. ! I think this is the same species as no. 91 sup 
(See the remarks there made.) 

171. S. (Yalsa) paginea, Curr. ! 

Div. 13. C^spiTos.^. 

172. SpHiERiA CTJPULARis, Pers. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 416. I cannot say whether the fruit 
here figured is really that of S, cK^ularis, Pers. There are specimens in the Her- 
barium marked as this species both by Mougeot and Berkeley ; but they differ from 
one another, and moreoYer each specimen contains two different species. 

173. S. PsEUDOBoMBARDA, Mont. ! Sylloge, p. 228. 

1^4. S. (Nectria) examinans, Berk. ! 

175. S. (Nectria) coccinea, Pers. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 412. I am uncertain whether this 

" are named 

IS the true S. coccinea, Pers. This plant and the variety " sanguinella 
by Mr. Berkeley. There is a specimen in the Herbarium from the Scleromycetes 
Sueciai (no. 183) in which the asci are stuffed with myriads of minute sporidia 
about 0-00012 inch long. 

176. S. (N 

Tode : Berk. End. Elora, no. 77, under " Spha^ria 

Kgured from a fresh specimen. The species is too well known to admit of any doubt 

S. (N 

Pers. Svn. p. 49. Erom the Scleromycetes S 


184. I think Eries is right in uniting it with S. cinnabarina, Tode. He re 
ks (Adnotata), « Sph. s. Nectria decolormis est status seniUs Spli. cinnabarmiu 

178. S. Berberidis, Pers. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 415. Erom the Scleromycetes Suecia? 


'^- .®- (Nectria) cijcurbitula, Tode ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 415. I cannot say whether th 
IS the true N. cucurhltula, Tode. There is no authentic specimen of that species 
^ ^"^-^^ Herbarium. There are specimens named by Klotzsch and Berkeley, and 
fi'om the Scleromycetes Sueci^B, no. 263, but they do not agree in fructification. 
ISO. S. Labtjr^^i, Pers. Syn. p. 50 ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 413. Erom the Scleromycetes 



1- S. PULicARis, Er. S. M. ii. p. 417. Erom the Scleromycetes S 

• a 

2n 2 



182. S. (Kloiiua) rrPvTONT, Grev. ! Pries remarks (Adnotata), '' Spli. s. Nectria Tiir- 

lu'>'=Sphccria cphiihccria in Valsa Abietis parasitans e specc. a eel. Greville missis. 
Cfr. El. ii. p. 79." 

1S.*J. S. (XiXTiiLV) ArERYALTS, Moii^. ! Er. El. ii. p. 83. 

1^1. S. (Nectkia) Aquifolii, Fr. ! El. ii. p. 82. Sent by Eries to Mongcot. 

IbO. S. SiMf ERiA ACERVATA, Fr. S. M. ii. p. 416. I presume this was dcserihed from some 

specimen lent to mc ; for I cannot find the plant in the Hookerian herbarium, nor 
do I possess any specimens of it. 

180. Sni.ERTA CONGLOBATA, Er. The specimens are named hy Klotzsch and Sir IV. 

Hooker, hut I am satisfied they are all forms of >S'. imlvis-pyrms. Klotzsch and 
Sir W. Hooker appear to have been mistaken; for Eries remarks (Adnotata), 
" Sph. conr/Iohafa Tcra, meo sensu, species distincta." 

187. S. ErxT, Curr. ! l\rilton, Northamptonshire, Berkeley. 


ISS. Si'fl.ERiA scoRLVDEA, Er. ! El. ii. p. 87. Erom the Scleromycetes Suecise, no 31 L 
IbD. SPH.ERIA raiizoGENA, Berk. ! 

100. SPH.ERIA Spahtii, Kccs ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 424. Erom the Scleromycetes SuecicT, 

no. 234. This seems to be the same as S. elongata, Er. !, Scleromycetes Sueciae, 
'^.0. 33, altlioui>h the sporidia of this latter plant are rather shorter, not so acu- 
minate, and not constricted. Eries remarks (Adnotata), " Sph, Simrtii nexus cum 
S. elongata (specie! forma primaria) manifestus sed ostiolo aliisque notis scccdit. 

Ad genus CucvrUtaria Not. pertinent Sph. Zahwrni, Berheridls, elongata, 'raric' 

191. Spu.eria ? DoTiTiDEA, Er. (? Mont.) S. M. ii. p. 423. Eignred from plants named by 

Sir "Wm. Hooker and Klotzsch. There are authentic specimens from the Sclero- 
mycetes Suecicc agreeing externally with those named by Sir ^Ym. Hooker aud 
Klotzsch, but exhil)iting no fruit. 

192. Spuj:niA MrTiLA, Er. ! S. M. ii. p. 421. Erom the Scleromycetes Suecise, no. ICl- 

Erics (Adnotata) remarks, "Sporas semper uniseptatas vidimus." 

193. SpiLJiRLV ArEGALOsPORA, Mout. ! Syllogc, p. 229. 
191. Spileria insidens, Schwcin. ! 


10r». Sph^rlv melogramma, Pers. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 420. Erom the Scleromycetes 

SuecifD, no. Ill, and specimens named l)y Mougeot. Eries (Adnotata) remarks, 



Sph. iticlogra,»i.!rf = 3lelogramma campglosporum, S. V. Sc. Vidimu 

Calvcantui, Schwein. ! Eries, S. M. ii. p. 441 


97. S. (Hi ATRYPE) decipiexs, Hcc. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 371. Eigurcd from specimf'tis 

named by Mr. Berkeley. 









19S. S. (Diplodia) subsolitaria, Scliwem. ! P. El. ii. p. 86 

198 fl. SpH^ERIA CmiYSENTERA, CuiT. ! 

Biv. 15. SERIATiE. 

199. S. JuNCij Fr. There are several specimens in the Herbarium from the Scleromy- 
cetes Suecise, others named by Sir W. Hooker, and others by Mr. Berkeley, but all 
in a very bad condition; I am uncertain from which this figure was drawn. 

. Sph^eria aeundinacea. Sow. Named by Berkeley. 

201. Spileria nebulosa, Pers. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 450. Named by Berkeley, but agreeing 
with barren specimens from the Scleromycetes Suecise, no. 197. The sporidia 
in the ascus (fig. 201) are perhaps a little too much curved. 

'M. SPHiERiA GoDiNi, Desm. Named by Berkeley. 

203. Sph^eria CLARA, Curr. ! 

?n4. S. PARDALOTA, Mout. ! The specimens of this are imperfect. It is not the plant 
described in the Sylloge, although it may be an imperfect state of it. On reexami- 
nation, I found the stylospores smaller than the measurement here given. 

205. Sph/Eria ? PANTHERiNA, Bcrk. 1 

Sph-Eria longissima, Pers. The specimens of this species arc 

mycetes Suecice, no. 181, and from Dr. Montague's herbarium, but they 

from the Sole 



-'01. Sphj^ria bifroxs, Scbm. and Kunze ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 438. Named by Mougeot. 

207a. Sph^ria Graminis, Pers.; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 434. Described from a fresh spc 
cimen named by myself. It is difficult to say what is the true S. Gmmirm, Pers 
I'nes's specimens in the Ilookerian herbarium (Scler. Suec. no. 284) differ from this 
^Mch agrees, however, with specimens from DecandoUe's PL Pr., no 779. 
S. (Diplodia ?) Malortjm. Berk. ! Pnal. Plora, vol. v. " Pungi," p. 257. 

^- S- GiGANTEA, Mout. Syll. 230 ! 

'^^^- S. (Hendersonia ?) Yucc^.-GLORios.i5, Schwein. ! Pr. S. M. ii. p- 437. 
! '^^S^Hj^iiiA RHYTisMoiBES, Bab. in Proc. Linn. Soc. vol. i. p. 32. Named 




S- (DiATRTPE) iNsuLARis, Berk. MS. ! 

SjH^RU PiMBRiATA, Pers. Syn. p. 3G ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 436. Upon reexammatK)n 

.f^^nd ripe specimens. Pigure 212 is quite right. The sporidia are umsena e oi 

Jlf^^'iate, colourless, sometimes curved, sometimes elliptico-acummate, sometmae 

a nucleus at each end, O'OOOl incb long. 

f ^E^^THocARPA, Pr. S. M. ii. p. 439. Named by Mr. Broome. M^«..(^~ 
remarks. " - 



auotoris nuain maxime a gcnuiuis Sphw> 

svidere unquam mihi contigit. Ex icone omnino peculia 





Div. 17. Byssised^. 

215. S. GLis, Berk, and Curr. ! 

21G. S. Desmazieri, Berk, and Br. ! Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 2 ser. vol. ix. p. 318, 

pi. 9. fig. 1. 


217. S. (Nectria) rosella, A. and Schw. ; Fr. S. M. ii. p. Ml. Marked hj Greville 

" SjjJicBrla 7^osella, Carm. ;" by Klotzsch ! "A. and Sz." 

218. S. AQUiLA, Fr. S. M. ii. p. 442. Named by Berkeley. There are no authentic spe- 

cimens, but there is no doubt about the species. 

219. S. truncata, Schw. ! Fr. S. M. ii. p. 442. This specimen has no fruit. I think it is 

certainly not distinct from >S'. ciquila, Fr., although the perithecia are mostly 
truncate, having a flattened area round the ostiolum. 

220. S. FULVA, Fr. El. ii. p. 90. Named by Berkeley. Fries (Adnotata) remarks, " ^S^;^. 

Ncctria fulm, Fr. S. V. Sc. p. 387. Yellem attenderent auctorcs species 

I. c. in nota citatas non minus quam in textu allatas Nectrias a me esse dictas, 
quibus addendse N. ar/nina, eruhescens (Rob.), aligeque." 

S. (Xectria) aurantia, Pers. ; Fr. S. M. ii. p. 440. Marked by Greville " Sphceria 
anrcmiia, Carm. ;" by Klotzsch " Pers. ! " It is on Tolyporus versicolor, Fr. 

S. THELENA, Fr. S. M. ii. p. 441. Marked '' S. aqiiila " by Klotzsch, and 8. tlielem 
by Berkeley. One mark of distinction between aS'. aquila and S. thelena is, that the 
subiculum in ;S'. aquila is persistent, in S. thelena evanescent. Fries (Adnotata) 
remarks under S. tlielemt, " Hsec, sensu Todeano, ad Villiferas, >S'. aquila ad Puiveru- 
lentas ejusd. ; ilia enim villum floccosum, album, hfec pulverem atrum eructat. 
Perithecia .S'. thelen(B tenuia, fragilia, S. aquilce rigida, bicorticata, firam. Hinc 

valde divnrsn. fmispn " 

S. LAXATA, Fr. S. :M. ii. p. 442. Named by Berkeley, but marked " S. ossea, Carm. 

by Sir ^Ym. Hooker. The collapsed appearance of the perithecia arises from the 
k covering the lower part of them. Fries (Adnotata) remarks, « A reliauis 
[^rsissima nee ad Byssisedas referenda. Semper sub cortice latet. In viUo 

expanso primo observantur guttulas fluxiles, limpid^e, absque perithecio (aualoga; 

cum Myxotricho), quo tenerruno dein obducuntur, siccitate arete collabente. Ascos 

non vidi ; modo sporas subtiles, fusiformes, pellucidas." 

,j " 


224. S. suBicuLATA, Schwcin 


^^ ). S. ALLiGATA, Fr. ! S. M. ii. p. 445. From the Scleromycctes Sueci^, no. 342. 
220. S. TiiiSTis, Tode; Fr. S. M. ii. p. 441. From the Scleromycctes SueciaB. 

sporidia are mostly rather rounded at the ends than acuminate. 

-/. S. rii^osmo5,A, Mont. Fl. Alg. t. xxvi. fig. 2. Described from frcsli B 

spceuncns. There ean be no doubt about the species. 



.", o 

Div. 18. YiLLOs^. 

228. S. SCAERA, Curr. ! 

229. S. CANESCENS, Pei's. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 448. Specimens named by Sir Wm. Hooker, 
Klotzsclij and Berkeley ; all agree. 


230. S. Eacodium, Pers. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 449. Named by Berkeley. There is a speci- 
men from the Scleromycetes Suecige, but it has no fruit. 

231. S. ovixa, Pers. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 446. Named by Berkeley. 

232. S. c^siA, Carm. ! Named by Klotzsch, who, I suppose, received it in MS. from 
Carmichael. Prom a note on the specimen, Klotzsch seems to have considered it a 
young state of >S^. ovina; but the fructification is totally different. Mr. Berkeley has 
written "an vera Sj)h. ? " He had probably not examined the fruit. 

233. S. HiRsuTA, Pr. S. M. ii. p. 449. Named by Klotzsch. 

234. S. RHODOCHLORA, Mont. ! Syll. p. 227. 


235. S. MTJTABiLis, Schwein. ! 

236. S. PiLosA, Pers.; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 440. There are four specimens, all named by Klotzsch. 
Three of them are as here described. The fourth has perithecia more densely 


hairy, but not otherwise externally distinguishable. In this latter the sporidia are 
very dark-brown, varying from reniform to globulai: (mostly the latter). The cUa- 
meter of the globular sporidia is 0'0004 to O'OOOS inch, which is the same as the 
length of the reniform sporidia. 

237. S. (Ceratostoma) chioxea. Pr. ! S. M. ii. p. 44G, El. vi. p. 92. Prom the Scle- 
romycetes Succije. Pries remarks (Adnotata), " In statu ascigero pulcherrima, 

sporis nigris in asco pellucido biserialibus 


238. S. STRIGOSA, A. and S. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 448. Specimens named by Klot 
Mougeot. There is an authentic specimen from Schweinitz which seems to be th 
same thing, but it is in very bad condition. 

239. S. Brassic^, KL ! Eng. PL p. 261. Pries (Adnotata) remarks, " Synonymon anti 
quius est S. oJermn, Pr. El. p. 99. Spli: Bmssim P. alicna est 

210. S. PULYixTjLrs, Berk. ! 

211. S. suPERFiciALis, Curr. I 
242. S. capillieera, Curr. ! 



213. S. ixspersa. Berk 

Div. 19. Den 


211. S. RHODOMPHALos, Bcrk. ! Prics (Adnotata) remarks, " Hujus synonymon est 
^ 'S'. rhodopis, Pr. S. V. Sc. p. 389." 

^' S. BoMBARDA, Batsch ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 450. Specimens named by Berkeley and 
^iontagne. There is another from the Scleromycetes Sueciiie, no. 206, but shrivelled, 

and without fruit. 

2^6- S. MoiaroRMis, Tode; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 458, El. ii. p. 94. Prom the 


25 i 


cetcs SueciDD. The asci are not always so broad as in fig. 30. The length of the 
sporidia is 0"0014 inch. 

217. S. rrsTrLA, Ciirr. ! 

. S. PULVis-rYiiirs, Pcrs. ; Yr. S. M. ii. p. 468. Erom the Scleromycetes Suecifc, 
no. 120. The specimen is marked as a variety, but I do not see in what it difTers 
from the typical form. 

249. S. CONGLOBATA, Er. S. M. ii. p. 414. There are several specimens, all named hy 

Klotzsch. ^S*. Aceris, Pers. in litt. to Mougeot, is the same thing. 

250. S. DioiCA, Er. ! Marked by Mongeot, who received it in a letter from Erics. 

251. S. MOROiDES, Curr. ! 

252. S. PLATEATA, Pers. ! in litt. to Mougeot. Eries (Adnotata) remarks, " Sph. plafeata 

Pcrs. in litt. est Sj^h. ohchicens Er. S. M. et Exs. Sjih. obducem Schum. ! est forma 
Sph. spcrmoidis." 

253. S. SPERMOiDES, Iloffm. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 457. Erom the Scleromycetes Suecise, 

no. 237. 

251. S. MAMM.EEORMIS, Pcrs. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 455. Named by Greville and Klotzsch. 
255. S. STEHCORAEiA, Sow. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 455. Named by Berkeley. 
25G. S. STERCORAiiiAj Sow. var. ? ! 

257. S. STERCORARiA, Er. ! S. M. ii. p. 455. Sent by Eries to Mougeot. 

258. S. BiFORMis, Schwein. ! non Eries. 

259. S. VERRUCOSA, Grev. ! Er. Index Alphabeticus ; == ;S'. moriformis, Tode. The sporidia 

have more tlian one septum, but this is probably the case with S. moriformis. 

2G0. S. PULVERACEA, Ehrh. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 459. Sent by Persoon to Mougeot. I could 

find no asci on reexamination. Eabenhorst's ('Eungi Europ^ei') no. 338 quite 
agrees with my description ; but the sporidia reach 0-0005 inch, or nearly so. 


S. SORDARIA, Er. ! S. M. ii. p. 458, El. ii. p. 94. Erom the Scleromycetes Suecia?, 
no. 270. 

G2. S. OBDrcENS, Schum. (=>S'. plateata, Pers. supra). Erom the Scleromycetes Suc- 


cise, no. 119. 
No. 252 sirpra 

S. olducens minora Er. Syst. Myc. ii. p. 456 ; see the remarks 

263. S. POMiPORMis, Pers. Erom the Scleromycetes Suecige, no. 236. Tulasne (Sel 

Eung. Carp. vol. ii. p. 216) is mistaken in supposing that I considered there was 
no distinction between this species and S. pulvis-pyrius, Pers. All I meant to sa} 
was, that the specimens marked " pomiformis" in the Hookerian herbarium are 
identical with S. pulcis-pyrius. Tulasne {I c.) describes the sporidia of S. poml 
formJs as white, shortly ovate, and bipartite; and Eries (Adnotata) observes, "ixSph' 
puh. pijrio vera niniis distat peritheciis primitus moUibus, rcgulariter collabentibus 
ostiolo mammseformi eumorpho." 

204. S. (Nectria) Peziza, Tode ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 452. Named by Berkeley. 









265. S. (Necteia) sakguinea, Pr. ! Prom the Scleromycetes Suecise, no. 264. 

2G6. S. (Nectria) Episph^eia, Tode ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 454, El. ii. p. 94. Named 
Berkeley. This is a well-known species 

267. S, EUBicoLA, Curr. ! 

268. S. (Gibbeea) Vaccinii, Sow. t. 373. fig. 1 ; Eng. Plora, vol. v. pt. 2. p. 254. There 
are specimens from the Scleromycetes Suecice, no. 51, and others named by 
Mougeot. I do not recollect which specimen the fruit is drawn from, as I conld 
find none on reexamination. The two are clearly the same thing. 

269. S. CAUDATAj Curr. ! 

270. S. coLLAEENs, Curr. ! 

271. S. CuEEEYii, Blox. MS. ! 

' 272. S. PULViscuLA, Curr. ! 

Div. 20. Pbetus^. 

273. S. PEETUSA, Pers. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 464. Specimens named by Klotzsch and Sir 
Wm. Hooker. 

274. S. PiCASTEA, Pr. ! S. M. ii. p. 463. 

275. S. (Diplodia) lecythea, Schwein. ! Pr. S. M. ii. 460. . 


276. S. MEEDAEiA, Pr. ! El. ii. p. 100. Sent by Pries to Mougeot. 

277. S. Oleaetjm, Cast. Prom Desmaziere's herbarium, PI. Cr. de Pr. no. 1767. 

278. S. ULMicoLA, Curr. I 

279. S. MicEASPis, Berk. ! 

280. S. PUTAMiNUM, Schwein. ! ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 461. 

281. S, CALLicAEPA, Curr. ! 

Div. 21. Platystom^. 

282. S. BAEBAEA, Pr. S. M. ii. p. 468. Specimens named by Montague and Berkeley. 

283. S. MACEOSTOMA, Todc ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 469. Prom tlie Scleromycetes Sueciaj 
^0. 345. It is ;S'. media, Pers., of which there is an authentic specimen. S. dimi 
mens, Pers., of which there is a specimen from the Scleromycetes Sueciae, no. 447 

seems to be the same thing. 

284. S. iiaNiAEiA, Grev. Sc. Cr. PI. t. 82. Named by Sir Wm. Hooker. Probably re 
ceived by him from Hr. GreviUe. Pries observes (Adnotata), " SpL Ugmana Grev. 

ineis specc. non ad Lophiostomas pertinet 


?85. S. CEisTATA, Pers.,=^. erenata. Pr. S. M. ii. p. 469. Named by Mougeot 

Div. 22. Ceeatostom 

• S. BREviEosTEis, Pr. ! S. M. ii. p. 474. Prom the Scleromycetes Suecia*, no. 790 
^^^- S. lOKaisPOEA, Curr. ! The name S. rostellata is in Klotzsch's handwriting. 




288. S. (Cytispoea), micula Er. ! El. ii. p. 101. Sent by Eries to Mougeot. 

2S9. S. (SpiLERorsis ?) pilifera, Er. ! S. M. ii. p. 472. Erom tlie Scleromycetes Succicc, 

no. 25. 

200. S. ciP.RnosA, Er. Both plants mentioned under this number are named by Klotzscli. 

I find the perithecia of the latter tomentose, and the sporidia colourless, on ru- 
oxamination. An authentic specimen from the Scleromycetes Suecise is quite decayed. 

201. S. ROSTRATA, Er. S. 'M. ii. p. 473. Named by Klotzsch, with a ?. It is marked 

Sphcerla parahoUca Ijy (I think) Carmichael. 

Div. 23. Obtect.e. 

292. S. EUTYPA, Er. S. M. ii. p. 478. Named by Berkeley. A specimen from the Scle- 
romycetes Succiic, no. 15 (obviously the same species), has no fruit. 

203. S. viBRATiLis, Er. S. M. ii. p. 482. See the observations in my former paper. 

20 1-. S. OPERCULATA, A. and S. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 479. Erom the Scleromycetes Suecitc, 

no. 2GS. Eries (Adnotata) remarks, " Prseter statum hujus aliarumque ascigerum 

alium Icgi nuclco omnino Spli. acutce ! Prorsus similem in JDlatrype disciformi 
quoque vidimus. Laetamur eel. auctorem etiam /S/;/i. acutam genere baud movendam 


295. S. (Haloxia) clricularis, Er. S. M. ii. p. 477, El. ii. p. 97. Named by Montagne. 

296. S. LiviDA, Er. S. M. ii. p. 479. Erom the Scleromycetes Suecise, no. 516. 

297. S. (SpHiEROPSis) PRUiNOSA, Er. S. M. ii. p. 486. There are two specimens— one from 

the Scleromycetes Sueciae, without fruit, the other named by Mougeot. 

298. S. (Spr^ropsis ?) Ole.e, DC. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 489. Named by Persoon. 

200. S. (TIercospora) rkodostoma, A. & S. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 485. Erom the Scleromy- 
cetes Succiye, no. 83. 


300. S. Cerasarum, Er. ! . 

301. S. Ta:marisci, Grev. ! (not '* Tamarisciuis " as in the text). 

302. S. PiXASTRi, Dec. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 488. Erom the Scleromycetes Sueciae, no. 

303. S. CLYPEATA, Nees ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 487. Named by Klotzsch. It is doubtful whether 

or not S. clifpeata is a state of S. mcmiillana, Er. I suspect it is ; for I see something 
like septa in the sporidia; and if the sporidia of >S'. chjpeata were septate, it could 
hardly be separated from >S'. mamillana. Eries evidently doubts their distinctness : 
see ' Syst. Myc' ii. p. 487. 


304. S. Xylostei, Pers.; Er. S. M. ii. p. 487, El. ii. p. 99.' Erom the Scleromycetes 

Suecise, no. 189. I think the sporidia lose their bordei 

S. (H 

Er. S. M. ii. p. 487. Erom the Scleromy 

Sueciae, no. 397, marked " minorr In a specimen of S. mamillana, Er. (Desm 
Cr. de Erance, edit. i. 1279), given me by M. Dcsmazi5res; I find long slender 
containing narrowly oblong, slightly curved, 3-scptate, brown sporidia, O'OOO 




0-0009 inch long, uni- or bi-seriate, mostly the former. This is, no doubt, the perfect 
state of the species, the Kew specimen being only imperfectly developed. 

30G. S. (Hendersonia) hirta, Pr. ! S. M. ii. p. 483. Prom the Sclcromycetes SuccifP, 
no. 17. 

307. S. SEMiiMMERSA, Grev. ! 

308. S. ocELLATA, Fr. ! S. M. ii. p. 480. Prom the Sclcromycetes Suecioe, no. 187. 

309. S. TOMicuM, Ley. Ann. des Sc. Nat. 1848. Prom Desmaziere's PI. Cr. de Prance, 
no. 1776 ! 

310. S. coxFOiuiis, Berk. & Br. ! Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 2. vol. ix. p. 325, pi. xi. 
fig. 19. 

311. S. (Halonia) ditopa, Pr. S. M. ii. 381. Drawn from a specimen given to me by 
Mr. Broome. The one in the Ilookerian herbarium, from the Sclcromycetes Suecia^, 
no. 84, has no fruit. Tulasne (S. P. Carp. ii. p. 145) makes S. ditopa a myriasponms 
form of S. suffusa, Pr. I cannot understand this, for no two things could be more 
unlike one another in fructification. 

312. S. QUADRINUCLEATA, Curr. ! 

313. S. EuBi, Curr. ! 

311. S. iXQiTiLiNA, Wallr. ; Pr. El. ii. p. 100. Named from specimens taken from my own 
herbarium. This species ought perhaps to be with the Caulicolse rather than tbe 
Obtectse. Pries (Adnotata) remarks, " Sj)h. inquU'ma Pr., nee Wallr., (jui banc inno- 
minatam misit, Equidem semper sincere citavi primes specierum determinatores." 

315. S. Acus, Blox. MS. ! 

316. 8. PHOMATOSPORA, Berk. & Br. ! Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 2. vol. ix. p. 380, pi. xi. 
fig. 33. 

317. S. Argus, Berk. & Br. ! Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 2. vol. ix. p. 322, pi. x- 
315. S. APicuLATA, Curr ! 


319. 8. APPEXDicuLOSA, Berk. & Br. ! Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2. vol. vii. p. 180, 

320. 8. siPARiA, Berk. & Br. ! Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 2. vol. ix. p. 321, pi. ix. fig. 8. 

321. S. (Massaria) amblyospora, Berk. & Br. ! I. c. p. 322, pi. x. fig. 10. 

322. S 


323. 8. iNQuiNANs, Tode ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 486. Figured from specimens in my herbariun 
collected near Blaekheath in March 1856. There is much confusion about S. In 
quinans, Tode. The only specimen in the Kew herbarium is from the Scleromyceti> 

* Sueciaj, no. 394, and is certainly the same thing as S. ambli/osjwra, B. & Br. Tulasn 
(in the S. P. Carp. vol. ii. p. 236, under Massaria BulUardt) makes S. inqulnans 
Tode, identical with S. gigaspora, Hesm. ; but at p. 134 of the same volume h^ 
identifies it with a plant described by me in the ^licroscopical Journal' (vol. i^ 


p. 198), which is certainly not *S'. gigaspora 

2o 2 



824. 8. BUFONLV, Berk. & Br. ! 
325. S. rusCELLA, Berk. & Br. ! 


320. S. TiLi.i^, Pers. Syn. p. 84 ; Fr. S. M. ii. p. 485. Tulasne (S. P. Carp. vol. ii. p. 231) 

makes a new speeies of this, under the name of Massaria Curreii, and says that my 
fiLjs. 105 & lOG are the true S. Tilice, Pers. All the specimens of S. Tilice at Kcw 
(named by Part on, Pries, and Mougeot) are without fruit. Fries remarks (Adno- 
tata), " Structura a me ohservata plane recedit. Videtur duplex, jam a Persoonio 
distincta, sub hoc nomine vagare." 

327. S. AsHWELMANA, Curr. ! 

Div. 24. Obtueat^e. 
328. S. millepunctata, Grev. ! 

320. S. Fraxini, Fr. Named by Klotzsch. Fries (Adnotata) remarks, " Mea species 

per corticem erumpenti-lihera cum Sph. corticola jungi nequit. Fingo banc statum 
primarium stylosporum Tympan. Fraxini." 

330. S. cORTicis, Sow. t. 372. f. 5 ; Fr. S. M. ii. 481, El. ii. 98. From the Scleromycetes 

Suecise, no. 391. The septate sporidia here referred to occurred in a specimen in 
my herbarium collected at Eltham in October 1856. 

331. S. teansveesalis, Schw ! Fr. El. ii. 94. 

332. S. JuGLANDis, Fr. S. M. ii. 493. Named by Berkeley; but I could only find sty- 

lospores on reexamination. Fries (Adnotata) remarks upon this and no. 333, " Hae 
du3e formge promiscuEe nascuntur et pro diversis ejusdem specie! formis habentur." 

333. S. JuGLANDis, Fr. ! S. M. ii. 493. See remarks under no. 332. 

334. S. INSPEESA, Schwein. ! 

335. S. (Sph^eopsis) ubeeieoemis, Fr. ! S. M. ii. p. 491. Fries remarks (Adnotata), 



" S2)Ik tiheriformis= Topospora uberiformis Summ. Veg. Sc." 

S. (Hendeesonia) oppllata, Fr. ! S. M. ii. p. 493. Fries (Adnotata) remarks, "In 
statu typico ascigera ! " 

S. (Hendersoxia) palina, Fr. S. M. ii. p. 494. Named by Mougeot. 

338. S. (Hendeesoxia) steobilina, HoU. and Schm. There are several specimens in 

the Hookerian herbarium, but none authentic. The figure here given agrees with 
an authentic specimen in my own herbarium. There are no asci. 

339. S. Lonicee^, Fr. S. M. ii. p. 492. Named by Mougeot. A specimen from the 

Scleromycetes Sueciae (no. 349) has no fruit. 

340. S. PisiroEMis. Sent by Persoon in a letter to Mougeot. Fries (Adnotata) remarks, 

Sph. pisiformis r-Ci/fisporapisiformis Duby Syn. GaU., S. Y. Sc." 

311. S. (Sph^eopsis) obtueata (not " obtusata," as in text), Fr. ! S. M. ii. p. 495. From 

the Scleromycetes Sueciae, no. 128. 

312. S. (Hendeesonia) Syeing^, Fr.! S. M. ii. p. 492. From the Scleromycetes Sue- 

cise, no. 233. 



Div. 25. S11BTECT.E. 

343. S. (Diplodia) Ilicis, Fr. S. M. ii. p. 501. Named by Berkeley. I could find iiu 
fruit on reexamination. 


344. S. (Diplodia) sahmentohum, Pr. ! S. M. ii. p. 498. From the Scleromycctes Sueciye, 
no. 18. 

345. S. (Sph^ropsis) atrovihexs /3. JBuxi, Pr. Named by Klotzsch. 

346. S. EPiDERMiDis, Fr. S. M. ii. p. 499. Named by Berkeley. 

347. S. Rusci, Wallr. Named from specimens in my own berbaritim. 

348. S. SEHiATA, Curr. ! 

Div. 26. Catjlicol^. 

349. S. DOLiOLTJM, Pers. ; Tr. S. M. ii. p. 509. In an authentic specimen of Pcrsoon's the 
sporidia are 3-septate, sliglitly constricted at the septa, varying from 0-0008 to O'OOl 
inch in length. Pig. 122 is hardly correct. The two right-hand sporidia of fig. 137 
are exactly like those of Persoon's plant. "Perhaps >S'. Helena is a form of S. doliolum. 


The second joint of the sporidia in the latter is sometimes swollen. 

350. S. Dematitjm, Pers. Pr. S. M. ii. p. 505. Described from a specimen from the 
Scleromycctes Sueciae. Persoon's specimens are quite imperfect. 

351. S. Artjndksis, Pr. S. M. ii. p. 510. Named by Mougeot. 

352. S. (Sph^ropsis ?) Corni suecic^, Pr. ! Prom the Scleromycctes Suecijje, no. 409. 

353. S. (Sph^ropsis ?) acuta, Hoffm. Prom the Scleromycctes SuecicP, no. 118. 

354. S. COMPLAXATA, Tode. There are numerous specimens. None authentic. 


Pr. S. M. ii. p. 508. Named by Berkeley 

356. S. iMBERBis, Pries ! Scleromycctes Sueciye, no. 403. Pries remarks (Adnotata), 
"I'ons Scler. Suec. Exs. 403 bis. Porma tertia Auctoris est Cryptosporhm imherbe, 
S. V. Sc. p. 423 ; perithecium enim spurium ab epidermide nigrifacta ortura." 

3*^7. S. PHiEosTiCTA, Berk. ! 

358. S. (Hendersonia) Ze^, Schwein. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 527. The first plant here 
described is named by Mr. Berkeley, but is quite different from the other, which I 
now find to have been named by Schweinitz himself. On reexamination of the 
latter, I have found asci and sporidia, besides the fruit of Hendersonia arms, Berk. 
& Br.; and I am quite convinced that S, Zece, Schwein., is nothing more than Sph. 
pulicaris, Pr., and that Henderso7iia arms, Berk. & Br., is a stylosporous state of 
tie latter Spheeria. 

2^9- S. PELLiTA, Pr. S. M. ii. p. 503. Named by Klotzsch. The perithecia are hairy, 
and the sporidia sometimes exceed 0-0016 inch. 

^^- S. NiGRELLA, Pr. ! S. M. ii. p. 512. Named by Berkeley. 

^^" ^' ^^si, Sow. Named by Berkeley. 



.•^02. S. AsTKAGALi, Curr. ! Pries remarks (Adnotata), " Sph. Astragali ob locum con- 

fcratur cum S. meliU7ta, S. Y. Sc." 

oChl. S. AcrMiXATA, Sow. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 506. Named by Berkeley. 

301. S. CARiCi>A, Desm. ! 

3G5. S. (Diplodia) calyescens, Pr. ! . From the Scleromycetes Sueci^, no. 401. 

3GG. S. Clivensis, Berk. & Br. ! Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 2. vol. ix. p. 379, pi. xi. 

367. S. RUBELLA, Pers. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 506. Prom the Scleromycetes Sueci«. I 


suspect the length of the asci is more variable than the measurement here given 
would imply. 

3(;S. S. Helena, Curr. ! 

309. S. HERBARUM, Pers. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 511. The specimens of this are (as might bo 

oxprcted) very numerous. Persoon's specimen has no fruit ; but the species is too 
common to admit of any doubt. There is a plant marked by Persoon S. herhorum 
/3. tecta, which is something quite different. It has long, linear, multiseptate sporidia, 
as long as, and quite fillmg, the ascus. I never saw the species before. It is quite 
different from S. acuminata. Sow. 

Div. 27. POLIICOL^E. 

370. S, RiiizoiiORPii^, Kunze. Named by Klotzsch. 

371. S. TUB^FORMis, Tode; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 516. Prom the Scleromycetes SueciiP 

no. 26. 

372. S. (Spileropsis ?) macul^^formis, Pers. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 524. Named by Berkeley 

373. S. (Spe^eropsis ?) oleje, D. C; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 489. Named by Dr. Montagne. 
371. S. (SPH.EROPSIS ?) leptidea, Pr. ! S. M. ii. p. 522. Prom the Scleromycetes Suecis 


375. S. (Spileropsis?) 

Nardi, Pr. S. M. ii. p. 520. The 

named by Mougeot and by Pries (Scleromycetes Suecia3, no. 85), but I could find 
no fruit in either on reexamination. 

37C. S. ? PLNCTiFORiiis, Pers. Prom the Scleromycetes Suecise. 

377. S. (SPK.EROPSIS) IIeder^, Sow. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 521. Named by Klotzsch 

378. S. (Spii^ropsis) ^gopodh, Pers. ; Pr. S. M. ii. p. 526. Por the description here 

given T wish to substitute the following, taken from an authentic specimen named 
by Persoon : —Apparently no perithecia ; stylospores long, narrow, and fusiform, 
having normally a septum, or division of the endochrome, in the middle, but which 
IS not always visible. Length of stylospores 0004 inch. Pseudoperithccium 
ionned of the tissue of the leaf. 

S. (Discoslv) Artocreas, Tode; Pr. S.M. ii. p. 523. Prom the Scleromycetes SuecifP, 
no. lol. incs (Adnotata) remarks, - Guam maximi moment! observatio, D^^' 




statu typ 

Sic successive omnia Pyrenomycetum g 

absque ascis ad ascigeros_ migrant vel, ut Sj^Jicer op sides, status spcr 



Although I have seen asci in Discosia alnea, Er., I have not yet observed thci 
in D. Artocreus, Er. In my former paper I conjectured that the sporidia of th 
latter species were formed in asci, which deliquesce at an early stage. This is by n 
means improbable, although the sporidia of D. Artocreas are certainly sometinu 
borne singly upon sterigmata. In the perfect state of SphcBi^ia piilicaris, Fr., 
the sporidia are produced in asci, whilst in the so-called Hendersonia arcus, B. & Br,, 
which I believe to be only the stylosporous condition of S.puUcaris, similar sporidia 
are borne upon sterigmata. In the stylosporous condition of D. Artocreas, the 
second filiform appendage is not visible whilst the stylospores are attached to the 
hymenium, although the setum at the distal end is perfect. 

3^. S. (Discosia) alnea, Pr. ! S. M. ii. p. 520. Trom the Scleromycetes Sueciai no. 50. 
See remarks under no. 379. 

381. S. GLATJCO-PUNCTATA, Grev. 1 ri. Edin. Eries (Adnotata) remarks, " Sjyh. glcntco- 
punctata a S. Rusci (No. 347) haud differt." Cfr. Elench. ii. p. 103. ' 

S. (Sph^ergpsis) PALrsTEis, Er. ! in lit. to Mougeot. 
3^3. S. Spe.eropsis) Vixc^, Er. ! in lit. to Mougeot. 
3B1. S. SETACEA, Pers. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 518. ^med (I think) by Klotzsch. 


Div. 28. Depazea. 

S. (Hexdersonia) counicola, Dec. ; Er. S. M. ii. p. 530. Named by Berkeley 
3^6. S. (Depazea) vagaks, Er. S. M. ii. p. 532. Named by Berkeley. 
^1' S. (Depazea) Uvaei^, Berk. ! 

S. (Depazea) praxinicola, MS. Named by Klotzsch. 

S- Drymidis, Berk. ! 
'^' S. (Depazea) pallor. Berk ! Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 1. vol. vi. p. 362, pi. ii. fig- : 

/ w^W, J^VV^JV . -i.^****. ^^^^. 

^1- S. (Depazea) graminicola. Berk. I Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 1. vol. i. p. 207 
S- (Bepazea) Brassic^, Pcrs. ! in lit. to Mougeot. 

S- (Bepazea) Dianthi, Er. S. M. ii. p. 631. Named by Berkeley 

^i. S. (D ^ 


^l' S. (Bepazea) ribicola, Er. S. M. ii. p. 530. Named by Berkeley 

• ^- li^EPAZEA) ruscELLA, Berk. ! 
^7. S. (Dei 

A-Zea) Alismatis, Cur 

^r^ »ot omit to add the concluding remarks uith wWcl. Fnes ebses the Adno- 

i *■"* 1-ve been noticed above. He says, " Alias «tructur« / a nob 
^"»*^^ V, e. Spl, nm-iformu hac vice trnnsco. Haud paucas vir laudatns obsenaut 



ascigoras, quas equidem legi stylosporas, alias equidem ascigeras, ille vidit stylosporas. 
Multqdcx nuclei varietas est causa cur noluerim genera admittere nisi aliis differentiis 
ct habitu proprio coniirmata. Quam plurimas vidi Spliserias sporis primo simplicibus, 
(hill unisoptatis, demum triseptatis; limites inter sporas septatas Curr. et pseudo- 
scptatas ct cndocliromate multipartito difficilcs. Equidem. sporarum colorem accui-atius 
ccnseo indicare affinitatcm. 

" Ut DiscosicB, Chcetomia, &c., sic etiam Fhoma, genus eximie naturale, inter ascigeros 
citanda. Reccntiores Phomatis nomen ad Zythias, a me jam pridem dictas, perperam 
retulerunt, licet character nullo modo in lias quadret. Ejusmodi nominum transposi- 
tioncs confusioncm necesse pariunt, quare caute evitandae et corrigend^e." 

With reference to the above remarks upon the structure of spores, I may obsen'e that 
I make no distinction between what I have called jpsendoseptate spores and spores witli 
multipartite endochrome. I apply the term " pseudoseptate " to those spores in whicli 
the separate portions of the endochrome are in such close contact as to give rise to the 

appearance of septa where none really exist 



quite likely that in all such spores 

!pta are eventually formed. The question as to the value of the 


spores is too extensive to be discussed at the end of this paper. In some genera (e. g 
Cordyceps, Xylaria, Uyi^oxylon) the colour is very constant ; in others, again (e. g. Dla 
trype, Valsa), there is much variety. Even closely allied species (e. g. Valsa quaternata 
V, turgida) sometimes differ considerably in the colour of their sporidia. 



VIII. On the Asymmetry of the Pleuronectidse, as elucidated hy an Examination of the 
Sheleto7i in the Turbot, Halibut, and Plaice. By K-amsay H. Traquair, 3I.D., 
Demonstrator of Anatomy in the University of Edinburgh. Communicated hy Pro- 
fessor Huxley, F.H.S. 8f L.S. 

(Plates XXIX.-XXXII.) 

Read June 15th, 1865. 


That both eyes of a Turbot, or of the Pleuronectidse generally, are situated on 
one side of the head is a fact long interesting to naturalists in connexion with the 
peculiar hal)its of these animals. It also affords an interesting field for the anatomist 
and embryologist to ascertain what relation this asymmetry bears to the morphological 
plan of the fish-head in general. 

And indeed, if we merely look at the exterior of such a fish as the Turbot, the 
manner in which the transposition of the eyes has been effected is not very apparent. 
It is, it is true, easy enough to imagine that the mesial line of the top of the head has been 
simply twisted over to one side, carrying with it the eye of the opposite. But the dorsal 
fin, which stretches all along the back in what is assuredly the mesial line of the fish, 
extends also uninterruptedly in the same straight line on to the head, beyond the eyes, 
and l)etween the nostrils to nearly the end of the snout. If the mesial Unc of the top 
of the head has been twisted, why has such a distinctly median structure as the dorsal 
fin not undergone the same process at its cephalic extremity ? 

Or we may imagine that, in early development, one of the eyes has passed bodily 
through the head till it has reached that side where both are now found, and where it has 
formed for itself a new and anomalous orbit— a view which, it must be confessed, grates 




^ttle against most of our preconceived morphological ideas. 
But from what we see on the outside of the fish we can only rashly speculat 

means of anatomical and embryological research that we can gain ai 
^to the true state of the case. 

Autenrieth is the oldest writer I have found who alludes to the subject anatomically, m 
P^per on the anatomy of the Plaice, published in the year 1800 *. His remarks on the 

:y of the Plaice, however, are mea-re ; and his theoretical conclusions must appear 

to IK .^w-a-days absurd, for he accounts in the following manner for the position of both 

the right side of the head. He says, "The examination of the skeleton shows 
tlie entire left side of the fore part of the cranium is, in reahty, wanting, and 

* Bemerk 


'*".■ Than i. , 800. S. 4 7 ., „j. 

gemeinen. Von Dr. J. TI. F. Autenrieth. In Wiedemann's ' Arch.v fur Zoolog>e und Zoo- 



that nature, in order not to lose an eye, was necessitated to put it into the hollow of 

gilt cheek under the single remaining orbit 

Rosenthal (Ichtliyotomische Tafeln, Berlin, 1812-1822), a little more rational in his 
ideas than Auteurieth, held the upper eye of the Flounder to he that of the left or now 
eyeless side, hut accounted for its getting to the right side by supposing its heino- 
thrust througli the head, and getting "placed between the long processes of the frontal 
bones after the manner of Cyclopean malformations." The view which occurred to him 
is then in accordance with the second theory suggested in the beginning of this pajjcr, 
but which a careful examination of the osteology of a series of different species of flat- 
fish will easily show to be untenable. 

It is, however, to Meckel * that we owe most of our previous knowledge of the sub- 
ject. He recognized correctly the homologies of the various cranial bones with those of 
the symmetrical fish, and was undoubtedly the first who saw^ clearly that, according to 
the first theory already mentioned, the two eyes of the flatfish are brought round to one 
side by a twisting process ; but his notions as to the prolongation of the dorsal fin 
along the head are unsatisfactory, as we shall see afterwardsf. 

Van lioneden, in 1853, published a paper t, the first in which, so far as I know, notice 
has been taken of the development of the Pleuronectida?. In this paper he has de- 
scribed a young Turbot taken prol)ably soon after its extrusion from the ei?g, and in 
which that stage of development does not seem yet to have been reached when the eyes 
become both placed on one side. '' In this young fish the mouth is perfectly symme- 
trical ; the eyes are still on the two sides of the head, but the left is about to pass over 

side ; the nostrils are still symmetrical. The rays of the dorsal fin only yet 

descend to the middle of the 
but it is necessary first 


front of 

of the head should have taken plac 

vertebral column." To these observations he adds the result of some made "on a 
Turbot of nearly adult size, in which the process of torsion is arrested when the eye has 
arrived at the middle line. The rays of the dorsal fin have not yet descended to more 
than m the embryo described ; the two sides are equally coloured." In remarking upon 
this paper, I may say that here, for i\i^ first time, do Ve find distinctly announced the 
fact and doctrine that the dorsal fin is not primarily advanced so far forwards on the 

find it in the fully developed flatfish, but that 

advances aft 

turned round, and then it proceeds straight forwards, regardless of the deviation of the 
original mesial line of the head. Thus we are afforded a ready and rational explana- 
tion of the difficulty which met us at first, namely as to how, if the middle line of the 
top of the head has been twisted over to one side, the dorsal fin, a mesial structure, has 
not followed that twisting. Van Beneden, however, is not the fii^st to notice an ocea- 
sional condition of the adult flatfish resembling that which he has described in his 

^^ • Sy«t der vergl. Anatomie, Theil ii. : Halle, 1824. Meckel's first observations on the subject appeared in a paper, 
Leber d.e seUhehe As^ n.n,etrie im thierischen Korper," in his ' Anatomisch-phvsiologi.che Untersuchuugen,' Halie. 

r- Note': US T- 1 't '• "^-"^^ '' '-'-^' t Se; p. 287, note. 

XX pp. 3T0-3T2. "' Pleuronectes dans le jeune age," Ann. des Sciences Naturelles, 3^ scr.e. 



embrvo * ; l)ut lie seems to me to be the first to appreciate the morphological yaluc of 

such phenomena. 
But very recently Steenstrup has revived the theory of Rosenthal, that the upper eye 

ks passed through the head to the place it now occupies, and that this " migration " of 

one of the eyes has had a much more important share in bringing about the ocular 

transposition than any slight twisting that may have taken place f. According to 

news, "The eye, at an early stage, must have quitted its primitive position, and 

directing itself upwards and towards the interior, pierced the vault of the cranuim con- 
stituted above the eye by the frontal bone, and formed for itself a new orbit, whether on 
the internal region of the frontal bone of the same side or between the two frontals." 
In support of this theory, he refers to the appearances presented by several very in- 
teresting young Pleuronectidae, each about an inch long, brought from various localities 
in the Atlantic, and deposited in the Museum at Copenhagen, and directs especial at- 
tention to one in which one eye seems to be arrested in the process of piercing tlie head. 
In addition, M. Steenstrup remarks that the osteology of the head of the adult flatfish 
confirms his view of the process of ocular transposition in the embryo^ Like Rosenthal, 
he compares the head of a flatfish to that of a Cyclopean malformation, and affirms that 
the position in which we find the upper eye is not homologous with that occupied by the 
lower, nor with the orbit of any other fish or vertebrate animal in general. 

I can only say that the results of my own investigations do not agree with those state- 
ments of the above-quoted distinguished naturalist. What the views are which I have 
adopted will appear in the following paper ; meanwhile I will only remark that the ap- 
pearances presented by the cranium of the adult flatfish seem to me to be at complete 
variance with any theory that the two eyes of these animals occupy morphologically 
different positions from each other. In this communication I have named the bones 

to the nomenclature £iven in Professor Owen's ' Lectures on Comparative 

Anatomy ; ' but, in doing so, I do not wish to be considered as committing myself 
ofthe general morphological ideas which may be associated with that nomenc.a.ux. 
Sones must, however, have names ; and so long as our investigation does not trench oi 
^^^ general question of the homologies of the vertebrate skeleton, one system ot names 
provided it be widely known, may be used as advantageously as any other. 

I. On the Cranium of the FlenronecUda. 
In studying the cranium of the flatfishes, we must take into account the ^^^'^ilage and 
membrane, which form morphologically as integral a part of the skeleton as the bones 

,, *^ Cases of similar monstrosities or arrestments of development had been previously recorded, by Donovan as 
Tt!r '^^'f ^^ ^^^^^-P - " ^^-™^- "^^"^ '?''''" ^"' ^Irf ■ Vaudrin.en af det Ovre Ol 

'" M,n.lslde„ ti, Oiesiden t.L igennend Hovedet," Kjobenhavn, 18C4. Saerskdt Aftrjk a, 0>er.„t 



Selsk. Forhandl. i. Nov. 1863. , , 

^l-^^ervations sur le Developpement des Pleuronectes." par M. Steenstrnp (Annales de. 

'^'^^'- 1864). 

'^^' f^^'oer of tbese two papers, being written in the Danish language, I have not yet read. 

Sciences Naturelles, Paris, 

2 I' -i 

> 9 


themselves. It will also be necessary to compare the cranium and its parts with that 
of a symmetrical fish ; and, for this purpose, we may select the cranium of the common 
Cod [G adus morrhua)^ a fish belonging to the same suborder (Anacanthina) of the Telostei 
as the Plcuronectida). As a standard for such comparison this cranium will do very -well, 
tht; (lifforences between its plan of structure and that of the flatfish-skull being really im- 

In such a cranium (Plate XXIX. fig. 16) we find three principal parts, each connected 
witli one great organ of special sense. 

1. A posterior cavity (z) containing the brain and organ of hearing, this cavity being, 
in the macerated skull, widely open in front, and showing a ** foramen magnum " he- 


hind for the exit of the spinal cord. Into its composition enter the basilar, exoccipitalj 
paroccipital, supraoccipital, petrous, mastoid, orbitosphenoid, alisphenoid, part of the 
basipresphenoid, and part of the mid or great frontal bones, also a considerable 
quantity of unossified cartilage. 

2. A middle or interorbital part (y), consisting of part of the frontal bone above, part 
of the basipresphenoid below, with a fibrous membrane (the " septum interorbitalc ") ex- 
tending vertically between them. This septum is formed by the coalescence of two 
fibrous laminse, which close to a considerable extent the anterior opening of the brain- 
case, and also complete a groove on the under surface of the frontal bone into a canal 
which continues the brain-cavity as far forwards as the nose, and lodges the crura of the 
olfactory bulbs. Note, that while the basipresphenoid below remains a narrow bar, the 
frontal bone above forms a large broad arched plate, which both contributes to the general 
stability of the cranium and forms very efficient roofs for the orbits. 

3. An anterior or nasal part (x), which contains no cavity, but presents two openings 
for the olfactory nerves— one on each side of a central mass of cartila-e. This part of the 

petrosals. The other 

cranmm consists of four bones— the vomer below, the nasal bone above, and the two pre- 
frontals on each side, each of which is notched internally for an olfactory nerve. All 
these bones are supported by the central mass of cartilage already referred to. 

Another well-known circumstance in the structure of the skull of the Cod, as of other 
fishes, must be noticed, viz. that, when the individual bones are disarticulated, certain of 
them can be removed without in the least interfering with the primordial cartilage, of vvliich 
a considerable quantity still remains. In the Cod these superficial bones, or " Dcck- 
knochen," are invariably the vomer, the basipresphenoid, the frontal, the parictals, and 

bones are so intimately connected to the cartilage, that they 
cannot be separated without tearing it and carrying away pieces of it in their substance. 
They are the basioccipital, paroccipitals, exoccipitals, supraoccipital, mastoids, post- 
trontals, alisphenoids, orbitosphenoids, prefrontals, and nasal. 

^ ihe only differences worthy of note between the general plan of the Cod's skull as 
given above and that in the flatfishes are, that the two halves of the single frontal bone 
m the Cod are represented in the latter by two distinct bones, and that in the flatfishes 
inc membranous interorbital septum contains no tubular ' prolongation of the brain- 

^avity. In the Pleuronectidae and in the Gadidie the relations of the bones to the 
car.ilan'e are identionl 




One of the simplest crania to be met with among the Pleuronectidae is that of tlie 
Turbot {Ehomhus maximus), of which illustrations are given in Plate XXIX. figs. 
1-7). This cranium, truncated behind and somewhat pointed in front, presents 
superiorly a longitudinal ridge (fig. 1, /3) which, though commencing posteriorly in the 
middle line, does not diAdde the head into two equal parts as it advances. On the con- 
trary, the anterior part of the cranium is broader to the left than to the right of this 
ridge, or of its supposed continuation forwards in a straight line ; and this happens both 
because the skull anteriorly is actually considerably broader on the left than on the right 
side, and because the ridge itself deviates a little, though very slightly, towards the right 
side. This ridge supports the cephalic continuation of the dorsal fin. Posteriorly we at 
once recognize the brain-cavity, with its foramen magnum for the exit of the spinal 
cord, and various other foramina for cranial nerves. In front of the brain-cavity, and to 
the left side, is an oval orbit (b), which lodges the upper eye, the lower eye lying free 
beneath the lower bony margin of that orbit. In front of the orbit we recognize the 
nasal part of the cranium, with its two olfactory foramina, one on each side of the central 
cartilage (a). 

On comparing this cranium with that of the Cod, we observe that while in the latter 

the anterior and posterior parts of the skull are connected by two bars of bone — an 
inferior narrow one (basipresphenoid) and a superior flattened arch-shaped one (frontal) 
we have here three bars, the two upper bounding between them the orbit for the upper 
eye. To the left of these two bars, which forms the lower boundary of the orbit and lies 
between the two eyes, I shall give the name mterocular ; and to the other one, wluch 
bounds the orbit on the right side, and proceeds forward in the apparent middle line, 
give the name pseudo -mesial. 

In the Turbot and its congeners the eyes lie both on the left side usually— the upper 
one in the orbit, the lower free beneath the lower margin of that orbit, formed by 
the interocular bar. As, however, in some other groups of flatfishes the eyes are usually 
on the right side, to prevent confusion I shall, in the description of the bones of the 


flatfish-head, abando 


n the terms "right 


and "left" altogether, and use instead the 

s " 

eyed" and "eyeless." 

Proceeding now to disarticulate the Turbot's cranium, we find that posteriorly the 
tones are very little altered in their symmetry. 
^moccipUal ( i ). The Ions; axis of this bone is somewhat obliquely placed as regards 

tbe transverse plane of the disk on its posterior surface for articulatmg witli the first 
^'ertebra, pointing a little towards the eyed side. 

Ej^occlpitals ( 

^(■'^roccipitals ( 


Very symmetrical. 
The posterior projecting process 

is often longer on the eyeless 

^lisphenoids ( 6 ). Very symmetrical 




. Very nearly equal 
generally a little lon^e 

d conformation 

That of the eyeless side 

than that of the eyed 


These bones are much smaller 

the Cod, and lie quite supe 

That of the eyeless side is in the Turbot always larger than the opposite 



and accordingly on tlie outside of the skull covers up more of the mastoid and exoccipital 
bones from view. 

TliL' JPo.sffrontdl (^'^) is longer ou the eyeless side, and its long axis curves a little 
round to the cved side. (See fig. 3, Plate XXIX.) 

Tarlctals {t). As in the case of the postfrontals, the parietal of the eyeless side is 

considoruhly Ioniser than its fellow. The dilference is best seen when the bones arc 


The bones enumerated in the last paragraph show but little in regard to the symmetry 
of the head. In those next to be noticed, the indications are more decided. 

JBcsi-presjjhenoi'J {o). This bone is slightly bent towards the eyeless side, a little 
behind its middle. I^or description it may be divided into three parts. The posterior 
llattcncd part, which overlaps the basioccipital, is symmetrical. The middle part presents 
above on each side an ascending laminar process or wang, which bounds laterally a 
channel lodging the origin of the eye-muscles, this channel, however, passing obliquely 
across the long axis of the bone from the eyeless towards the eyed side. The anterior 
part, which receives the pointed end of the vomer, is apparently twisted on its long 
axis up towards the eyeless side, this appearance being principally caused by a greater 
development in a more vertical direction of that side of the bone. 

OrhllospTienoid (>o). On the eyeless side this bone is longer than on the eyed side; the 
direction of its axis also agrees with that of the eye-muscle canal of the basi-presj^henoid 
in pointing obliquely across to the eyed side (see Plate XXIX. fig. 3), the part shaded 
with horizontal lines indicating the cartilaginous tips of the bones. 

TJie Supraoccij)ital {^) presents a scale-shaped "body," forming part of the roof of 
the cranial cavity, surmounted by a very prominent ridge or spine. The flattened part 
is tolerably symmetrical ; its long axis, often slightly curved, points, however, to the 
eyed side ; but the spine 0), though commencing posteriorly in the middle line, passes 
forwards, with a slight deviation towards the eyeless side, impinges on the frontal bone 
of that side, and, if continued further forwards, would pass quite by the eyeless side of 
the orbit. Its direction, though thus slightly deviating, is, however, nearly in the midd(> 
line of the top of the head. 

he supraoccipital bono is tlius very unequally divided, the larger moiety being on 
the ocular side. 

If now, before we proceed further, we turn to Plate XXIX. figs. 2 and 3, we shaU see 
that, although the basal keel of the cranium is continued forwards in nearly a straight 
line, the long axis of the cranial cavity, which that keel underHes, points round to the 
eyed side, anteriorly crossing that keel at an amrle. This is well illustrated by the 


structure of the basi-prcsphenoid bone itself (5) where the eye-muscle channel, which 
is simply the lower part of the cranial cavity, crosses the long axis of the bone. This 
also explains the reason why several of the cranial bones, as the parietal, mastoid, post- 
frontal, and orl)itosphcnoid, arc longer on the eyeless side, simply because they have a 
longer extent to traverse, as is illustrated in the accompanying diagram (fig. 1.) 

Notice also that, although the long axis of the supraoccipital bone follows the general 
twist of the cranial cavity in pointing towards the eyed side (indicated by the dotted 



the diagram), the spine of the bone continues forwards nearly in '^|* 

Ocular 1 Ev^''*** 

tlie same straight line as tlie middle line of the entire fish (indicated hy ^-je'!'' | ^iwc" 
tlie straight line in the diagram). To the first of these lines, continuing 
forwards the axis of the hody of the supraoccipital bone, I give the name 
"morphological middle line;" and to the line of the spine of the supra- 
occipital, which also supports the cephalic prolongation of the dorsal fin, tlie 

name "pseudomesial." 

In advance of the orbitosphenoid, postfrontal, parietal, and supraoccipital bones arc 
two bones (u' & n)^ which, from their position, must be the frontals. Each consists of £ 


posterior somewhat square-shaped part, forming part of the roof of the brain-cavity, anc 
of an anterior more slender curved part, which, with its fellow of the opposite side 
forms the interocular bony ridge or bar. The anterior part of the bone of the oculai 

side (m', Plate XXIX. figs. 1 & 7) is strongly curved, the concavity looking upwards 
and to the eyeless side ; at its extremity it articulates with the prefrontal of its own side, 
touches the nasal bone, and rests likewise on a portion of primordial cartilage, to be 
presently described (a, fig. 1). The bone of the eyeless side (Plate XXIX., fig. 7, 1 1) is dis- 
tinguished by having its posterior part larger, the external anterior angle {n) projecting 
forwards so as to take a slight part in the formation of the pseudomesial bar of tlie 
cranium, which bounds the orbit on the eyeless side. The anterior part (m) (" inter- 
ocular process ") is much more slender than the corresponding part of the bone of the 
ocular side, and to which it is closely applied ; at its extremity it likewise rests on a 
portion of primordial cartilage, but does not touch its corresponding prefrontal. ^ It 
forms the entire lower boundary of the orbit, and, with its fellow of the opposite side, 
forms the interocular bar of the cranium. 

We now see that the morphological mesial line continued from the supraoccipital 
l)one in the line separating the two frontal bones from each other, at first deviating but 
sliglitly towards the eyed side, afterwards curves round the orbit along the interocular 
W till anteriorly it tends again to coincide with the apparent middle line, ^.^ ^ 

the adjoining dia^'ram. In the figures of crania (Plate XXIX.) I 





represented the course of the morphological middle line by a dotted 
tWs is the true morphological middle line, and that the interocular bar is the 
only and complete homologue of the frontal arch in the Cod, is proved simply 
V the fact that between the interocular bar and the basi-presphenoid bone 
^liere extends a fibrous membrane, having imbedded in it the olfactory nerves 
^s they proceed to the nasal foss^ in front. This membrane represents the 
fibrous interorbital septum in the Cod; but, by the twisting over of the mesial plai 
f the ocular region to one side, this septum in the Turbot, instead of remaining verticn 
has become nearly horizontal, and instead of coinciding with the mesial plane of t 


M tlie fisli, has become set nearly at right 

In the Turbot, as in 

«er Pleuroneetidaj. the olfactory nerves are not containe.t in a tubular prolo,>gation of 

*'^ brain-cayity at the ton of the interorbital septum as in the Cod, but are simplj 
"nbedded in its substance. The ophthalmic branches of the fifth nerve on each side, 
"^* in the Cod lie beneath the frontal arch, here carve round between the eyes, along 


processes of the frontal bones, till they end in the nostrils and front of tlic 


The main slime-canals, one for either side, which in the Cod pass between the eyes 

frontal arch, here pass between the eyes along the interocnlar bar, bein 


nellcd out in the interocnlar process of its corresponding frontal bone. (See Part III. 

of this essay.) 

But what, then, is the pseudomcsial bar or bridge in theTurbot's craninm, if the inter- 
ocular bar be the complete representative of the frontal arch in the Cod ? This we shall 

see presently. 
"We now come to the anterior or nasal part of the cranium, characterized by two 

olfactory foramina, of which that of the ocular side is more anterior than the other. As 
in the Cod, this portion of the cranium consists of a central piece of cartilage, support- 
ing four bones, the vomer below, the nasal above, and the two prefrontals, one on each 

The Cartilage. — This portion of cartilage (a, figs. 1-5), more extensive than the 
corresponding remnant in the Cod, appears as a very rudely quadrangular plate with a 
large hole through its middle, connected to bones all round its edges, save the concave 
posterior one, which is continuous with the fibrous septum between the eyes, already 
referred to. On each side of it an olfactory nerve passes to its corresponding olfactory 
foramen in the direction indicated by the bristles in Plate XXIX. figs. 3-5. It there- 
fore indicates the morphological mesial plane of the anterior part of the cranium, and 
would be vertical were it not for the twisting over to one side which has occurred. It 
rests beneath on the basi-presphenoid and vomer ; in front it supports the nasal hone 
(15), and laterally, round its anterior inferior angle, it is intimately connected to the 
prefrontals (h' & u\ one on each side. Above, the anterior extremities of the inter- 
ocnlar processes of the frontal bones rest on it, as follows : — A londtudinal notch divides 

the upper edge of the cartilage into two unequal pointed processes {g & h, Plate XXIX. 
figs. 3-5). Of these, that of the eyed side {g), by far the largest, is lodged in a hofiow 
on the under surface of the stout interocnlar process of the frontal of the same side, and 
supports also the posteriorly directed process [a) of the corresponding prefrontal {}") \ 
the other one {h) is similarly related to the end of the slender interocnlar process of the 
frontal of the eyeless side, ])ut is not touched by its prefrontal, save at its very base. 
Now this notch, separating those two processes, as it indicates the line of separation 
between the interocnlar processes of the two frontal bones, must likewise indicate the 
morphological middle line of the cartilage ; so that here we have a mesial cartilage, not 
only unsymmetrical in its position, but also in the development of its two sides, the 
greater development being on the ocular side of the fish. 

Vomer [n). The posterior part of the vomer, which fits into a groove on the lower 
aspect of the basi-presphenoid, is more developed on the eyeless than on the eyed side ; 
on the <>yeless side also the ala for articulating with the prefrontal is larger, and projects 
more vertically upwards than on the opposite side; so that, like the anterior part of the 
basi-presphenoid (p. 2GS), the vomer has slightly the appearance of being twisted up on 
Its long axis towards the eyeless side. In outward form, however, the head of the bone 



which bears tlie vomerine teetli (Plate XXIX. fig. 2) does not participate much in tliis 

apparent twisting. 

Xiisal (15). This bone is tolerably symmetrical as regards the development of its t^vo 
sides. In front it presents a deep transverse notch, at which point the bone is sliglitly 


beut, the concavity being towards the ocular side. We have then the nasal prominence 
divided into two parts by the aforesaid notch, the upper (i, figs. 5 & 6, Plate XXIX.) 
giving attachment to ligaments connected with the maxillary bones, and continuing 
forwards the direction of the still oblique morphological middle line ; the lower and 
anterior (Jc) forming an articular ridge, on which the intermaxillary nodule of cartilage 
ides downwards and upwards, and forwards and backwards, as the jaws open and 
shut, coincides in its direction with the pseudomesial line also ; so that the notch be- 
tween these two prominences of the nasal bone is the point where the morphological 
middle line again returns to the apparent middle line of the top of the head 

Plate XXIX. fig. 1). 

The two prefrontals are at once known by the notch borne by each, and which is com- 
pleted into an olfactory foramen (c) by the contiguous nasal bone. 

The prefrontal of the eyed side (»') is somewhat triangular in shape; anteriorly and 
to the inner side it presents the notch already spoken of, articulates with the nasal bone, 
and touches the primordial cartilage. Below the olfactory notch it is extensively con- 
tiuiioiis with the primordial cartilage, and also sends down a process (c) which articulates 
with the corresponding ala of the vomer. Opposite the olfactory notch, and on the outer 
side of the bone, is a prominence {e) to which the anterior suborbital bone of that side is 
attached ; and posteriorly a pointed process {a) is sent back, which articulates with the 
interocular process of the corresponding frontal bone, and rests internally on the pnmor- 
dial cartilage which forms the anterior part of the " septum iuterorbitale " (see p ^"'^^ 

The prefrontal of the eyeless side (h) is 
sliape. Anteriorly it is similarly related to the nasal bone, and presents the same olfactory 
notch that we saw in the other bone. The same process {c) is sent downwards and for- 
^•ards to articulate with the vomer ; and an additional one {b) is sent downwards and 
l^ackwards to articulate with the basi-presphenoid. But the great mass of the bone 
projects liackwards in a great flat quadrangular process (/), which, instead of articu- 
lating with the interocular process of the frontal of the eyeless side, as the posteriorly 
<iirected process {a) of the other prefrontal does with its corresponding frontal, passes 
round the other side of the orbit, and, joining the external angular process of the frontal 
of the eyeless side, forms, with it, the pseudomesial bar of the cranium, which bounds 

tlie orbit on the eyeless side. . ., . 

The orbit which contains the upper eye, then, is bounded posteriorly and on the outer 
^ide by the interocular process of the frontal of the eyeless side, at the anterior angle by 
^ small portion of primordial cartilage (.), on the inner side 4>y the external angular 
process of the frontal of the eyeless side and by the posteriorly directed process (/) of 

tlie corresponding prefrontal. . ^ r 1 • u 

If we now examine the prefrontal bones in the Cod, the lateral aspect of one of which 

VOL. XXV. 2 Q 

much larger, and of a rudely quadrangular 


IS n^'ured in Plate XXIX. fig. 16 (u), and disarticulated in fig. 17, we shall find tliat the 
connexions of each bone are as follows : — 


1. It sliovrs two processes {dd) going towards the nasal bone, with an olfactory notch 
between them (c). 

2. An anteriorly du'ected process {c) for the ala of the vomer. 

3. A posterior-inferior process {b) for articulation with the basi-presphenoid. 

4. A posterior-superior process {a) going upwards and backwards to join the frontal bone. 

5. A lateral process (<?), tipped with cartilage, opposite the olfactory notch, to which the 
anterior suborbital bone is attached. 

Tow, on comparing the prefrontal of the ocular side in the Turbot with this, we find 

that everything corresponds exactly, save that the process (5) for articulation with the 

basi-presphenoid is wanting, the interval being filled up by mere cartilage. (Plate 

XXIX. figs. 2, 4, 5.) 

The prefrontal of the eyeless side, though it presents a large process {h) for articula- 


tion with the basi-presphenoid, shows no trace of the process («) for articulating with 
the intcrocular part of the frontal ; it does not touch it at all. But what, then, is the large 
process/? That it is not homologous with the process {a) projecting upwards and 
backwards in the Cod and in the other prefrontal of the Turbot, is evident from its bearing 
no relation to the olfactory nerve of its side, nor to the interocular septum. On the other 
side, the olfactory nerve runs close beneath the process a, as indicated by the bristle 
in Plate XXIX. fig. 4. It follows, then, that this process (/) in the prefrontal bone 
of the eyeless side is an additional process having no homologue either in the Cod or in 
the prefrontal of the opposite side in the Turbot. "We may call it " external angular," 
corresponding with that process already described in the frontal of the same side, and 
which has also no homologue in the Cod or in the eyed side of the Turbot. 

And now we see what the nature of that bar of bone is, which I have called pseudomcsial 
(p. 267), and which one is apt at first to think homologous with the whole or part of the 
frontal arch in the Cod and other symmetrical osseous fishes. Seeing that the true 
homologue of the frontal arch in the Cod's head has been reduced to a narrow bar, and 
twisted over to one side (p. 269), we have, in the pseudomesial bar, a secondary forma- 
tion destined to supply the place of the weak and displaced frontal arch in forming a 
strong and efficient bridge of connexion between the anterior and posterior parts of the 
cranium, and also to support the cephalic continuation of the dorsal fin. 

The cranium we have just considered is the least asymmetrical and most easily un- 
derstood which I have met with in the Pleuronectidaj. We shall now proceed to exa- 
mine and compare with it the crania of some of the other Pleuronectid^e, and note to 
what further steps the process of distortion proceeds, before finally generalizing on the 
changes which have taken place. 

The cranium of the BrHl {Mhomhus vulgaris) is nearly identical with that of the Tur- 
bot. Put we must remark that the interocular process of the frontal of the eyeless side is 
proportK.nally more slender than in the Turbot, while the external angular process of 
the sanae bone is more pronounced, and forms more of the inner wall of the orbit, than 
m the last-named fish 



111 the group of flatfishes to which, the Elounders belong, we find the rays of the 
dorsal fin advancing only so far as the middle of the orbit ; and the eyes are normally 
placed on the right side of the head. There is also a very marked tendency for the 
mouth to become twisted towards the opposite side of the body to that on which tlie 
eyes are placed. 

As characteristic of this group, we first consider the cranium of the Ilalibut (llippo- 
glossus vulgaris) (Plate XXIX. figs, 8-11). 

On looking at the under surface of the Halibut's cranium (Plate XXIX. fig. 9), we 
find the basal keel pretty straight in itself ; but when the head is in situ on the end of 
the vertebral column, this keel points strongly to the eyeless side. In the occipital 
region the skull is apparently broader on the eyed than on the eyeless side ; this is duo 
to a greater prominence on that side of the mastoid (s) and exoccipital (2) bones; the 
petrous (16) is also larger. The middle line of the posterior aspect of the skull is also 
strongly curved, the convexity being towards the ocular side, and corresponds with a 
similar curve, to be afterwards alluded to, in the spinous processes of the anterior ver- 
tebrae (p. 285). 

Tlie haslocc'qntal (1) is unsymmetrical, the middle line of the inferior surface pointing 
to the eyeless side, while that of the upper surface of the bone, indicating the twist of the 
cranial cavity, diverges towards the eyed side. The mesial vertical plane of the bone is 
therefore pushed over to the eyed side anteriorly. 

The hasi-presphenoid (5) presents in a much more exaggerated form than in the 
Turhot the apparent twisting-up of its anterior part on its long axis towards the eye- 
less side ; here, indeed, the groove in which the end of the vomer is inserted looks 
quite to that side. The axis of the entire bone points to the eyeless side, as I have 
aheady noticed. 

"^he postfrotital of the eyed side (12) has the semilunar excavation, which, by a similar 
one in the alisphenoid bone, is completed into an articular cavity (d) for the head of the 
epitympanic, placed further forwards on its surface than on the eyeless side, so that the 
attachment of the suspensory apparatus to the cranium reaches further forwards on the 
former than on the latter side. Tliis is important in connexion mth the conformation 


of the bones of the face (p. 278). 

The orUtosphenoid (.0) is laro«er on the eyeless than on the eyed side, and its long 
a^s points considerably over towards the eyed side. In the view of the under surface 
of the skull given (Plate XXIX. fig. 9) the real size of this bone is not apparent, owmg 
*o Its concealment by the basi-presphenoid. 

The supraoccipital (3) shows in a more marked manner than in the Turbot the 
^ergence of the morpliological from the apparent middle line at the back of the head. 

*s direction is indicated by the red Hne in the figure. 1 • t, i ++ 

The panetal of the eyeless side (7) is broader than the opposite one, which latter, 

^o^ever, is often a little Ion.... 

. "^^^^ frontal of the eyed side (n') corresponds very much in shape with the same bone 
^^ the Turbot. But that of the eyeless side (n) has its external angular process much 

•^ 2 q2 




more ilevoloped, forminGf more tlian one-half of tlic inner wall of the orhit, while the 
intcrocular process is reduced to a mere eurved spiculum (m, fi^. 11), passing all round 
the outer margin of the orbit, elosely applied to the stouter interocnlar process of the 
other frontal hone. A ridge continued from the supraoccipital bone passes over the 
frontal of the eyeless side, and on to its external angular process; it supports the 
eoplialic continuation of the dorsal fin. 

Anterior Tart of the Head.— The Cartilage (Plate XXIX. figs. 8-10, a).— This is 
thinner and smaller than in the Turbot, but its shape and relations are analogous. 
Its upper border is divided by two notches into three very unequal processes, of which 


that on the ocular side, by far the largest, extends posteriorly, and supports the process 
(a) of the prefontal of the ocular side. Into the larger notch {g) on the ocular side is 
inserted the extremity of the interocular process of the frontal of the same side ; and 
into the smaller notch {h) on the other side is inserted the extremity of the correspond- 


ing part of the frontal of the eyeless side, in the manner represented in Plate XXI 
fig. S. This cartilage, then, as in the Turbot, is very unequally developed Fig. 3. 
on its two sides, the side corresponding to the eyeless side of the fish ap- 
pearing as if quite atrophied— corresponding with the small size of the in- 
terocular process of the frontal and the complete non-development of the 
process {a) of the prefrontal of the eyeless side (see p. 272). 

Vouier (13). — This bone appears twisted on its long axis up towards the eyeless side, 
as in the Turbot, but in a more exaggerated degree (see Plate XXX. fig. 3, where the 
vomer is seen from the front). Anteriorly it presents two articular facets (;; & q, 
figs. 8, 9, Plate XXIX.), of which that on the eyeless side {p) is larger, ^'^- ^; 
and loolvs more laterally than 'the opposite one {q) ; a line bisectin_ 
the angle formed by these two facets would pass obliquely towards the 
eyeless side, as in the adjoining diagram. The lateral ala on the eyeless side, 
besides being larger, and directed more vertically upwards, is also directed 
more posteriorly than the opposite one ; so that the bone, in addition to 
being twisted on its long axis upwards and to the eyeless side, has that 
axis turned to the eyeless side at its extremity, as 'indicated by the dotted line in the 
diagram. The full import of this will be seen when we consider the bones of the face. 

The prominence {k) on which the intermaxillary cartilage glides is obliquely 
directed towards the eyeless side. The nasal bone in the Halibut is more expanded 
transversely than in the Turbot, and thus comes to enter into the boundary of the orbit 
(Phite XXIX. figs. 8 & 10, 15 ). Jt is also apparent that this increase of size transversely is 
chiefly due to development on its eyeless side. 

Prefrontals (u'& u).— These are more nearly of the same size as in the Turbot, though that 
of the eyeless side is still a good deal larger than its fellow. I have already alluded to the 
fact that in the Turbot the process (a) of the prefrontal of the ocular side, which articu- 
lates with the interocular process of the corresponding frontal, is not at all developed m 

Ocular. \\ I Kreless 


^ prefrontal of the eyeless side, an interval filled l)y cartilage (s, Plate XXIX. fi 
bemg left between the frontal and prefrontal anteriorly on that side. In the Ha 
the prefrontal of the eyeless side, at the place where the process (a) should be givei 




is still less developed, and, the primordial cartilage in this region being less extensive than 
in the Turbot, a space is left in the anterior wall of the orbit, which is filled up by a de- 
Tclopment from the corresponding side of the nasal bone. (Compare the boundaries of 

tlie orbit in Plate XXIX. fig. 1 and in fig. 8.) 

In the cranium of Flatessa pola the interocular process of the frontal of the eye- 
less side presents a form intermediate between its condition in the ITalibut and that 
in the Plaice, next to be described. It is continued between the eyes as a very slender 
spiculum, much more delicate than the corresponding part in the Halibut, and very apt 
to be broken off in disarticulating the skull. The external angular process of the same 
bone is very largely developed, and, with the corresponding part of the prefrontal of the 
eyeless side, forms the pseudomesial bar of the cranium into an expanded and flattened 
vertical plate, apparently designed to support the curious series of ampuUatcd mucous 
canals on the eyeless side of the head of this fish (see Plate XXXI. figs. 6, 7). The two 
frontal bones are represented in Plate XXIX. fig. 15. 

In the Plaice {Flatessa vulgaris) the general form of the cranium is much the same 
as in the Halibut ; but some of the asymmetries indicated in the latter have run to a 

much greater excess. 

The keel, on the under surface of the cranium (Plate XXIX. fig. 13), is strongly bent 
towards the eyeless side J and its anterior extremity is also twisted strongly upwards on 


towards the same side 



The external angular process of the frontal of the eyeless side (Plate XXIX. fig. U «) 
similar to that in the Halibut ; but the interocular process (m) is almost completely 
non-developed, so that the greater part of the lower or external boundary of the orbit 
is formed by the frontal of the ocular side ; and this circumstance might easily lead a 
superficial- observer to imagine that the interocular process of the bone of the oc ar 
side is homologous with the external angular of the opposite one. This seems to la. ^ 
been Posenthal's idea when he speaks of the upper eye being "placed be 
two long processes of the frontal bones, after the manner of Cyclopian ^^^^^^^J^-^;.;^ ^^ 
But the untenableness of this idea will be at once apparent if we refer to J^ ^ J . 
frontal bones figured in Plate XXIX. figs. 7, 11, 14 15, and to the relations of the^inter- 
ocular fibrous septum and olfactory nerves, which here occupy an exactly sum ai 

to what they do in the Turbot (p. 269). ^^ ^ , ,, ^.^., ^:a^ is 

The prefrontals (....) are fiishioned much as in the Halibut; that o the oculai side 

pushed forwards somewhat in advance of the other (Plate XXIX. ^S- \^>^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^_ 

Tlie nasal bone forms a large part of the orbital ^'^^i'^^'^^'^'f '^ ' J,.ia.e (h) on its 
^eloped on the side corresponding to the eyeless side of the heaa. ^J ' ^. ^^^ 

-terior surface, on which'the intermaxillary cartilage ^^ ^^^"^'^ 
towards the eyeless side (Plate XXIX. fig. 12, Plate XXX. t,. /> i 

^th the direction of the analogous part in the Turbot (p. 2^ 

Vomer. ^The two facets {p q, Plate XXIX. fig. 12) 


end of 


placed that the line 

^i^ieh the heads of the superior maxillary bones glide, are ^\f ^^^;;;;;;;;..,i,33 ^jde 
"^g the an^lc wlnVi. ,i... L.. ^.-,1, on.h other passes very obliquely to the eyeless 

glc Avhich they form with each other passes 

♦ Loc. cit. 


in the same direction as the articular ridge above on the nasal bone. In consequence 
of this confonnation of the nasal bone and vomer the long axis of the oral appa- 
ratus points obliquely to the eyeless side, and when the mouth opens it is protruded in 
the same direction. (See description of facial bones.) 
The cranium of the Plaice, tlien, is more unsymmetrical than that of the Halibut in 

Iraost complete non-development of the interocular pro- Fig. 5. 

3f the frontal bone of the eyeless side ; and, in conse- 

R. Najal 


L. Nasal 

R. Eve. 

qucncc, the corresponding process of the other frontal forms \^,Z 
almost the whole of the external or lower boundary of the 
orbit. The nasal bone enters more largely into the boundary 
of the orbit in front, and the process of twisting of the ante- 
rior part of the skull upwards towards the eyeless and down- 
wards to^vards the eyed side, as well as the bending of the 
axis of the keel of the cranium towards the eyeless side, has 
proceeded to a greater extent. In the adjoining diagram the dotted line represents the 
apparent middle line of the head of a Plaice, the thick black line the axis of the keel of 
the cranium, and the thin black line the morphological middle line. 

Tlie changes from the symmetrical type which have taken place in the cranium of the 
Pleuroneetidiie may be summed up in the following propositions 

1. The mesial vertical plane of the cranium has become inclined over to the now bin 
ocular side of the head, very slightly in the posterior part of the cranium, very much ii 
the region of the eyes (so that the original vertical interorbital septum becomes nov 

rly horizontal), returning in the nasal region nearly to its original vertical 

• J « 

Turbot, but never doing so in the Halibut or Plaice 

2. In consequence of this, the middle line of the base of the skull remains still com- 
paratively straight; while the middle line of the upper surface, diverging from the 
apparent or pseudomesial line, curves round between the eyes (which the turning-over 
of the mesial plane has of course brought to one side), and returns to the middle in 
front. Having got in front of the eyes and nasal fossae in the Turbot, it again coin- 
cides, or nearly so, with the apparent middle line ; but in the Halibut, and still more 
so in the Plaice, the apparent and morphological middle lines, if produced, would cross 
each other. 

3. In the anterior part of the cranium, the parts on the eyeless side of the middle line 
of the base are, in all the Pleuronectida?, more developed than on the ocular side. This 
is exemplified in the more strong development of the eyeless side of the anterior part of 
the basi-presphenoid, in the greater breadth of the ala of the vomer on that side, in ^'^^ 
greater breadth of the orbitosphenoid, and in the great development of the processes 
(cand^* in the figures) sent down by the prefrontal to articulate with the vomer and basi- 
presphenoid. While, on the ocular side, the orbitosphenoid is narrower, the ala of the 
vomer is smaller, and the prefrontal does not articulate at all with the basi-presphe- 
noid. Not only are those parts, on the eyeless side of the middle line below, more de- 
veloped than on the ocular side, but their development is in a more vertical direction 
upwards ; so that the whole anterior part of the cranium assumes an appearance as if i 


were twisted, up to the eyeless side, down towards the ocular side. In connexion with this, 
we must notice the greater elevation on the eyeless side of the olfactory foramen, and of 
tlie articulation to the cranium of the palatine apparatus and of the anterior suhorbital 

■ M 


4. On the top of the head the interocular parts of the frontal and prefrontal l)oiies are 
more developed on the ocular side. The interocular process of the frontal of the ocuhar 
side is always much stouter than that of the other bone, and always articulates witli a 
corresponding process sent back from the prefrontal. But the prefrontal of the eyeless 
side sends back no process to articulate with the frontal of the same side, whose inter- 
ocular part, if examined in a series of flatfishes, gets smaller and smaller, till in the 
Plaice it seems almost gone. The same condition affects the morphologically mesial 
plate of cartilage forming the anterior part of the interocular septum, which cartihige 
we have already seen to be chiefly developed on the ocular side. 

5. To accommodate the two eyes, now both on one side of the head, the anterior parts 
of the frontal bones remain as a narrow bar, never widening out into a broad arch as in 
the Cod and other fishes. Accordingly, to maintain the requisite stability of the cra- 
nium, a new bar or bridge of bone is formed (pseudomesial) by the union of a process 
sent forwards from the anterior external angle of the frontal of the eyeless side with one 
sent back from the corresponding prefrontal. By means of this bar the upper eye 
becomes closed round by a bony orbit, whose boundaries in the Turbot consist of the 
interocular process of the frontal of the eyeless side, the external angular process of the 
same bone, the external angular process of the corresponding prefrontal, and a small 
portion of cartilage in front. In the nalibut and Plaice, however, the nasal bone comes 
to take part in the boundary of the orbit principally by a development from its eyeless 
side ; and in the latter fish, owing to the atrophy of the interocular portion of the frontal 
of the eyeless side, the corresponding part of the other frontal forms almost the entire 
external boundary of the orbit. 

6. The olfactory foramen and the place of suspension of the anterior suborbital bone are 
farther forward on the ocular side, slightly in the Turbot, to a marked degree in the 
Halibut and Plaice, in which latter fish the entire prefrontal bone is on this side 
pushed further forwards. The articulation of the epitympanic bone to the cranium, m 

^ HaHbut and Plaice, likewise extends further forward on the ocular side. 
. 7. The axis of the keel of the cranium, pretty straight in the Turbot, points, however, 
^^ the Halibut, and still more so in the Plaice, to the eyeless side. In the Sole, on the 
«t.^er hand, it is bent with the convexity downwards-a condition apparently connected 
^ ^ the peculiar mechanism of the jaws in that fish. 

II. _J3ones of the Face 

/^^^^- Pcaato-suspensory Apvaratus. Opercular Apparatus. -"^l^^ T^ones of the face 

Ir ^^^^^^^ectida. are also Lmsymmetrical, but in a much less degree than those of 

' ^"^^^ium. Before proceeding to study their asymmetries, however, we must take mto 

r *^' ^^^^^^^^^^^ circumstances, which seem to act as the conditions on which these 

^^mnetries depend ■ 


1. The form of the jaws and the direction in whicli the mouth opens. These conditions 
vary somewhat in tlic different Pleuronectidean types. In the Turbot and Erill the jaws 
are ^'ivffy symmetricnlly conformed, and the mouth opens nearly straight forwards, as in 
an ordinary Hsh ; whereas, in the Halibut and in the Flounders, the jaws on the eyeless 
side arc considcraldy stronger and more arched than on the eyed side, and the axis of 
the mouth, in opening, ahxays tends to point towards the eyeless side. In the Sole, on 
the other hand, it is by means of the strange conformation of the jaw-bones of the eye- 
loss side that the mouth is rendered chiefly effective on that side, the jaws on the eyed 
side being even (as is well known) perfectly toothless ; and we find, dependent on the pe- 
culiar shape of the jaws, variations in the form of the palato-suspensory apparatus of 
each side, wherein the Sole differs remarkably from the other Pleuronectidae I have 


2. The flattened form of the eyeless side of the fish, and the more arched form of the 

ocular one. 


3. The fact that the cheek of the eyed side must accommodate an eye, while the other 
side has been relieved of its corresponding one. 

4. The greater and more vertical development on the eyeless side of the ala of the 
vomer, and of the corresponding part of the prefrontal ; so that the articulation of the 
palate-bone to the cranium is higher on the eyeless than on the eyed side. 

5. The more anterior position of the parts about the olfactory region which belong to 
the ocular side, so that the articulation of the palate-bone to the cranium is further 
forwards on that side. In the Halibut and Plaice this condition affects parts further 
back (see p. 273), so that the articulation of the suspensory apparatus is also further 
forwards on the eyed side. 

The symmetries of the bones of the face are not much altered in the Turbot and Brill. 
A greater degree of asymmetry is found in the Halibut and in the Plounders ; while the 
facial bones of the Soles are the most unsymmetrical of all. 

Tvrhol and Brill— \n the Turbot and Brill the mouth looks nearly straight forwards, 
and, in the movements of opening and shutting, the upper jaw-bones move en masse nearly 
straight forwards and backwards — a circumstance brought about by the nearly straight 
back-and-forward direction of the ridge on the nasal bone for the intermaxillary carti- 
lage, and by the symmetrical position of the facets on the vomer for the heads of the 
superior maxillary bones. The intermaxillary and maxillary bones are very nearly alike 
in size on the two sides ; the intermaxillary of the ocular side is a little longer, more 
arched, and furnished with more teeth than its fellows The head of the superior maxil- 
lary bone of the ocular side has "a smaller articular facet for gliding on the vomer. The 
lower jaw is longer, and somewhat stouter on the eyeless side ; the dentition is much 
the same on both suspensory and opercular apparatus. In the Brill we generally fin^^ 
that the epitympanic and preopercular bones are slightly longer on the ocular side ; m 
the Turbot tlif^ are very nearly equal. But in both the Turbot and Brill the operculum 
and suboperculum are larger on the eyeless side ; the interoperculum is also broader, 
but invariably also much shorter than on the ocular side, because, on the latter side, 
the articulation of the lower jaw is further forwards. The slio-htlv greater breadth of 



ECTID^. 2 

the opercular bones on the eyeless side, in the Turbot and the Brill, is the only cii 
' - ' -•-- the osteology of the face in the flatfishes which shows the 


I know of 


discrepancy with the principles laid down 

Fterygo-palatiiie Apparatus.— CovYQ^j)Oiiid.m^ with. the general flattened form of the 
whole fish on the eyeless side, and because the cheek of that side has no eye to accommo- 
date, the palate, entopterygoid, and cctoptergoid bones are considerably flatter on the eye- 
less side ; while on the opposite side, to form Hiq floor of a sort of orbit for the lower eye, 
the entopterygoid bone must arch considerably inwards. In the Tm-bot and Brill tlie 
ai'tieulation of the lower jaw to the suspensory apparatus is on much the same level 
on hoth sides ; but we have seen that in all the Pleuronectidte the attachment of the 
palate-bone to the cranium is higher on the eyeless side ; therefore the palate and cc- 
topterygoid bones, having more space to traverse on that side, are considcralily larger. 
Thej are also much stouter than on the ocular side. The entopterygoid bones of both 
sides are about the same length ; but that of the ocular side is rather the broader of 
the two. 

^ In Plate XXX. figs. 1, 2, the palato-suspensory and opercular apparatus of each 
side of Mombiis maximus are fissured, the bones beins: numbered according to the hst 

the end of this essay 

-j.v^v.^^, i;xxv. K^w^^c. ^..Xjaj3 iXLlXliUl^XVl-l. CH.k.UJ.Lllilg 

In the Halibut {Hippoglossus vtilr/aris) the facial bones are asymmetrical on the same 

pnnciples as those which operate in the case of the Turbot above described; but two 

aclditional circumstances connected with the jaws exaggerate that asymmetry very con- 

1. The mouth seems to be twisted on its own axis, so that not only is the articulation 
01 the palate-bone to the cranium higher on the eyeless side, but so is also the articulation 
of the lower jaw to the hypotympanic. (See Plate XXX. fig. 3, where the end of the 
cranium, with the attached palato-suspensory apparatus of each side, is seen directly 
from the front.) 

2. The mouth does not open straight forwards, but when the fish gapes it points ob- 
(l^^cly towards the eyeless side, the upper jaw-bones, when the mouth opens and shuts, 

g Khng downwards and forwards, upwards and backwards, on the obHque ridge on the 
nasal bone and the oblique facets on the vomer abeady described (see p. 274). 
^ Accordingly we find the intermaxiUary and maxiUary bones a little stouter on the 
eyeless side ; the maxillary of the eyeless side is flatter, and has the tubercle for attach- 
J^^i^t of the tendon of the retractor maxiUiC muscle much larger, and situated lower 

o^n, than in the bone on the other side ; the convex facet on the head of the bone for 
b dmg on the vomer is likewise larger. The lower jaw is a Uttle longer, and consider- 
J more arched on the eyeless side : its dentary bone is likewise armed on this side 

'J ^ gi-eater number of teeth. 

lonrT''^ «^^^ Opercular Apparatus.-As in the Turbot and Brill, the epitympanic 
sides •' r "" """^ *^® ^^^^ ^^^^ ' ^^^ ^^^ disproportion between the bones of the two 
ocular'' -1 ^'''''^^'*' ^^^^^^^ *^e articulation of the lower jaw is lower down on the 
we l,J,: ^^^ because that articulation is also further forwards on the ocular side, 

e the mesotympanic, pretympanie, and hypotympanic longer on this sidc,-the 





disproportion being, however, least marked in the case of the mesotympanic. But in all 
tlic tlu-ee bones there would have been still more disproportion, were it not that the 
articulation of the epitympanic to the cranium extends further forwards on the eyed 
side (sec p. 275). And because the articulation of the palate-bone to the cranium is 
further forwards on the ocular side, we have the entopterygoid slightly longer on that side. 
But that articulation of the palate-bone being much higher on the eyeless side, we have 
an increase in length and stoutness of the palate and ectopterygoid bones of the eyeless 
side, which would have been still more marked, were it not that the articulation of the 
lower jaw to the hypotympanic is higher on the side in consideration. 

OpcrctUar Apparatus. — Both on account of the more arched form of the eyed side of 

head, and because the articulation of the epitympanic ad\ 

this side further 

forwards, so that the opercular bones have more space to cover, we find on the eyed side 
the operculum and suboperculum larger in every way than their fellows of the eyeless side. 
And because of the more anterior position of the articulation of the lower jaw on the 
ocular side, we find the interoperculum longer on the same side. A combination of these 
two circumstances, together with the fact that the articulation of the lower jaw is 
lower on the eyed side, renders also the preopercular bone of the eyed side larger in every 
way, the increase in length being, however, most marked in its horizontal ramus. 

In Plate XXX. fig. 3, I have figured the cranium and palato-suspensory apparatus of 

the Halibut, seen 

directly from the front. Observe, on the eyeless side, the mor 

vatcd position of the olfactory foramen, of the attachment of the palate-bone to the 
cranium, and of the trochlear articular surface for the lower jaw, and the general flatness 
of the palato-suspensory apparatus. 

In the Plaice {JPlatessa vulgaris) the facial bones are constructed and arranged on 
exactly the same principles as those in the Halibut last described, but with some 

geration of the asymmetries. Indeed when 

a Plaice gapes, its mouth tur 


towards the eyeless side in a most remarkable manner ; and that side being undermost 
when the fish is ST\amniing in its natural position, I suppose it is thereby better enabled 
to pick up from the sea-bottom the small shell-fish, Crustacea, and sandstars which are 
always abundantly found in its stomach when opened. The principles on which this is 
effected are the same as those on which the minor degree of the same sort of obliquity 
depends in the Halibut, and may be thus enunciated. 

1. The very obHque direction of the articular ridge on the front of the nasal bone, on 
which the cartilage supporting the intermaxillary bones glides. Its direction necessitates 

thcbc bones, when the mouth opens, to move downwards, forwards, and to the eyeless 

2. The great obnquity of the axis of the two facets on the front of the vomer, on t 


the heads of the super 

disks, glide 

maxillary bones, along with the interposed fibro-cartila 

Tliat of the ocular side looks forwards rather than laterally ; and a line 
bisecting the angle formed by the two facets would pass obliquely to the eyeless side. 
Accordingly, in their movements, the superior maxillary bones follow the intermaxil- 
Lanes m passing towards the eyeless side when the m^th opens. 

3. The articulation of the lower jaw to the suspensory apparatus is further fonvards 







on the ocular side, so that the direction in which the lower jaw works is towards the 
eyeless side. (See Plate XXX. fig. 6.) 

4. The conformation of the jaws themselves is also very important iu connexion ^vith 
the obliquity of the mouth. The superior maxillary hone of the eyed side is to some 
extent smaller than that of the eyeless side. But the intermaxillary of the eyed side is 
very much smaller than its fellow; its ascending process is at a more ohtuse an Me 
to the body of the bone, which bears only 4-7 teeth, while the bone of the eyeless side, 
stout and strong, with its ascending process, set at nearly a right angle to its body, is set 
with 25-30 teeth or more. The lowe7^ Jmo of the ocular side, rather flat, is shorter than 
that of the eyeless side ; its dentary bone bears, like the corresponding intermaxillary, 
only 4-7 teeth. The longer lower jaw of the eyeless side has, on the other hand, its 
dentary part much curved and set with 25-35 teeth ; so that not only does the mouth, 
when opened, point to the eyeless side, but that side of the mouth is more arched and 
prominent, even when shut, and contains almost all the teeth. 

In Plate XXX. tig. 4, is figured the palato-suspensory and opercular apparatus of the 
ocular side of the Plaice, seen laterally ; and in fig. 5 that of the eyeless side. Pig. 7 re- 
presents the cranium and palato-suspensory apparatus of both sides, seen exactly from 
the front ; while fig. 6 gives a view of the lower jaw and opercular apparatus of both 
sides, seen from below. 

III. On the Superficial Face-hones and on the Distribution of the Slime-canals. 

We have still to consider whether there be in the Pleuronectidae any representatives 
of the supratemporal and suborbital ranges of bones, and of those bones called by Cuvier 
"nasal," by Owen "turbinal." 

In osseous fishes generally these bones are intimately connected with a system of 

(lermal tubular organs, the " mucus-" or " slime"-canals ; and hence it will be necessary 
or us also to study the relations and arrangement of these canals in the Pleuronectida?. 

The arrangement of these canals on the heads of osseous fishes follows, on the t\ hole, a 
^ery definite plan* ; and if we adhere to the Cod as our standard of comparison, wc shall 
nd how completely the plan of the arrangement of the mucus-canals in the Pleuronec- 
tidae corresponds with that of the same organs in the Cod, and how that plan has been 
Diodified entirely in accordance with the theory of the Pleuronect cranium already given. 

The Symmetrical Arrangement in the Cod.—T\\Q plan of this arrangement I 
represented in a diagram (Plate XXXII. fig. 1). The mucus-canal of the lateral line {a a), 
supported all the way along by peculiarly modified scales, extends on to the head, runj 
^long grooves in the mastoid, postfrontal, and frontal bones, and then, lodged in the 
gi-ooved turbinal (ig), terminates near the end of the snout, and to the inner side of the 

On the surface of the frontal bone it forms a commissure (e) with its fellow of 


opposite side. On its way, it gives off the following branches 




and 1 V. *'^"es explained and compared witn inose oi itj-»u «'"i ""— ' o--' » 

also by Stanniua in a paper. " Ueber die Knochen* des Seitenkanals der Fische," Froriep's Neue Notizen, Bd. 

(April 1842) 

2 r2 


1. Tlic supra-temporal brancli {b) at tlie back of the bead, supported by tbe supra- 
temporal bones (72), indicated in the diagram in outline. 

2. The opcrculo-mandibular (c c), running in a groove, first in the prseoperculum and 
then along the lower jaw, where it ends near the symphysis. 

3. The suborl)ital {d), supported by the suborbital bones (73), running along beneath 
the eye, and terminating near the end of the snout, close to the end of the main canal, 
but to the outer side of the nostril. 

The Arran(/cme?it in the Vleuronectidce. — In the genus Mhombus (Diagram, Plate 

XXXTI. fig. 2), the lateral canal of the eyed side {a a) pierces the suprascapular bone 
(s"), then enters the first supratemporal bone, which bifurcates. The canal coming from 
the lower branch of the latter bone tlien enters the mastoid, passes from it to the frontal, 
and, arriving at the* posterior margin of the orbit, gives off a branch {e) to communicate 
with the main canal of the opposite side. It then pursues its way in the stout inter- 
ocular process of the frontal, emerges from it at the anterior margin at the orbit, and 


ends, to the inner aspect of the nasal fossa of the ocular side, in a curved tubular ossicle 
(19'), whicli we at once rcco^jnize as the " turbinal." 

This canal gives off, on its way, the following branches, as in the Cod : — 

1. The supratemporal (6'), issuing from the upper limb of the tubular bifurcated first 
supratemporal bone, proceeds, supported in a series of about sixteen little tubular ossicles 
constituting the rest of the supratemporal range, towards and along the base of tbe 
cephalic end of the dorsal fin, to beyond the middle of the upper eye, where it ends. 
These little bones have been indicated in the diagram by simple outline (72). 

2. The operculo-mandibular (<?'), given off while the main canal is still in the mastoid 
bone, runs in a tube hollowed out in the prseoperculum and lower jaw-bones, and ends 
near the symphysis of the jaw. 

3. The suborbital branch (cZ'), given off opposite the origin of the commissural brancli {e) 
already referred to, runs in a series of about nine minute tubular ossicles (73') under tbe 
lower eye, and ends, to the outer side of the nasal fossa of the ocular side, in an ossicle 
much larger than the rest, which is Suspended to the prefrontal bone of the same side. 
The scries of little ossicles is the suborbital range of bones ; the larj?er anterior one is of a 

triangular shape, elongated, and with the apex directed posteriorly ; on its surface is a 
tube which lodges the terminal portion of the mucus-canal. This terminal portion, 
however, seems to be isolated and distinct from the rest of the suborbital canal. 

On this side, the arrangement is very plain, the main canal curving round between tlie 
eyes, following the morphological mesial line, while the supratemporal branch proceeds 
forwards according to the apparent or pseudomesial line, along with the dorsal fin. 

On the eyeless side the lateral canal is similarly related to the suprascapular and first 
supratemporal bones, and to the mastoid. The supratemporal branch proceeds forwards, 
with the dorsal fin, in the pseudomesial line ; and the operculo-mandibular branch is 
given off and pursues its course exactly as on the ocular side. But the main canal 
having entered the frontal bone, and arrived at the posterior margin of the orbit, it gives 
off a commissural branch to join that of the other side {e) already mentioned. It then 
passes between the eyes, lodged in the slender interocular process of the corresponding 



frontal bone (eyeless side), till it ends in front of the orbit, and to the inner side of Ihc 
nasal fossa of the eyeless side, in a "turbinal" ossicle (.9), which is longer than its fellow 
of the opposite side= 

We have thus the main stem of the mucus-canal of the eyeless side also followin"* the 
morphological middle line of the top of the cranium, crossing the pscudonicbial line 
beneath the cephalic part of the dorsal fin, and beneath the supratemporal canals of hoik 
sides, and passing between the eyes side by side with its fellow of tlie opposite side, and 
with which, as in the Cod, it is connected by a transverse commissure. This arrann-ement 

we may also regard as additional evidence that the " interocular " bar in the Pleuronect 
cranium is the only and entire homologue of the arch of the frontal bone in the Cod and 
other fishes. 

But where are the suborbital canal and chain of bones of the side under consideration ? 
"We have seen that a mucus-canal, contained in a range of minute bones {h' b'}, lies along- 
side the upper eye; but we have also seen that this is the supratemporal branch of the 
eyed side. We must accordingly look for some other. From the point behind the orbit 
where the main stem of the eyeless side gives off its commissural branch, is given off in 
the opposite direction a branch {d d) running at first a little backwards, till it emerges 
from the frontal bone, when it turns forwards and proceeds, in the skin of the eyeless cheek, 
pretty closely alongside the pseudomesial bar of the cranium, till it ends in the outer 
side of the nostril of the eyeless side. This canal, enclosed in seven tubular ossicles (73), 
of which the anterior one is largest, is undoubtedly the suborbital of the side on whicli it 
IS found, and that which should appertain to the upper eye of the flatfish, but situated 
on the other side of the head from that on which its eye is now found ; and not only so, 
but between it and its eye we find the pseudomesial bar of the cranium, the cephalic 
extremity of the dorsal fin, and the supratemporal canals and ranges of bones of both 
sides. In fact, the one eye has passed over to the now binocular side of the fish, leaving 
its suborbital range behind it, wdiile the other structures before mentioned have got 
interpolated between the dorsal fin and the supratemporal canals proceeding forwards 
from behind, the pseudomesial bar being formed partly by a process sent back from the 
prefrontal, and by one sent forward from the frontal bone of the now eyeless side. It 
^ust be observed, however, that this suborbital canal of the eyeless side, though it has 
^ot followed its eye completely round, is yet situated much higher on the side of the 
ead than its fellow opposite ; indeed, as far as it is concerned, the turning-process has 
proceeded so far, and then become arrested. 

^^e Halibut, in which I have examined these canals with some care, the arrange- 
l^ent 18 much the same. We find the main canal of each side curnng round between 
^ eyes, one contained in the interocular process of each frontal bone, in the same 
fanner as is represented in the diagram of the Turbot (Plate XXXII. fig. 2). The main 
t^^ V ^ *^® eyeless side, however, here pierces also the nasal bone, as shown by the 
^ httle openings in the bone 15 (Plate XXIX. fig. 10), thus confirming what I have 
the^ f -^^^^^^ (page 274), that that part of the nasal bone entering into the boundary of 
e orbit in the Halibut and Plaice is a development from the part of the bone apper- 
'^"^S to the eyeless side. 


In Plate XXXI. fig. 1, are represented the superficial face-bones on the eyed side of a 
Halibut ; in fig. 2, those of the eyeless. On the ocular side observe the suborbital range 
(ra'l, extending along in direct relation to its eye (the lower one) ; but Avith this pecu- 
liarity, that the anterior suborbital bone(73'a), stout, oblong, and pointed at both ends, is 
separafcnl from the rest by an interval, and that the mucus-canal does not extend 
on to it, but stops short at the preceding little tubular ossicle. Observe also tlie 
mipratemporal range (72) following the direction of the dorsal fin, and extending along 
the upper side of the upper eye like a pseudo-suborbital range for it. The " turbinal," 
or OS termmale (19'), is also seen, and above it, lying on the top of the head, is seen the 

corresponding ossicle of the eyeless side (19). On the eyeless side (fig. 2) observe tlic 

snpratemporal range (72\ following the direction of the dorsal fin ; and the suborbital 
range, lying on the cheek higher up than the corresponding range on the otlier side, but 
vdih. no eye visible in relation to it. On the top and front of the snout is again seen 
the turbinal (19) of this side. The anterior suborbital of the ocular side is a stout oblong 
bone, pointed at both ends, and articulated to a process (-f) of the prefrontal, opposite 
the olfactory foramen, and is also closely related to the anteriorly projecting process of 
the palate-bone. As already stated, it is not perforated by any mucus-canal. That of 

the eyeless side (73', fig. 2) is similarly related to the corresponding prefrontal and 

palate-bones, but is smaller, flatter, and perforated by the mucus-canal, which traverses 
the rest of the range. The turbinal of the ocular side is larger than the opposite one, is 
curved, flattened, and contains a branching canal. All the rest of the superficial face- 
bones of the Halibut are very delicate tubules, often showing lateral branchlets, through 
which little ducts pass to ramifj^ in the skin and open on its external surface. As they 
get smaller towards the ends of the several ranges, they often cease to be complete tubes, 
and appear Hke little scales with the edges folded up. As to number, these little bones 
are apt to be irregular. The supratemporal ranges generally consist of from twenty-two 
to twenty-five ossicles each, and the suborbital of the ocular side of from seventeen to 
nineteen ; but two often supply the place of one. The suborbital range of the eyeless 
side, however, consists pretty constantly of nine bones— about one-half the number found 
on the opposite side. 

In the Plaice the arrangement has undergone a little modification (see diagram, 
Plate XXXII, fig. 3). The canal of the ocular side, as usual, extends between the eyes, 
and ends in its turbinal ossicle. The operculo-mandibular, the suborbital, and the supra- 
temporal branches are on both sides, similar to those in the Halibut ; and so is also the 
cross commissure. But as the interocular process of the frontal bone of the eyeless side 
is non-developed (p. 275), the main mucus-canal of that side no longer extends between 
the eyes, but stops short at the commissure. Anteriorly we find, to the inner side of the 
nasal fossa of the eyeless side, a minute turbinal ossicle, containing as it were a Httle 
follicle, with two openings on the skin, this little mucus-cavity being in fact the remnant 
of the main canal of the eyeless side, but detached altogether from the rest by the atrophy 
or non-development of the intermediate portion. (Por more details I refer the reader 
to Plato XXXI. figs. 3 and 4, and to the diagram, Plate XXXII. fig. 8.) 

iiiis arrangement prevails in the genus Tlatessa, the interocular portion of the niucus- 



canal of tlio eyeless side havin'g completely disappeared in all the species I have ex- 
amined. In FkUessa limanda the. turbinal ossicle of the eyeless side is about as small 

Plaice ; in P. flesus it is a little lar 


for the 


But the most remarkable condition of the mucus-canals in the genus Tlalesm, and 
indeed in the whole group of flatfishes as far as I know, is that seen in IPlatcssa pola*. 
In this fish we have on the ocular side (Plate XXXI. fig. 5) nothing very peculiar to 
notice : the arrangement seems to be just as in the Plaice, excepting that there is no 
cross commissure. The suborbital and supratemporal bones are very small and delicate, 
and generally have not closed over so as to form complete tubules. But on the eyeless 
side the mucus-canals are dilated into large, circular, flattened ampulla?, the outline of 
TThich I have given in Plate XXXI. fig. 6. These ampullge are twenty-six in number; 
SIX of these are situated on the main trunk, two on the detached nasal portion, four on 
the supratemporal branch, eight on the operculo-mandibular, and six on the suborbital. 
The supporting bones of this system are also peculiarly modified: the suprascapular, 

frontal, and preopercular bones, also the lower jaw, are furnished with excava- 

support of the ampullae belonging to the main canal and the opercular 
mandibular branch. The supratemporal bones (72) five in number, are very delicate 
lammie of bone pierced with many minute holes (when macerated), their lateral edges 
folded in, and connected by a bridge across the middle, where the whole bone is con- 
stricted. The hollow of each bone is therefore houi-glass-shaped, and takes part in the 
sujiport of two ampullae, which communicate by the narrow part passing Fig. c. 

heneath the bridge aforesaid, as in the adjoining diagram. The os termi^ 
nale, or turbinal, has the same structm-e, as likewise have the five sub- 
orbitals, except the anterior one, which is somewhat trigonal, and takes 
1 m the formation of three ampullae. I have said that there is no cross commissure : 

AT It 

e Dranch {e), on the ocular side, analogous to the commissural branch in the Plaice, 

n s almost immediately in a blind point on the eyeless side ; the anterior ampuUa on 

ic main canal, indicated in dotted outline in fig. 6, is situated more deeply than the 

J oemg partly overlapped by the ampulla behind, and by the anterior two supra- 

P lai ones in front. This arrangement may be regarded as an indication of a com- 

^issm-e, but none is really effected. 


IV. Vertebral Cohtnin. 

le vertebral column in the Pleuronectidae is usually supposed to be quite symmetrical 
n some it is not so, however, as I will presently point out. 

he vertebral column of the Plaice displays the foUoT^dng peculiarities ; 

• Ihe mesial vertical plane of the vertebrai is curved, the convexity being toward the 
jc side, the concavity towards the eyeless. This is most strikingly seen in the anterior 
ci" ebi^, such as the first, which I have represented (Plate XXXII. fig. 6) as seen from 

V Dr ^..^'"P^^^^^^^ condition of the mucus-canals on the ejeless side of the head in P. pola ha^ been already noticed 
^ent^of j'^^^"^^ ^^ *^^^ 'Trans. Royal Irish Academy/ vol. xxiv. Science, 1862. On the morphological arraiige- 

se ampullae, he has, however, made no observations. 



the front. The spinous process is seen to be strongly hcnt over towards the eyeless side ; 

Ifir curve is seen alTcctinor the middle line of the posterior aspect of the cranium 




condition gradually diminishes posteriorly; but throughout the entire series of 
caudal vertebra) the superior and inferior spinous processes are set at a slight angle to 
each other, consequently the entire skeleton of a Plaice is convex on the ocular surface, 

concave on the eyeless. 

2. The transverse processes of most of the abdominal vertebrae are unsymmetrical, 
slightly in their place of origin on each side from the bodies of their vertebrae, consider- 
ably so as regards the direction in which they proceed. Seen from below, these processes 
on the eyeless side arise a little further forwards on the bodies of their vertebra?, and 
project nearly directly outwards, sometimes even a little anteriorly ; while those of the 
ocular side are directed considerably backwards. The four anterior vertebrae and the 
thirteenth (last abdominal) are pretty exempt from this condition ; but it affects the 
iutermediate ones pretty strongly. Plate XXXII. fig. 8, shows the under aspect of the 
scries of abdominal vertebrge in the Plaice, and how a line joining the tips of the trans- 
verse processes of one of the middle vertebrse of that series passes very obliquely across 
the long axis of the column. Again, when seen from before backwards, the transverse 
processes of the abdominal vertebrae project more vertically downwards on the cycles 

yed side — 

in accordance with the more flattened shape of the 

fish on the former side. The transverse processes of the caudal region, in accordance 
with the well-known greater development of the lateral muscle on the ocular side, are 
also more prominent on the same side. 

The vertebrae of the HaHbut present the same sort of asymmetries which we have 
observed in the Plaice : some differences are to be observed in the Turbot and Brill. 
Here asymmetry is chiefly to be seen in the transverse processes, which agree with those 
of the vertebra) of the nalibut and Place in this, that those of the abdominal region are 
more directed vertically doTvnwards on the eyeless side, and those of the caudal region 
are on the same side less prominent. But, when looked at from above or below, the 
transverse processes in the abdominal region are seen to project more posteriorly on the 
eyeless side— a condition exactly opposite to that found in the Plaice. 


V. The Dorsal Fin. — Conclusion. 
The dorsal fin, it is well known, extends in all the Pleuronectidse all along the back, 
and advances forwards on the top of the head. Its advance on the head depends on two 

1. A more and more oblique direction forwards of the anterior interspinous bones, 
till the first one, becoming horizontal or nearly so, carries the anterior rays of the nn 
to opposite the middle of the upper eye {Mppoglossus JPlatessa) or to beyond both 
{Bhombtis Solea, &c.). 

2. A bodily advance forwards of these interspinous bones themselves on the top of 

In the Sole only about five interspinous bones arise on the top of the cranium, and their 







places of attachment proceed no further forAvard than the supraocci2:)ital bone. Eut the 
anterior one is of considerable length, and, directed forwards, curving also a little down- 
\varcls, carries the anterior rays of the dorsal fin in front of the eyes and even of the mouth. 

* i 


In the Halibut and Plaice there are six to eight of these bones on the top of the slvull. 
In their origins they have advanced from the supraoccipital bone on to the frontal of 
the eyeless side ; but the anterior one is not so long proportionally as in the Sole, and 
only carries the first rays of the fin to opposite the middle of the upper eye. 

In a specimen of the Brill, I found ten interspinous bones on the upper aspect of the 
head, their cranial attachments advancing over the supraoccipital and over the frontal 
of the eyeless side, till the anterior one takes its origin even from the prefrontal of the 
same side. This anterior interspinous bone carries the first rays of the dorsal fm to 
beyond the eyes, but not so far as in the Sole. 

We thus find that in the Brill and in the Sole the dorsal fin has advanced along tlio 
head further than in the Halibut and Plaice : in the Sole this has been effected by an 
excess of the first method of advance, in the Brill by an excess of the second. The 
direction in which the fin advances is nearly straight forwards, in the same straight line as 
the middle line of the back, inclining only very slightly towards the eyeless side. It thus 
completely disregards the morphological middle line of the top of the head, being sup- 
ported anteriorly on the pseudomesial bar of the cranium, and on the ridge extending 
on to this bar from the centre of the supraoccipital bone. A part of the lateral muscle 
passes on each side on to the top of the head, along with the dorsal fin, and is arranged 
alongside that structure in equal disregard of the morphological middle line, as like- 
wise are the supratem2:)oral canals. 

Kow, of this remarkable circumstance, there arc only two explanations possible. Either 
the dorsal fin is in its original morphological position*, and the upper eye has passed 
under it, or the fin has advanced forwards from behind after that eye has turned over 
from the side to which it orii^inallv belonged. To the latter view, which is indicated in 

^^^^^^^j ^^^^^-^ 

the paper by Van Beneden already quoted, I must, for the following reasons, give m my 

1. The structure of the cranium shows clearly that the transference of the upper eye 
is connected with the deviation, in the ocular region, of the original middle line of the 
top of the head over to the now binocular side, and that the eye in question preserves its 
morphological relations to the frontal bones and the neighbouring structures qnite intact, 
tlie A-iew that it has migrated beneath any of the parts of the skuU in the manner held 
h P^osenthal and Steenstrup being quite untenable. Now, the structures accompanymg 
tte cephalic end of the dorsal fin showing the same disregard of the morphological 

This was Meckel's opinion, as may be gathered from the following extract from his « Comparative Anatomy.' 
Speaking of the interspinous bones on the top of the cranium in the rieuronectidae, he says, "This disposit.on n 
^^tremely interesting ; it helps to establish the analogy of the cranial bones mth the vertebra. ; these accessory r.ys 
" placed in fact on the occipital and parietal crests in the same way as those of the trunk are situated over the 


superior spinous processes." {Op.cit. French edition, p. 312.) 
This passage would indicate that Meckel had quite overlooked the fact that those cephalic fin-rays are not placed 

°^er the morphological middle line. 





middle line as the fin itself, it is hardly possible to imagine that middle line and one eye 
migrating beneath the superimposed parts without the symmetry of the latter being 
affected, had they been in their present position at the time that the supposed migration 

took jdace. 

2. All those parts accompanying the dorsal fin in the head show traces of having come 

from behind. That part of the lateral or body-muscle, which lies on the top of the head 
consists of the anteriorly reflected portions of muscle-segments posterior to the cranium. 
The nerves supplying the fin-rays and muscles in this region are derived from the dorsal 
branches of the first three or four spinal nerves, which turn forwards over the head from 
behind. The supratemporal mucus-canals and bones, which, commencing posteriorly, also 
proceed forwards in defiance of the morphological middle line, are supplied by branches 
of the vagus nerve, which of course also turn round from the back of the skull and run 
forwards. Lastly, tVic blood-vessels supplying the fin-rays, &c., on the top of the head 
accompany the branches of spinal nerves already mentioned, and proceed to their desti- 
nation from behind forwards. 

3. The embryological observations of Van Beneden seem to favour the same view ; and 
I have already referred (p. 264) to the paper wherein he describes a young Pleuronect 

the two eyes were still one on each side, and the dorsal fin only yet descended 


middle of the cranium. To this observation I may add one of my 


summer of 1863 I obtained, in dredging over a sandy bottom in the Pritli of Eorth 

young rieuronectidse, each about half an inch long, and apparently belonging to the 
genus Tlatessa. In two of them the eyes and dorsal fin were conformed as in an adult 
Flounder, but in the third (the anterior part of which is figured, Plate XXXII. fig. 9, 
mairuified five diameters! one 

eye was nearly 

the middle line, with, as in M 

Bencden's specimen *, the dorsal fin stopping short behind it. 

4. The structure of certain malformations occasionally found amongst flatfishes also 
confirms the view I have adopted. These monstrosities are specimens of Pleuronectidfe 
where the upper eye is found more towards the top of the head than usual, the dorsal fin 
not being fixed down by the side of it, but projecting above it, supported on a free pointed 
process. Many of these specimens have been already recordedf. The most remarkable 

I am acquainted with 

described and figured by Schleej 


Turbot, which he calls Tlearmectes maximus duplex, thinking that possibly it might be 
a distinct species. Here the two eyes are still one on each side of the head ; the right 
one, however, is higher than the left, and seems just about to make the turn, while the 
anterior part of the dorsal fin projects over the eyes supported on a free pointed process. 
I have seen cases of this condition both in the Turbot and Plounder (Flafessa Jlesus), 

though not in so exaggerated a degree 

figs. 8 

Schleep's specimen 

In Plate XXXII 

9, are represented both sides of the head of such a specimen of P. Jlesus, the niuc 
canals being indicated by the shading in horizontal lines. The upper or left eye is s 
to be situated on the top of the head, having, we may say, just turned the corner and 

more ; while the dorsal fin presents the appearance already referred to. Here also 

* Loc. cit. 

Oken's'Isis/ 1829, S. 1049. 

t See Yarrell's ♦ British Fishes/ vol. ii. 


eyeless side, the relation of the suborbital canal to the upper eye is vcrj ob\'ious, 
the fin not having become interpolated between them as in the perfectly developed 

These monstrous Pleuronectidse may be accordingly defined as flatfishes in which the 
turning-round of the upper eye to the other side of the fish has been arrested when 
it has got about the middle of the top of the head, and in consequence the passage 
forwards and tying down of the anterior part of the dorsal fin has also been stopped, or 
obviously it would cross over the eye instead of passing by the inner side of it, as in the 
normal flatfish. It accordingly projects upw^ards and forwards on a pointed process over- 
hanging the eye, as in the specimen figured. It is worthy of remark that all those ab- 
normal specimens are equally coloured on both sides, as if the animal, not having per- 
fectly acquired the cliaracteristics of a flatfish, swam with either of its sides up^A^ards 
and exposed to the light at pleasure. In the case of Turbots affected with this con- 
dition, the bony tubercles also, usually characteristic only of the ocular side, are found 
equally distributed on the eyeless one. 

As we must consider those monstrosities to be dependent on arrested development, the 
only developmental circumstances which we can safely infer from the appearances pre- 
sented are, that the upper eye turns round on the top of the head, and that then the 
dorsal fin advances past it. 

But the young Flagusice figured by Steenstrup would seem to contradict directly the 
above-advocated theory, and prove that the upper eye gets to its jnTsent position by 
passing beneath the dorsal fin. In some of his specimens the transposition seems never 
to have taken place at all ; but the one which seems most fully to justify his views is one 
where the animal seems to have three eyes, the eye of one side projecting also through 
a little fissure above that of the other side, which side becomes thus binocular. This 
appearance is so striking that one might readily be excused in thinking with M. Steen- 
strup, « Can we imagine a more striking demonstration of the passage of the eye across 
the head than an eye arrested in this position?" Another specimen described by him 
has an eye on each side of the head, but above the left eye is a little slit where the other 
should appear. 

Although it must at once bo acknowdedged that these observations are very rcmark- 
ahle, and not to be cast aside merely because they do not tally with our preconceived 
theories, yet it seems to me that considerable research is still required before we can 
accept these specimens as representing the normal process of development in all the 
^leuroneetidaj ; for the structure of the head of the adult flatfish seems to me most conclu- 
sively to prove that the upper eye does not pass beneath or through any part of the bony 
cranium, and that the dorsal fin and its associated structures advance from behind, while the 
structure of the well-known " monsters," and the observations of Van Eeneden and also 
^f myself on young Pleuronectid^, certainly indicate that in the genera Mhomhus and 
^loiessa, at least, the dorsal fin advances after the upper eye has turned round on the 
top of the head. 

^ut H. Steenstrup's strange specimens certainly open up the question whether there be 
^oy group of flatfishes in which, in the normal course of development, the dorsal fin ex- 

2 s 2 



tends forwards, and bridg 

upper eye before it has completed 

menccd its turn. But, before a conclusive answer can be given to that question, much 
more extensive observations on Plcuronectidean embryology are necessary. 

luus in 

Concluding Note. 

Since writing the foregoing Memoir, my attention has been drawn to a paper, on Steen- 
strup's views on the obliciuity of Elounders, by Prof. Wyville Thomson, in the * Annals 
and Magazine of Natural History * for the present month (May 1865). As far as can 

gathered from the abstract of Prof. Steenstrup's original paper, which Prof Thomson 

tlie present communication afforded us, the learned Danish naturalist attempts 
no explanation on developmental principles of the singular « double " monstrosities 
occurring in flatfishes, and also questions the accuracy of Van Beneden's observations 
already quoted. In his critical remarks on this paper. Prof. Thomson has expressed the 
same views as to the morphological relations of the eyes to the two frontal bones, and as to 
the constitution of the pscudomesial beam or bar of the cranium, as those advocated in the 
preceding pages, though so far agreeing with M. Steenstrup as to consider that the 
" eye of the blind side actually passes from its own side of the head to the other side 
at all events under the integuments and under the subcutaneous tissues, which contain 
the rudiments of the dermal bones forming the support of the anterior border of the 
dorsal hn, if not actuaUy through the head itself." 

In justice, however, to myself I may be permitted to state that the Memoir just 
concluded is hardly altered from that which formed my Graduation Thesis at Edinburgh 
m i^^A and which may be consulted in the Ubrary of the University there, where it is 
deposited The same views were also expressed by me in a criticism of Prof Steenstrup's 
paper in the ' Annales,' read by me before the Eoyal Physical Society of Edinburgh, on 
tiie ^oth ol January of the present year, and about to be published in the forthcoming 
part of its ' Proceedin<>s.' 

* The Medical Facuhy of the University of Edinburgh awarded a gold medal to this Thesis, 1st August. 1862. 





In all the following illustrations^ the same numbers apply to the same bones. They are also the same 
as those by which Prof, Owen has distinguished the various bones of the fishes 
Comparative Anatomy/ 

1. Basioccipital. 

2. Exoccipital. 

3. Supraoccipital. 

4. Paroccipital. 

5. Basi-presphenoid, 

6. Alisphenoid. 


7. Parietal. 

8. Mastoid. 
10. Orbitosphenoid- 
IL Frontal 

12. Postfrontal. 

13. Vomer. 

14. Prefrontal. 

15. Nasal. 

16. Petrosal. 
17* Sclerotal. 

19. Turbinal. 

20. Palatine. 

21. Maxillary. 

22. Inter- or pre-maxillary, 

23. Entopterygoid. 

24. Pterygoid. 
28 a. Epitympanic. 
28 b. Mesotympanic. 
28 c. Pretympanic. 
28 d. Hypotympanic. 

the fishes head in his ^ Lectures 


29. Articular. 

30. Angular. 

32. Dentary. 

34. Preopercular. 

35. Opercular. 

36. Subopercular. 

37* Interopercular. 

44. Branchiostegul. 

50. Suprascapular. 

51. Scapula. 

52. Coracoid. 

72. Supratemporal. 

73'. Suborbital. 

Plate XXIX. 

la all these figures the primordial cartilage is shaded in with horizontal lines. The numbers refer to 
the list already given, 

figs. 1-7. Illustrations of cranium of Turbot [Rhombus maximus). 
*'g- 1. The cranium seen from above. 
A. The piece of cartilage supporting the four bones of the nasal end of the cranium, and forming the 

anterior part of the septum between the eyes. 
B points to the orbit, bounded on one side by the interocular process (m) of the frontal of the eyeless 

side (11), and on the other by the process (/) of the prefrontal of the same side (14). 
c C. The two olfactory foramina. 
11'. Frontal bone of the ocular side. 
11- Ditto of the eyeless side. 
14'. Prefrontal of the ocular side, 
14. Ditto of the eyeless side. 

A. process on each prefrontal, to which the anterior suborbital is attached. 

A process of the prefrontal of the eyeless side, sent back to join the process {n) of the correspond- 
ing frontal. Thus is the pseudomesial bar formed, and the orbit bounded on the mner side. 
• Interocular process of frontal of ocular side. 

Ditto of eyeless side. 
*• Process on the nasal bone above the apparatus of the jaw 



*• Process on the nasal bone on which the intermaxillary cartilage glide 


in the pseudomesial line and a 

little towards the eyeless side. 

The dotted line m l represents the direction of the morphological mesial line. 

^g- 2. Under surface of the same cranium. 
^- Cotyloid cavity for the rounded head of the epitympanic bone. 


ff. A process of the prefrontal of the eyed side^ sent between the eyes to articulate with the interocular 

jjrocess (m^ of the corresponding frontal. 

b. A process sent downwards and backwards by the prefrontal of the eyeless side to articulate with 

tlie basi-presphenoid. 

Fig. 3. Upper aspect of the same cranium^ the two frontals^ the two parietals, and the anterior part of 

the supraoccipital being removed. The interior of the brain-cavity is thus partially exposed; 

a bristle is passed through each olfactory foramen in the direction pursued by the olfactory nerve, 

ff. A process of the cartilage (a) supporting the interocular process of the frontal of the ocular side^ 

and the corresponding process {a) of the prefrontal of the same side. 

L A smaller process of the same cartilage, supporting the interocular process of the frontal of the eye- 
less side. 

10, 10. The two orbitosphenoidsj their cartilaginous tips pointing over tow^ards the ocular side. 
Fig. 4. Anterior part of another cranium seen from above^ but slightly tilted round towards the eyeless 

side. The frontal bones are removed^ and two black bristles are passed, one through each 
olfactory foramen, as in fig. 3. 

Fig. 5. Same part of the cranium^ but drawn from another specimen, seen from the ocular side, thouo;h 

slightly tilted round towards the eyeless one. A bristle is passed through the olfactory foramen 
of the eyeless side. 

_ ■ I 

Fig. G. The same, seen from the eyeless side. The lettering in this and the two preceding figures is ex- 




11'. Tliat of the ocular side : m', its interocular process. 

11. That of the eyeless side : m, its interocular process; n, its external angular one. The position of 

the eyes is diagrammatlcally indicated in dotted outline. 
Fig. 8. Upper surface of the cranium of the Halibut {liijipoylossus vulgaris). The orbit is here on the 

right side, instead of on the left as in the Turbot. 
A. Cartilage of the nasal part of the cranium, as in the Turbot. 
g. A notch in the cartilage, into which a laminar projection from the Interocular process (W) of the 

frontal bone of the ocular side is received. 
h. A smaller notch in advance of the other, which receives a similar lamina developed on the end of 

the more slender interocular process [m] of the other frontal. 
pq. Two facets on the end of the vomer; that of the eyeless side {p) is larger and looks more late- 
rally than the other [q). On these two facets move the heads of the corresponding superior 
maxillary bones, with the interposed fibro-cartilaginous disks. 
The prominence on the nasal bone on which the intermaxillary cartilage glides, and directed ob- 
^ hquely towards the eyeless side. Compare this with the corresponding part in the Turbot (fig. 1). 
Jig. 9. Under surface of the same cranium. Lettering as in the corresponding view of the Turbot's 



Fig. 10. Anterior part of another cranium, seen from above, though slightly tilted towards the eyeless 

(left) side ; the two frontals removed. A bristle passed through each olfactory foramen. 
gh. The two notches, in the primordial cartilage, already referred to under fig. 8. The remaining 

lettering is the same as in the figures of the Turbot's cranium. 

Fig. 11. The two frontal bones of the Halibut. 

i^ig. li. Lramum of the Plaice [Platessa vulgaris), seen from above. Lettering as in the figure of the 

Halibut's cranium (fig. 8). The prefrontal bone and olfactory foramen of the eyed side (right) 
are much m advance of the corresponding parts on the eyeless (left side) ; and the ridge [k] on 
uhich the intermaxillary' cartilage glides is directed to the eyeless side at an angle of 45°. 

1 «g. 1 .5. Under surface of same cranium. Lettering as before.- 




Fig. 14. Frontal bones of the Plaice, the position of the eyes in relation to them being indicated in 

dotted outline. Lettering as in fig* 7» 
Fig. 15. Frontal bones of the Pole {Platessa pola)y showing a condition^ of the interocular process of the 

bone of the eyeless side, intermediate between that in the Halibut (fig. 11) and in the Plaice 

(fig; 14). 
Fig. 16. Cranium of the Cod {Gadiis morrhua), seen from the left side. 

Nasal part of the cranium : c, olfactory foramen. 

Orbital portion, the interorbital fibrous septum being indicated in dotted shading. 


The brain-cavity and auditory part of the cranium^ 
Fig. 17. Left prefrontal of the Cod, disarticulated. 

a. Process going upwards and backwards to join the frontal. 

b. Process going downwards and backwards to join the basi-presphenoid. 

c. Process to join the ala of the vomer. 

dd. Two processes going towards the nasal bone, with an olfactory notch (c) between them. 
€, Process to which is attacbed the anterior suborbital bone. 

The representatives of these processes in the prefrontal bones of the flatfish are marked with the same 

letters in the preceding figures, 
in the flatfish. 


Plate XXX. 


Fig. L Suspensory^ palatine, and opercular bones of the ocular side intheTurbot. Cartilage shaded with 

horizontal lines. 

Fig. 2. The same bones, but of the eyeless side. 

Fig. 3. Front view of the cranium and palato-suspensory apparatus of the Halibut, to show the greate 

flatness of the latter bones on the eyeless side, the greater elevation on the same side of the 
olfactory foramen (c)^ the articulation of the palate-bone to the prefrontal, and of the articu- 
lation of the lower jaw to the trochlea {*) on the hypotympanic. 

Fig. 4, Suspensory, palatine, opercular apparatus, and jaws of the eyed side of the Plaice, drawn from 



**g» 5. The corresponding bones on the eyeless side. 

*ig' 6. Lower jaw and opercular apparatus of Plaice, seen from below. 

Fig. 7. Cranium and palato-suspensory apparatus of Plaice, seen directly from the front. Lettering as 

in fig, 3. 

Plate XXXI. 

^ig- 1. Opercular and oral apparatus of the Halibut, together with the "superficial face-bones," as seen 

on the ocular side, 
a a. Tubular scales of the lateral line. 

72. SupratemDoral chain. 


►orbital chain of the right or lower eye. 

aterior right suborbital, very much larger than the rest, from which it is separated by an inter^•al. 

It has no connexion with the mucus-canal. 

19. Right "turbinar^ ossicle, or os terminale. 
19. Left turbinal, situated on the top of the snout. 
-*• Retractor maxillae muscle. 
^- Masseter. 

^ • Right olfactory foramen. 




Fig. 2. The same head as seen on the left or eyeless side. 
a a. Tuhular scales of lateral line. 

ange of ossicles. 

72. Left supratemporal r 

73'. Left suborbital range, thus situated on the other side of the head from its eye, and having the 

dorsal fin and both supratemporal ranges interpolated between. 

19. Left turbinal, or os terminale. 
Fie. 3. Sketch of the distribution of the mucus-canals on the right or ocular side of Platessa vulyaris, 

the Plaice. 
aaaa. The main canal, extending from the tail along the lateral line and along the head, between the 

eyes, till it ends on the inner or left side of the nostril, giving off on its way many httle ducts, 
which open on the surface of the skin of the supratemporal branch, b b, which branch, though 
usually simple, is here bifurcated. 


ccc. Operculo-manclibular branch. 

dd. Ris;bt suborbital canal. 

e indicates the cross commissure given off to join the mucus-canal system of the opposite side. It 

gives oflf a little duct to the skin at the posterior margin of the orbit^ and then passes to the left 

side, beneath the cephalic end of the dorsal fin. 
Fig. 4. The same head^ seen from the eyeless side- 

aaaa. The main canal as before, but stopping short at the cross commissure (e). 

b. Supratemporal canal, not so long as in the right side. 

ccc, Opcrculo-mandibular canal. 

ddd. Left suborbital canal, still remaining on this side,whileitseye has been transferred to the right side. 

d. A small follicle or detached portion of mucus-canal, the representative of the nasal extremity of the 

main canal of this side, the portion intervening bietween it and the cross commissure having 
disappeared. (See also Plate XXXIL fig. 3, where this arrangement is represented diagram- 

e. Cross commissure. 

E. Upper eye, a small portion of which is, in the Plaice, visible from the left side. 
Fig. 5. Sketch of the distribution of the mucus-canals on the right or ocular side of the head 0^ Platessa 

pola. The same letters refer to the same canals as in the head of the Plaice, fig. 3. ihe 
commissural (e), however, ends blindly : thus there is in this fish no connexion between the 
canal-systems of the two sides. 
Fig. G. The left side of the head of the same fish, the mucus-canals being here seen to be dilated into 

large ampullae, which communicate with each other by small openings. Each ampulla generall) 
sends only one little duct to the external surface of the skin. 
aaaa a a. The lateral canal and the series of six ampullae on the main canal of the head. 

id in the left turbinal. It is the homologue of the little 

a . The part detached from the rest, and lo( 

follicle marked d in the Plaice, fig."4. 
bbhb. The four ampullae into which the supratemporal canal is dilated. 
cccc. The eight ampullae of the operculo-mandibular branch, 
dddd. The six ampullae of the suborbital branch. 



lated mucus-canals. 

50. Suprascapular. 

72. The five supratemporal bones, 

73\ The five suborbitals. 

19. Turbinal ossicle, or os terminale 

34. Proeoperculum ; and 

Traiis.Lot. Soc.Vol.IKTab.29 




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29, 30. Lower jaw, hollowed out to contain the eight ampullar of the opcrculo-niandibnlar canal. 

Mastoid ^ 
14. Left prefrontal. 

canals indicated in outline. 


Fig. 9. Anterior part of" the same fish, but seen from the eyeless side; the mucus-canals also indicated 

in outline. The lettering in both this and the preceding figure corresponds to that in fipircs 

3 and 4. 

Plate XXXII. 

Fig. 1. Diagrammatic view of the mucus-canals and superficial face-bones on the head of the common 

Cod [Gadus morrhua). 

aaaa. Mucus-canal of lateral hne, extending along the top of the head, and ending in the turblnal 

ossicle (19), w^hicli is indicated in outline, 
ft. Supratemporal canal; supratemporal bones (72) also in outline. 

c. Operculo-mandibular canal, which has no communication with the main canal in the Cod (Munro). 

d. Suborbital canal ; 73^ suborbital bones. 

e. Cross commissure. 

Fig. 2. Diagram of the corresponding parts in the Turbot- 
q!. Left lateral canal. 

//. Left supratemporal branch, with the supratemporal ossicles indicated in outline. 
c'. Left operculo-mandibular branch. 
dK Left suborbital canal and bones. 
e. Commissural branch. 

a. Right lateral canal, crossing the head beneath the dorsal fin (which is indicated by'the line d f), and 

beneath both supratemporal canals, as it curves round between the eyes, side by side with its 

fellow of the left side. 


b. Right supratemporal canal and chain of bones. 

c. Right operculo-mandibular. 

d. Right suborbital canal and bones. 

19^ Left turbinal, and 19, right turbinal ossicle. 
L X F. Left nasal fossa. 
R N F. Right nasal fossa. 
DF. Line of dorsal fin. 
Fig. 3. Diagram of the corresponding structures in the Plaice. Here the eyes are placed upon the right 


a^ aK Right lateral canal, extending between the eyes all the way to the nose, where it ends in a well- 
marked ^^ turbinal ossicle.^' 

b\ Right supratemporal canal and range of ossicles. 

c'. Right operculo-mandibular branch, 

d^* Right suborbital branch and chain of bones, 

d^. Anterior suborbital bone of the right side, separate from the rest, and having no connexion with 

the mucus-canal. 
a a. Left lateral canal, apparently stopping short at the commissure (e). 
a-*-. A small detached portion of that canal, being in fact its nasal extremity. Owing to, or at least 

coincident with, the imperfect development of the interocular process of the left frontal in the 

Plaice, the part of the left mucus-canal which should extend between the eyes in that process 

has likewise not been developed. 






b. Left supratemporal canal 

r. Left operculo-mandibular canal. 

d. Left suborbital branch and range of bones, 

e. Commissure. 

D F. Line of dorsal fin. 

ri + 

R N F. Right nasal fossa, 

L N F. Left nasal fossa. 
Fig. 4. Diagram of the top of the head in the Plaice^ showing the manner in which the orbit is formed. 

The dotted line, d f, indicates the morphological middle line; the other dotted line, f h, shows 
the direction of the dorsal fin. The shaded parts are those parts of the original and symmetri- 
cal plan of the head which have become developed ; the parts of the same plan which have 
not become developed are indicated in dotted outline, while the parts in entire outUne are 
additional developments. 

ll^ Right frontal, with its interocular process (m^). 

IL Left frontal, its interocular process atrophied, while a new process {n) has sprung from its external 


anterior angle. 
ll'. Right prefrontal^ sending back a process {a) to articulate with the interocular part (m') of the right 


14. Left prefrontal — the part «, in dotted outline, and corresponding to the process {a) of the bone of 

the other side, not having been developed, while a new process (/), not found on the right pre- 
frontal, is sent back to articulate with the process {n) of the left frontal. By the union of the 
process (/) ofthe left prefrontal and the process {n) of the corresponding frontal, the "pseudo- 
mesiaP' bar ofthe cranium is formed, and the orbit bounded on the left side. 

15. Nasal hone; the unshaded part indicates a development from its left side,'which enters into the 

anterior boundary of the orbit, apparently pushing aside the left prefrontal. 
c c. Olfactory foramina. 
R E. Right eye. 
L E. Left eye. 
Fig. 5. Posterior surface f cranium of the Plaice. The dotted line, m p, shows the curve of the mesial 

line in this region, the convexity being towards the ocular or right side. 
Fig. 6. First vertebra ofthe Plaice, seen from the front, showing how its mesial vertical plane is convex 

towards the right or ocular side. 
Fig. 7- Seventh abdominal vertebra of the Plaice, seen from before, showing the more vertical direction 

doAvnwards ofthe left transverse process. 
Fig. 8. Abdominal vertebrae of the Plaice, seen from below, and showing the unsymmetrical obhquity of 

the transverse processes from the fifth to the twelfth inclusive. 
Fig. 9. Anterior part of an embryo Flounder, magnified five times, showing the upper eye not yet fully 

turned round, and the dorsal fin not so far advanced on the head as we find it in the adult. 
The dorsal fin-rays are a little injured a little behind the head; but about the ocular region 
there is not the slightest trace of abrasion to be seen, so that there is no reason at all to suppose 
that there any rays have been removed by violence. 
a. Lme showing the natural size ofthe figured portion ofthe specimen. 








IX. Description of some New Geneva and Species of Tropical Le 

By George BENTmor, P.L.S. 

(Plates XXXIII.-XLIII.) 

Eead ilay -itli, 1865. 

I. MICROCHARIS, Bentli. in Bentli. et Hook. f. Gen. PL 501. 

(Tribe Galegeje. Tropical Africa.) 

Char. Gen. Calycis parvi patentis lobi subsequales. Ycxillum suborbiculatum, patens, latcribus reflexis, 

in uuguem august atum ; alae oblique obovato-oblongse, carina; vix adbajrcntcs ; carina obtusa, alls 
brevior. Stamen vexillarc ima basi cum ceteris coba^rcns, a medio libcrum, cetera in raginam con- 
nata; antlierse nniforraes. Ovarium sessile, pluriovulatum, in stylum brevem attennatum, stigmate 
capitato snbdiscoideo. Legumen lincare, compressum, mcmbranaccum, 2-valvc, intus inter semina 
tenuiter septatum. Semina transverse oblonga v. quadrata, cstrophiolata, funiculis brevissirais. 
Ilcrbie graciles, ramosse, pilis simplicibus bispidoe. FoHa simplicia, subscssilia. Stipula herbaccDc 
V. subulatee, persistentes. Flores minimi, rubri, in racemos axillarcs dispositi. Bractcse august?c ; 
bracteolse 0. 

The slender annuals with little scarlet flowers which constitute this genus are perhaps 
not uncommon in some parts of Tropical Africa ; hut being easily overlooked in the 
luxuriant vegetation of the moist regions they inhabit, they have only recently come to the 
knowledge of botanists. The first specimens seen were in the late Dr. Yogel's collections 
in the first Niger Expedition, and were stated on the ticket to have been gathered by his 
friend and conTpanion, Dr. Roscher. They were, however, imperfect ; and having probably 
been considered insufficient for identifying with any old genus, or describing as a new 
one, they were omitted in Hooker's ' Niger Plora.' Since then very complete specimens in 
flower and fruit were transmitted by the late Mr. Barter, who found them abundant after 
the rains in crevices of rocks on the Nupe, and also at Jeba on the Quorra ; and a single 

specimen, in flower and young fruit, of what appears to be a second species of the sam 
genus, was gathered by Dr. Kirk near Luabo, on the left bank of the Zambesi. 

The general aspect of the genus is nearly that of some of the slender single-leaved 
Indigoferas or Tephrosias ; but neither the inflorescence nor the floral characters agree 
precisely with either of those genera, and, technicaUy, it appears to be more nearly allied 
to the tropical American and West-Indian Craccas. How far the two species here proposed 
may or may not prove to be varieties of one, can only be determined by a more extended 
series of specimens from intermediate stations. 

The following are the specific characters of the 
1. M. TENELLA. (Plate XXXIII. A.) Toliis lanceolatis oblongisve, stipuHs setaccis 



rotundata v. angustata, 1-1 ^ 




branaccaj ntrinque 



1-2-linearein su"barticiilata. 

Stipulfe setacese, patcutes v. incurvse, rigidiilse, petiolo sublongiores. Racemi graciles, fere filiformes 
folio saepius lougiores, hirti. Flores secus rliachin dissiti, ad axillam Lracteje setaceee v. subfoliaces 
solitarii, brevlter pedicellati, vix 2 lin. longi. Calyx brevis, pilis longiusculis rigidis hirtus. Pctala 
pallidc coccinca, glabra. Legumcn leviter falcatum,hirtum,Derfectum 8-9 lin. Inna-nm l Im ln+„^ 


sed ssepe abortu bremis. 

Rocks on the Niger {Vo^el, Barter) . 

2. M. LATiroLiA. (Plate XXXIIL B.) Eoliis oyatis v. ovato-lanceolatis, stipulis lat 

semicordatis subreniformibiisve acuminatis. 

Folia (sivc foliola solitaria) 2poll.longa, 1 poll. lata. Stipule foliace^e, 2-4 lin. lat^. Cistera 

■ /I I 9 . A « ^ 


cujus forte varietas est insignis. 


Near Lnabo on the Zambesi (K, 

mon G 

II. GEISSASPIS, W. et Arn. ; Bentli. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. 516. 

(Tribe Hedtsare^. Tropical Asia and Africa,) 

I refer to this well-known small genus for the purpose of characterizing a remarkable 
West- African species, in which the large bracts have not the marginal cilia of the com- 

cristata. This plant has long been in our herbaria, haying been gathered by 
Ileudelot in Senegambia, and communicated by M. Delessert to Sir W. Hooker, as well 
as to myself, as early as 1838. In the Hookerian herbarium it has been correctly deter- 
mined to be a Geissas])is by Dr. Planchon ; but I do not find that it has eyer been pub- 
lished as such. It is probable, howeyer, that it is identical \yith the Soemmeringia 
psittacorhjncha described by Webb, in his * Spicilcgia Gorgonea,' from a Cape-de-Yerd- 
Island specimen which I haye been unable to see. The character given is quite at variance 
with that of the BrazHian genus Soenmier'mgia, and agrees, in all essential points, with our 
Senegambian Gelssaspis. 

The following are the technical characters of the species : 

G. LUPULixA, Planch, in herb. Hook. Stipulis latis basi obHque subcordatis vix pr 

ductis, bracteisque integerrimis. 

Herba annua glaberrima. FoHola 3-6-juga, angustc cnneato-obloDga/obtuslssima, pleraque semipollicaria 

-J poll, longo. Stipulae foliaceffi, obHque 

;niformes, 3-6 

m auricul 

Spicse lupidinse, demum 1-3- 


poUicares, pedunciilo foliis longiore fultcE. Bractea; ut in G. cristata ampl^, ^ , 

imbncatae, 6-9 lin. latse, sed integerrimse nee cUiatje. Pctala bracteas parum cxcedentia. Flores ct 


Hab. TTe 

nn. 555 and 664). 



III. DESMODIUM, DC. : Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PL 519 

(Tribe Hedysahe^. Tropical and Subtropical Asia, Africa, and America, North America, 

Japan, Australia.) 
This large offset from the old genus Hedysarum has been irregularly split up by 
various botanists, but chiefly by separating as distinct genera isolated species which pre- 











sented characters tliat liad not been observed in others. In the first general sketch of 
the group which I made for the 'Plantoe Junghuhniance,' it appeared to me thai if tlie 
universally adopted genera Dicerma and Nicolsoma of De Candollc were maintained, it 
would be necessary to keep up several others, and even to establish new ones, for ^\hieh 
I gave characters in a note to that work. I have, however, since then had occasion to 
examine in detail above a hundred species, besides numerous varieties published as 
species ; and the characters relied on for the separation of the smaller genera liavc proved 
too uncertain or too artificial to be available for any but sectional divisions ; so that in our 
* Genera Plantarum' I have found it necessary not only to restore the genus to flio extent 
inally contemplated by De Candolle, but to add to it his Dicerma and Mcolsonia, 
which are now shown to be less different from several of his Dcsmodiums than these arc 
from each other. The minor characters have served to distinguish twelve sections, besides 
four subsections of Seteroloma ; and it is with much hesitation that I refrained from 
adding to them the small or monotypic genera Ougeinia, Benth., Mecopus, Ecnn., and 
Fseudarthria, W. et Arn., closely connected as they are with some species of true Des- 
modium. On the other hand, the pod of Nicolsonia congcsta, T\lght, is so very difl*erent 
from that of all the other sections, that I have been obliged to raise it to Ihc rank of a 
genus, under the name of Lepfodesmia, which I had formerly proposed as sectional in 
Besmodium, the two species described in the 'Plantse Junghuhniana3,' ix. 222, taking the 
names of L. congesta and L. lespedezioides. 

Among the recent additions to Besmodmm are the two following, remarkable for their 
pinnate leaves with more than three leaflets (an exceptional form which, in the ^vhole 
subtribe of Besmodiece, had hitherto been known only in a very few species of Vraria) : — 

D. (Heteeoloma) pycnostachtl-m, sp. n. Poliis pinnatis, foliolis q^uinis ovali-ellipticis 

oblongisve obtusissimis v. emarginatis supra glabris subtus ramisque pilis raris con- 
spersis, stipulis subcordatis patentissimis, racemis densis terminalibus, bracteis parvis 
caducissimis, pedicellis brevibus, legumine hamato-pubescente pluriarticulato sutura 
superiore subcontinua inferiore profunde sinuata. 


Erectum videtur^ ramosum et forte fruticosnm. Foliola fere D. conchini at semper in specimiiiiLusS; tcr- 

minale l-l|-pollicarej lateralia minora. Stipulae siccse rigidulse^ acumiBatae^ striatse^ 1-2 lin. longae, 
demum decidu^e. Infloresccntia^ flores et finictusfere D, pohjcarjji } bractese tamen panae^ setaceo- 
acuminatje nee comosse. 

Hab. Isle of Pines^ off the coast of New Caledonia [M'Gillivray). 

J). (Heteboloma, Podocaepia) Oldhami, Oliv. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ix. 165. Poliis pin- 
natis, foliolis subseptenis ovato-lanceolatis pilis adpressis conspcrsis, racemo elongato 

longe pedunculato laxe pubescente, bracteis angustis persistentibus, leguminis 
stipitati articulis paucis longe semiovatis. 


Caules eloiigati, simplices v. parum ramosi. Folia pauca, foliolo tcnninaii l|-2|-poIlicari, lateralibus mino- 
ribus. Kacemi scmipedales, ri^dtdi. Bractese liiicari-lanccolatse. Pedicelli solitarii r. gcmini altero 
abbrcviato. Calyx fere cyathiformis. Leguminis nondum matnri stipes 3 lin. loTigus; articuli 

1-2, fere triangulares, 3 lin. longi, medio 14 lin. lati. 
Hah. Japan {R. Oldham, 1862). 




IV. MASTEESIA, Bentli. in Bentli. et Hook. f. Gen. PL 535. 

(Tribe Phaseole.^. Tropical Asia.) 


unguiculatum^ cxauriculatum; aloe oblic^uc oblongae; carina lata^ leviter incurvajobtusa^ alas suba^quans. 
Stamen veTill arc libcrunij filamento filiformi a basi recto j antlierse (5? v. omnes?) lineares^ yersa- 


Ovarium sessile^ niultiovulatnm ; stylus 


capitato. Legumen oblongo-lineare^ plano-comprcssum. indeliiscens. sutura 

mbcrbis, stigmate 
superiore anguste 

subalata. Semina plurima^ parva, transverse obloiiga, liilo parvo laterally funiculo filiformi. — Caulis 
alte Tolubilis. Folia pinnatim S-foliolata, foliolis amplis stipellatis. Mores in pcclunculis elongatis 
axillaribus fasciculato-raoemosi. fasciculorum rhachi nocliformi. Bractese caducissim^ j Lracteolje 

suborbiculatsCj diutius persistentes. 

The plant U2:)on which I propose to found this genus 
many years since by Drs. Wallich and Griffith in their joint expedition into the Assam 

larsre tmner, collected 

Dr. Griffith 

complete tl 

The majority of specimens are in fruit only, but a few flowering ones from 
collection, although not in a very good state, have proved sufficient to 

The affinity is evidently with Fueraria and Bloclea, 


but the stamens arc diiferent, 

are quite anomalous 


both as to habit and the general structure of the flo^\ 

and the thin flat indehiscent pod and the position of the seeds 

amongst Phaseolcce. 

I have dedicated the genus to Mr. Masters, after whom his friend the late Dr. Griffith, 
in testimony of Ms assiduous investigation of the Assam flora, had named a genus which 
afterwards proved to have been previously published under another name. We may, 
however, also consider Jlastersla as commemorating the labours of Dr. T. Maxwell 
Masters, E.L.S., several of whose papers on Vegetable Teratology, as well as on Systematic 
Botany, have already appeared in the publications of our Society. ' . 

The following is the detailed description of the species 

M. ASSAMiCA, sp. n. (Plate XXXn^) 



r ■ 


petiolulo 2-3 lin. longo. Stipulas caducissimas non vidi; stipelte rigidulgej lanceolatse v. oblongse. 



rhaclnbus mterdum dcmum paullo elongatis, vix tamen lineam attingentibus . PedicelH graciles, 
pubesccntes, 2-3 lin. lougi. Bractese ad nodum qucmque 2, oppositie, ovatse, 3-4 hn. longse, prseter 
ciha marginalia glabrae, longe ante anthesin caducai. BracteolcC suborbiculatffi, 2 Hn. longse. Calycis 

longior, arcuatus, carinatus. VcxiUum 



lin. longi^ summo latissimo^ lateralibus angustis^ infimus 
J 6 lin. longum ; petala inferiora vix breviora. Ovanum 

2-4 Doll. lonsfum, |-1 poU- 


Semina plus quam 20, in medio legumine 1-seriatim disposita. 

idia. Misbmcc bills, and near Choonpura in Upper Assam (Wallich and Griffith) 


V. PANUREA, Spruce, in Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. 550. 

(Tribe Sophoee^e. Tropical America.) 

AR. Gen. Calycis obHquc turbinati lobi breves, lati ; 2 superiores in labium bidentatum connatl. Petala ■ 
breviter unguicukta ; vcxillum suborbiculatum ; alie oblique ovatie ; carina petala libera, alis breviora 



sed cseterum similia. 

;lobosfe. Ovarumi sessile^ pauciovulatnm ; 

stylus brevis^ crassus^ uncinato-inflexus^ stigmate tcrminali truncato. Lcgumcn planum^ acununutmn^ 
bivalve. Arbor ramosissima. Folia simplicia,, amj^la^ pcnniiiervia. Stipulse parvixi. llores parvi^ 
racemosij racemis brevibus ad axillas bre^dter subpaniculatis, BractCcC parva^^ cadiicae ; bractcolje 
minutse v. inconspicure. 

Species unica P. loxgifolia, Spruce, MS. (Plate XXXV.) 

Arbor fide Sprucei 20-30-pcdalis_, ramis adscendentibus, tota glabra cxccptis iuflorcscciitia raraulisque 
novellis tenuissime nifo-tomentellis. Folia (foliola solitaria?) oblongo-clliptica^ brcvitcr acuminata, 
basi obtnsa, coriaceaj nitidula ; maxima ultrapedalia_, suprema multo minora;' petiolo {pctiolulo ?) brcn 
crasso fulta. Racemi 1-3-pollicareSj ad axillas solitarii v. subfosciciilati^ simpliccs v. ramosi. Pcdi- 
celli solitarii v. subfasciciilati,, calyce subbreviores. Calyx 1| liu. longus. .Pctala oclirolcuca, calycc 

yix duple lougiora. 
Hab. Tropical America. Caatingas near Panure, on tlie Hio Uaupi^Sj iu North Brazil; gregarious, and 

often covering "acres of ground among the scattered large forest-trces {R. Spruce, n. 2oSG). 

The inflorescence, the small flowers, and in a great measure the calyx, petals, and even 
tlie anthers, are very near those of Dalbergia ; but the stamens are entirely free, placiu 
the genus amongst Sophorece, where I know of no one resembling it in other respects, 
have not seen the pod : Mr. Spruce describes it as flat, rather broad, acuminate, and '. 
valved, and he believes he had laid some in with the specimens ; but they appear to ha^ 
been unfortunately lost before transmission to this country. 



Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. 557 

(Tribe Sophoee^ 

Tropical Africa 

Char. Gen. Calycis campannlati v. longissimi lobi imbncati. 

imcaiiculata, corru 

gata ; YcxiUum late orbiculatum ; 4 inferiora lato-ovata v. angustc cuneata, libera. Stamma libera ; 
anthera. nniformes, lineares, versatiles. Ovarimn stipitatum, pluriovulatnm ; stylus fihformis, m 
alabastro involutus, stigmate terminah parvo v. capitate. Legumen lato-lineare, plano-compressum, 
crasso-coriaceum, bivalve. Semina transversa, obovata, compressa; albumen 0_; radicula brcvis, 
reeta.-rrutiees alte seandentes. Folia digitatim 3-foliolata, fohohs amphs conaceis petio ulatis. 
Mores speciosi, raeemosi, racemis in axiUis superioribus simpHeibus. Braete^ et bracteola. breves, 

. This genus stands aloneYn Leguminos<B, as comWuins the lofty eHmhins ^™o<ly stem 
and hahits of many DaUergie^ with the digitately trifoliolate leaves olPMrtc^^ and 

Genistecc, whilst the flowers place it amonsst Sophoreie. 

amongst the handsomest of the Order, and the flowers of ■„.,.,,, „ 

hitherto known. It has therefore been appropriately dedicated by Dr ^elwitseh to tU 
celebrated Poriugnese poet Luis Camoes, author of the 'Lusiade,' in whieh is introduced 
the voyage of discovery of Vasco di Gama, which he had himself accompamed m his youth 

Both the species know 

tainly the larg 

s oldier 

1. C. M.^iMA, Welw. (Plate XXXVI 

Oalvce longissime tubuloso ovarioquc rufo 


" Frutes validus altissime scandcns, 
excepta, glabra. 

dein graciose 




{Weha.). Specimina, infloresccntia 

Foliola ad ipieem petioli, bre^dssime petiohdata, obovali-oblonga v. late elliptiea, 
c-v.-cput, g.uu.a. Fohoia ad apiccm p , rcticidato-peimivcma, 

angiiste acuminata, infi-a medium angusta^a, basi owusa, xcuu ; 


G-pollicaria, petiolo communi foliolis breviore. 



; stipellse subulatse. Plores maximi^ penduli^ in racemos breves axillarcs " 
dispositi^ rhacM bracteis calycibusque molliter rufo-lanatis. Pedicelli brevissimi^ crassi. Bracte^e et 
bractcolae lincari-Ianccolatse^ setacese^ aenminatpe^ caducse. Calyces 6-7-pollicares^ parte discifera 



aureo-marffinatis, m unsrues 

Bsepiiis revolutis. Petala lactea^ venosa^ margmibus crispnlis 
lobos subseqiiantcs angiistata; vexiUum suborbieulatum^ calycem poUices 4 exccdens; 4 inferiora 
minora et nudto angustiora. Stamina petalis paullo breviora^ glaberrima; antberis longe lincaribus 
mcdifixis. Ovarium dense rufo-lanatum ; stylus staminibus longior^ supcrne glabratus^ stigmate 
globoso-capitato. Legumen rufo-lanatum, angulo recto in stipitem rccuriTim^ 6-8 poll, longum, 
1-1 1 poll, latum, suturis parum incrassatis, Semina ssepius 3-4. 


West tropical Africa. Common in dense forests of the Golungo Alto, adorning tbe loftiest trees of 

with its splendid bunches of pcndid 


[Welwitsch). Specimens are also ii 

Museum, from Afzelius 

with much smaller flowers, but of the same shane as in TV 


2. C. EEEViCALYXj sp. n. CalycG late campanulato ovarioque minute tomentellis 


Foliola OTali-elliptica 

V. late otlonga, obtusa v. brevissime obtusequc acuminata^ demum coriacea nitida^ pleraque 3-6-pol- 
licana^ pctiolulo 2-3 lin. longo Mta, petiolo communi foliolis parum breviore v. interdum longiorc. 
Stipulse brevissimse, latse, squamiformes, rigidae at non spinescentcs ; stipellas non vidi. Flores 


(albi q, m racemos axillares laxos pedunculatos foliis longiores dispositi. Pedicelli semipol- 
Eractese et bracteolse breves, latae, concavse, squamiformeSj dcciduse. Calyces subpollicares, 
parte discifera tenui | poll, longa, parte libera late campanulata, in alabastro angulata, per anthesin 
usque ad medium in lobos 5 le^-iter imbricates divisa, superioribus vix altius connatis. Petala in 
ungues calyce longiores angustata : Texillum suborbiculatum lamina subsesquiDoUicari, 4 inferiora 

angustiora. Stamina petalis paullo 


parvo, Legum 

Hab. West tropical Africa. On the river Muni, lat. 1° N. (G. Manyi) 

Ilad it not been for tlie comparison witli its magnificent congener, this would have 

been reckoned a most sliowy large-flowered climber. I have not seen it in any other 

VII. BATESIA, Spruce, in Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PL 563. 

(Tribe Sclerolobie^. Tropical America.) 

Char. Gen. Calycis tubus discifcr campanulatus ; segmenta 5, imbricata. Petala 5, parum in^qualia, 

)ricata, summo intimo. Stamina 10, libera, filamentis basi villosis, vix decHnatis; antherse 


liberum . 


subarticulato : stvlus brevissimus, crassus 

mate tcrmmali truncato concave ciliato. Legumen breve, subfalcatum, compresso-turgi 


folliculatim dehiscens. Semina 2-S, transversa, 


radicuU brevis recta.— Arbor proccra, inermis. Folia ampla, imparipinnata, foliolis coriaceis. 
ores lutei, raccmosi, raccmis ad apices ramorum in paniculam amplam ramosissimam dispositis. 
Uractese et bractcolse angustse, caducissimse. 



The genus thus named in honour of the distinguished traveller on the Amazons, TT. W. 
Bates, Esq., is founded on a lofty tree discovered by Mr. Spruce in the forests bordering 
the Eio Uaupes in North Brazil, and referred doubtfully, in the distribution of liis plants, 
to Tachlgalia. It differs, however, from that genus in the unequally pinnate leaves and 
in the stipes of the ovary being entirely free from, the calyx-tnbe (which remove it from 
the subtribe AmJierstiece to the SGleroloMe(e)—as well as in the podj which is peculiar in 
its dehiscence. I am only acquainted with a single species : 

B. FLORIBTJNDA, Spruce, MS. (Plate XXXVII.) 

AihoT fide Sprucei 100-pedalis coma patula^ ramiilis inflorescentia pctiolis foliolonimcpic pagina 
inferiore tenuiter rufo-tomentellis. Folia l-2-pe(lalia; foliola ssepius ll^pctiolulata^ ovali-clliptica v. 
oblongaj acuminata^ basi obtusa^ 4-6-pollicariaj supra glabra nitidaque, siibtus elevate pc^nuivcnia ct 
transverse reticulato-venulosa. Petiolus communis angulatus^ nonnunquam inter foliola ultimft glan- 


dulas iis Inff(B subsimiles gerens. Flores anrei^ odorati, in paniculas am^^las floribunda?? tcrminalcs dis- 
positi^ secns ramulos nltimos racemosi. Bracteas non vidi ; bracteolse lincares^ breves, caducissinise. 
Calycis segmenta 3 lin. longa. Petala paullo longiora, angustc ovata, cxtua minute tomentoUa. 
Stamina petalis brcviora,, antheris ovatis. Legumen brevissime stipitatum, 1-1 1 poll, longum, fere 

I poll, crassum. Semina nitide coccinea. 
Hab. Tropical America. Forests of the Rio Uaupes, in North Brazil [R. Spruce, n. 2780); distributed under 

the name of TacJiigalia ? erytfirosjperma. 

YIII. DICYMBE, Spruce, in Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. 56 1. 

(Tribe Sclerolobiej]:. Tropical America.) 





erassus; segmenta 4, ovah-ohlouga, imhricata, summo 
sa^pe bifido. Petala 5, ovata, parum ineequalia, imbricata, summo intimo. Stamina 10, libera, fila- 

mentis infiexis basi pilosis ; antheraj 
Ovarium brcviter stipitatum, in fundo caljcis libenim, oc-o^Tilatum; styms eiongaius, aesuvaxioue 
involutus, stigmate peltato. Legumen .... -Arbor. Folia abrupte v. subimparipinnata. Florcs 
corymboso-paniculati. Bracte^ crass^e, cochleatje, cadacissimai. Bracteolrc 2, crasso-coriaceae, 
sibimet valvatim applicitcE et ante anthesin globum constituentes alabastrum includentcm, per 
anthesiii apertae^ persistentes, 

I had long hesitated whether or not to adopt this genus as distinct from Thylaccmtlius, 
Tul., the affinities with which were recognized by Mr. Spruce. Neither he nor myself 
tayc seen any specimen of Tulasnc's plant ; hut, from the detailed description given by 
that author, the calyx divided to the base into 5 petal-like segments, the stamens united 
at the base, the short anthers, and the bracteoles united into a 2.1obed involucre are 
all incompatible with Spruce's plant, estabUshing diiferences analogous to those which 
separate Broicnea, AmUrstia, and their allies from each other. It is not impossible, 
however, that, when better known, it may be found advisable to reunite Bicymbe with 
Thylacantlms. It is said by Mr. Spruce to be a small but handsome tree, the large, 
thick, ivory-Hke bracteoles giving the inflorescence a remarkable aspect. 

The following is the detailed description of the only species kno^ 
i>. coRYMiiosA, Spruce, MS. (Plate XXXVIII 


.. uu. op.uee. parvu, .... altitudine 30 pedes attingens, plcrumque 10-15.pc^alis, ^^^ 
exeepta gLra, xLulis crassis. Folia abrupte pinnatn, 2-juga, hme mde 1- v. 3-foholata, 

orj fide Sprucei Darva* raro 


foliola sscpe iruequalia^ oblongo- v. ovali-elliptica^ ohtuse acuminata, basi angustata, corlaceaj nitida 

adult a 

dimidio minora 

dispositi, sccus ramos brc\iter racemosi. Pedicelli rigidly 2-pollicares. Bracteas non vidi. Bracteolse 

rassissim3e^ coucav^e. Sepala seu calycis segmenta crassiuscula, bractcolis 
extus puberula, summo latiore ssepe bifido. Petala sepalis pauUo longiora 


parum brcviora, eburnea, extus puberula, summ^ 

et tcnuiora, alba, margine undulata v. crispula, extus puberula. Ovarium breviter rufo-tomcntosum, 
ovulis ad 8. 


Nortli Brazil {Spruce, n. 2791). 

Common m tlie Caatingas or sandj woods near Panm-e^ on the Rio Uaupes, 

IX. GLEDITSCHIA, Linn. ; Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PL 568. 

(Tribe Euc^esalpinie^, Nortli America, temperate Asia, and tropical Africa.) 

The affinities of this genus had much perplexed me ; the inflorescence, small flowers, 
and general habit seemed to indicate an approach to MimosecB, but the floral characters 
are quite different; and I had not till lately the opportunity of examining any but 
male flowers of Gpnnocladus, next to which it had been placed by De Candolle and 
others. Having now, however, received good hermaphrodite or female flowers from Dr. 
A. Gray, the close connexion of the two genera has become evident. Eoth have poly- 
gamous flowers, with the calyx-lobes not completely covering all the petals in the bud, 
so that some of the latter assume almost the appearance of sepals, as in some Passijloi^ece 
and allied orders, but which is very unusual in LegimiinoscB ; and Gymnocladus occasionally 
has a few pinnue of the leaves reduced to simx)lc leaflets, as is frequently the case in Qle- 
ditsclda. The chief differences consist in the larger flowers, longer calyx-tube, and 
thick pod of Gi/mnocladus ; and both genera come well into Uuccssaljnniecc, next to 
Acrocarpiis and Wagatea. 

Gledltscliia had hitherto been supposed to be confined to North America and tem- 
perate or subtropical Asia, our herbaria containing two species from North America, one or 
perhaps two from China, and one from the Caspian region ; but, after the sheet of our 
* Genera Plantarum ' containing the genus had been printed off. Dr. Wclwitsch communi- 
cated to me specimens of a distinct species gathered by him in the mountains of the 
Huilla district, in West tropical Africa. The generic characters arc precisely those of the 
northern species, and the inflorescence that of G, triacantJios, or even more dense, whilst 
the pod is intermediate, as it were, between those of G. casjyica and G. monosperma. The 
foUowing are the detailed characters ; 

G. AFEiCAXA, Welw. MS. Molliter pubescens, vix demum glabrescens, foliis (omnibus 

bipinnatis, folioUs ovatis obtusis retusisve, spicis densis, floribus subsessilibus moUit 


TiUosis, legumine subrecto oHgospermo 

Tillosisve. Foliorum pinnaj opposite, abrupte 3-4 

quaque pmua 8-13, altema, |-1| poll, longa, basi ajquallter obtusa v. obhqua, coriacca, juniora 
utrmquc molliter >illosa, adulta nonnunquam supra fere glabra nitidaque. Stipulte inconspicuie. 
Glandulae interdum adsunt par^se inter pinnas cujusve jugi. Spicie moUiter villosa, densie, v. basi 

















lineares, obtusi^ villosi, tubo paullo longiores, parum iutequales. 

Calycis tubus di^cifcr txu'1)inatus, lobi oblongo- 



gusta, villosa. Stamina insequalia, petalis longiora, filameutis crassiusculis parce pilosis; 

Ovarium stipitatum, stipite a calyce libero, villosum, in stylum Li-cvcm 


antnerse ovatae, pui'purese. 

glabrum attenuatum; ovula 

glabrum v. pilis paucis conspersum, 4-6 poll, lougu 

:iimen stipitatum^ planum, fere rect 


an elevation of about 4000 feet (in flower and fruit), and in the district of Pmigo Andougo, in tlie 


X. OLIGOSTEMON, Benth. in Bentli. et nook. f. Gen. PI. 578. 

(Tribe Cassie.^. Tropical Africa.) 

Char, Gen, Calycis tubus nullus ; sepala 4^ ampla, externo infimo subcorlaceo secundoquc suinmo majore 

subpetaloideo ovatis integris^ tertio ovato-lanceolato hinc basi sublobato^ quarto profunde 2 -lobo^l obis 
lanceolatis petaloideis sed aveniis, Petala 5^ sepalis multo minora^ 3 supcrioribus lanceolatis v, 
ovato-lanceolatisj summo extimo^ 2 infcrioribus minoribus linearibus. Stamina 5^ rarius 4^ filamentis 
brevissimis planis liberis ; antberse elongatse^ basifixae, apicc 2-fidae^ loculis acuminatis longitudinalitcr 
sulcatis superne rima brevi debiscentibus^ 3 staminum superiorum dorso longitudinalitcr connatse, 
1-2 laterales libcrse. Ovarium breviter stipitatum^ longitudinaliter 4-alatum, 2-o^TLlatum ; stylus 
crassiuscule filiformis^ stigmate parvo termiaali. Legumen Junius elongatum, acuminatum, longi- 

tudinaliter 4-alatum. Semina • 
minalem dispositi. 

• » • 

JBVutex elatus. Folia imparipinnata. Flores in racemum ter- 

The handsome, richly-flowering, tall shrub on which this genus is founded, a native 
of tropical Africa, is, like several others from the same country, perfectly isolated by 
its characters, combining those of very different tribes. The most important of them, and 
especially the structure and arrangement of the stamens, refer it, without doubt, to CassiciE; 

whilst the sestivation of the petals, the upper 

outside as in Papilionacese, is, I 

believe, a solitary exception in the whole suborder of Caesalp 

In other respects the 

structure of the flower, as well as the habit, show considerable affinity to the Brazilian 
genus Martia ; the veined petals are nearly those of Tamarindus. Our di-awing was un- 
fortunately taken from the first specimens we had, which were only commencing to flow 

Others more advanced were afterwards 



terminal raceme had 

lengthened to above a foot ; and some of the pods were already much enlarged, but not 
nearly sufliciently so to ascertain their dehiscence, if any, or to show the structure of 
the seed. The following is the only species known ; 

O. PiCTUS, Benth. (Plate XXXIX.) 

Frutex fide Mannii 12-20-pedaHs, partibus novellis inflorcscentiaque minute rufo-tomentellis, caetcrum 


imparl, obovali-elliptica 

acuminata, acumine mueronulato, basi acutiuscula, 4-5 


culse, acutae 


Flores rosei, sepalis exterioribus brun- 
spositi. Pedicelli subscmipoUi cares v. 


demnm 1 



bractcolis bracteisque subtendcntibus panis squamiformibus caducis. Sepalum externum 9-10 lin. 
intermedia 12 lin.^ intimmn 15 lin. longa. Petala eleganter venosa^ 3 sepalis dimidio fere brevioraj 
intermcdio tamen lateralibus paullo longiore et acutiorej 2 parva angusta. Antberse semipoUicares. 
Legumen imraaturum jam 5 poll, longum^ 5 lin. latum. 
Hab. West tropical Afiueaj on tbe Cameroon river [G. Mann), 

XI. BANDEIEiEA, Welw., and Benth. et Hook, f. Gen. PI. 577. 

(Tribe BAUHI:^^IEiE. Tropical Africa.) 

Chae. Gen. Calycis tubus discifer elongatus ; limbus laxe campanulatus, lobis 5 brevibus latis subimbricatis. 
Petala 5^ oblonga, erecta, subsequalia, imbricata^ summo intimo. Stamina 10^ libera^ glabra, subde- 
clinata; antherse uniformes, versatiles^loculis longitudinaliter dehiscentibus. Ovarium longe stipitatum, 
stipite tubo calycis adiiato et longe exserto, oo-ovulatum; stylus brevis, stigmate parvo terminali. 
Legumen longe stipitatum, oblique oblongum, compressum v. turgidum, stylo persistente iflfra 
apicem uncinatum, coriaceum^ 2-valve. Semina 1 v. pauca (matura ignota). — Frutices alte scan- 
dentes. Folia simplicia (l-foliolata)_,pennivenia v. costis lateralibus tenuibus 3-nervia. Flores spe- 
ciosi, raccmis tenninalibus simplicibus paniculatisve. 

One species of this genus lias long been known, and was described, above sixty years 
since, by Vahl, under the name of ScJiotia simpUcifolia, which it has retained in all sys- 
tematic works, without, however, having ever been reexamined, and with frequent 
doubts expressed as to its being rightly placed. The flowers have, it is true, individually, 
a general resemblance to those of a Schotia, but their structure, as well as the general 
habit of the plant, are much nearer to those of a Bauhinia. I had, indeed, some doubts 


whether it ought to be regarded as more than a section of that genus ; for although the 
leaves have no tendency to the two lobes characteristic of the greater number of Bau- 
hinias, nor have they even the three strong veins of the few entire-leaved species of that 
genus, yet there arc generally, besides the midrib, a faint lateral one on each side, showing 
no absolute departure from the foliage of the tribe. The long-stalked short pod, how- 

ever. Tilth a remarkably hooked style, and the apparent difference in the foliage may be 
a sufficient warrant to adopt the genus as proposed by Welwitsch. He has dedicated it 
to the truly noble and enlightened Viscount Sa de Bandeira, recently raised to the dignity 
of Marquess de Bandeira, to whose exertions and patronage as Portuguese Minister of 
Marine Dr. Welwitsch mainly ascribes his having been able successfully to accomplish 
his arduous expedition into tropical Africa. 
Our collections evidently contain two distinct species, which may be characterized as 

follows ; 

1. B. SPECIOSA, Welw. MS. (Plate XL.) Eoliis plerisque 3-5-nerviis, racemis tenuis- 

sime canescentibus, legumine stipite suo multo longiore oblique oblongo antice stylo 

recto mucronato 


ix ex Welwitschio scandens, nunc arbuscula 


breviter petiolata, ovali-elliptica, obtusa v. breviter obtuseque acuminata, 2-4 poll 
coriacca, glabra, nitlda, pennivcnia et reticulato-venulosa, et iicrvk lateralibus utriuq 


terminalem foliatam dispositi 










Fuchsias mentientes. Pedicelli 2-3 lin. longi. Bracte^e ct bractcolae minutre, caducte. 
Calyx tomento minuto canescens j tuljus discifer ad 9 Hn. longus, crassiusculus, T)asi oWique 
obtusus^ apice dilatatus in limbum late cami^anulatuin 3-1 lin. latum abicns; l'o])i breves^ lati. 
Petala oblongo-lineariaj exserta^ stipitataj lamina 3-4 lin. longa. Stamina pctalis paruni longiora. 
Ovarium longe stipitatum^ oblique acutum. Legumen valdc obliquum^ oblongum, in speciminibus 
snppetentibns 2 poll, longum 1 poll, latum^ stipite 9 lin, longo^ apice basiquc ubtusissimum scd stipiti 
dorse supra basin afiixnm et antice infra apiccm stylo brevi recto mucronatum, 
Hab. West tropical Africa^ in busby palm-grounds ncarBango, district of Golungo Alto, in Angola iWel- 


Beskr. Guin. PI. 212, it "vras also found 

Christiansberg and in Aguapim 

2. B. TENriFLORA, Benth. Foliis obscure trinerviis, raccmis glabris, leguminc stipite suo 

subbreviore antice stylo inflexo mucronato. 

Frutex alte scandens^ undique glaber. Folia subsessilia^ ovali-elliptica v. oblonga, acuminata v. obtnsa^ 

2-4 V. rarius 5 poll, longa^ coriacea, nitida, pennivenia, nonnnnqnam nervis latcralibus propc raar- 
ginem a basi ortis sed ssepius tenuissimis percursa. Raccmi terminales, speciosi, coccinci^ densi- 
flori. Caljccs poUicares v. paullo longiores^ glabri, tubo discifero quam in B. sjyeciosa tcimiorc^ 
limbo latiore. Petala etiam latiora, 5-6 lin. longa, subsessilia. Legumen 6-9 lin. longum, 4-5 lin. 
latum, basi sub^equale, apice rotundatum, stylo inflexo antice mxcinatum^ stipite gracili 8-10 lin. 

Hab. West tropical Africa^ island of Fernando Po {G. Mann). 

XII. :\IACEOLOBIUM, Scbieb. ; Bentb, et Hook. f. Gen. PI. 579. 

(Tribe Amheestie^. Tropical America and Africa.) 

The two Aubletian genera rouapa and Outea liad long since been united under 
Sclireber's name Macrolohmm, adopted by De CandoUe ; but, at the time of working up 
Schomburgk's Guiana Leguminosae for Hooker's ' Journal of Botany ' (yoI. ii. p. 95), it 
appeared to me, from the materials we then possessed, that the bifoliolate Vouapas might 
always be distinguished from the pinnate-leaved Outeas by the pod, and that both differed 
from the African Anthonothas, in their simple inflorescence at least, if not in the pod also. 
Now, however, the accession of several American as well as African species shows that 
these differences ai'e by no means constant : there is considerable diversity in the pods of 
different species in both the American groups ; and one American species, M. limhatum. 
Spruce*, has precisely the inflorescence previously supposed to be characteristic of the 
African ones. The latter may, however, stiU be retained as a section, distinguished 
by the pinnate leaves, larger and less oblique than in most of the American ones, and 
more or less silky underneath with exceedingly minute hairs, whilst the American are 

• M. limbatum, foliolis 2 longe oblongis glabris, venis primariis in costam intramargtnalem confluentibus, racemis 
brevissJmIs secus ramos dense fasciculato-paniculatis. calycis tubo diseifero turbluato, petalo summo longe unguiculato, 
lateralibus 2 mluutis. stamlnodiis O.-Foliola 6-8-pollicaria v. longiora, petiole communi brevissirao. Pamculae ad 
nodos vetustos 1-li-pollicares. Flores nflrvuli. filamentis 3 autberiferls longis gracUibus. -Sandy woods or Caatn,gas 




quite glabrous — and by a more coriaceous, usually tomentose or canescent pod, and more 
prominently marked with obliquely transverse wrinkles. 
Tlic following are the three African species known to me : 

1. M. STiPULACEUM, foliolis 3-4-jugis oblongis cuspidatis, stipulis maximis foliaceis persis 

tentibus, racemis secusramos dense fasciculato-paniculatis, calycis tubo discifero paryc 
campanulato, petalo summo longiuscule unguiculato, lateralibus 4 parvis squami 
formibus, staminodiis paucis parvis. 

Arbor parra, ramulis petioHs inflorescentiaque pilis minutis appressis t( 

6-10 poll, longaj jugi infimi minora, utrinque rotundata v. an^stata, in acumen angustum ^-i-polli- 

sericea v. cano-nitentia. Stipulse lato-lanceolatsej acutse^ 

Foliola saepe 



erectse, rigidulae,, 1-2-pollicares. Paniculae rameales dense cymiforn 

quam in cseteris speciebus multo majorcs. Bracteae subpersistentes, concavse, 1-2 lin. longfe. Pedi- 

celli semipoUicares. Bracteolse obovatse, 5-6 lin. longE 
lineam excedente ; lobi 4, late ovati, obtusi_, petaloidei. 


I, in siccis striatulse. Calyx glaber, tubo vix 
Petalum superius 4-5 lin. latum, ungue vix 
Stamina 3, longiuscule exserta. Ovarium dense villosum, 
stipite brevissimo hinc adnato; stylus elongatus, stigmate subcapitato. Ovula 6-8. Legumen 

Had. West tropical Africa, on the Gaboon river {G. Mann). 

2. M. Palisoti, foliolis 2-3-jugis obovali-oblongis ellipticisve acuminatis, stipulis obsoletis, 

racemis brevibus laxiusculis sccus ramos fasciculato-paniculatis, calycis tubo discifero 
brevissimo, petalo summo longiuscule unguiculato, lateralibus 2 parvis, additis 
interdum 2 infimis minutis, staminodiis nonnullis elongatis. 

Anthonotha macrophylla, Pal. Beauv. Fl. Ovr. et Ben. i. 71, t. 42. 


the Quorra and Tcliadda (C. Barter). 


Mann), Confluence of 

( Welwitsch) 

This appears to have a wide range, and to be somewhat variable in aspect ; I had, 

indeed, at first considered the Eernando-Po specimens to form a distinct species, with 

the leaves more glabrous underneath and larger ; but a further examination convinces me 

that^ all the specimens, from the south as well as north of the equator, belong to one 

species. The staminodia are certainly variable in number and size ; and occasionally one 

or two of the longer ones may become perfect stamens, but much smaller than the three 

long stamens. The colour of the petals, however, is, according to Mann, yeUow : in the 

Pernando-Po tree they are pink in the figure of the * Flore d'Oware et de Benin ;' but as 

most of the plates there are coloured after the artist's fancy, this requires further investi- 

3. M. Heudelotii, Planch, in herb. Hook, sub Anthonotha. FoHolis 2-3-jugis ovatis 

ellipticisve, stipulis obsoletis, racemis brevissimis secus ramos elongatos aphyUos 
racemiformes fasciculatis, petalo summo breviter unguiculato, 2 lateraHbus sessiMbus 
summo parum brevioribus, 2 infimis minutis, staminodiis (rarisve). 

metralis (12-15-pedalis) . Foliola in speciminibus 2-4-poUicaria, breviter 

1 __ • . ■ • . 

Frutex clatus, ex Hcudelotio 4-5 



gracHes, minute serice* ; florum fasciculi parvi, densi, sessiles v. breviter pedunculati. Bracteae 




inconspicuse. Pedicelli 2-3 


Bracteolse obovatse, concavse, 2^ lin. longae. Calycis tubus brcvissimus ; lobi petaloidci, bractcolas vix 

) latiore bifido. Petala 3 lata, bifida, calycem subsequantia, intermedio iutimo paull o 



longa, Stamiuodia nulla detexi, Legumen ut in specie in-secedente 2-4-pollicare, obliciuum, latum. 


margin at a. 
Hab. West tropical Ajfrica. Dry 




Genera Plantarum. 

XIII. BEELINIA, Soland. ; Bentli. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. 579. 

The numLer of species of this beautiful genus has now been raised by our African col- 
lectors to six, of which the following are the diagnostic characters : — 

1. B. BRACTEOSA, sp. n. Foliolis 3-4-jugis ample oboyato-ellipticis oblongisrc tenuiter 

coriaceis, racemis simplicihus dcnsis ante anthesin lupulinis, bracteis amplis irabri- 
catis alabastra obtegentibus, petalis aequilongis omnibus laminatis summo latissimo. 

Arbor fide Mannii 40-pedalis, inflorescentia excepta, glabra. Foliola longiuscule pctiolulata, 6-8 poll, longa, 


obtuse acuminata^ pennivenia et reticulato-A'Cnulosa ; stipula3 parvae, Raccmi tcrminales, supra folia 
ultima subsessiles^ ineunte inflorescentia densi^ demum ultrapcdales^ rhachi bracteis bracteolisque 

tomento brevissimo incanis sericeisve. 


acuminatse^ concav^e fere naviculares^ 2-2| poll, longse; primum imbricatse alabastra obtcgoutcs, per 

crassi. 6-9 lin, longi. " Bracteolse ad apicem pedicelli cuucato-oblongaij 

anthesin caducae. Pedicelli 


6-7 lin. longusj fere glaber j limbi segmenta 5, petaloidea^ angustc oblongo-linearia v. lanceolata, inter 
se subsequalia, li-poUicaria. Petala 5^ sequilonga, migue lato-lineari, lamina suborbiculata v. trans- 
verse latiore emarginata margineque crispa ; 4 inferiora^ inter se similia, unguc fere 2-pollicari, lamina 
1-li poll, lata ; summum intimum, ungue breriore, lamina 2 poll. lata, 
exserta. Ovariimi loneriuscule stinitatum, tomcntellum, 5-6-ovulatum. 

Stamina 10^ longiuscule 

Hab. West 


2. B. ACUMINATA, Soland. in Hook. f. FL Nigr. 326. Foliolis 3-5-jiigis obovali-eUipticis 

oblongisye tenuiter coriaceis, racemis brevibus subcoiymbosis, bracteis parvis 
caducissimis, petalo summo maximo ungue bracteolas vix superante, inferioribus 
parvis angustis. 

Arbor 40-^O.pedalis. Foliola 4-8-pollicarIa, acumine vario, ssepius brevd. Flores albi, in spcciminibus 

Mannianis maximi, bracteolis 2-nollicaribus basi longe angustatis, petalo summo 2^ poll, lato ; in 


tudine poUicem paullo exccdente; 
Stamina 10. lon^e exserta. Legtim 


Hab. We 

nsell); Cameroon river ( G . Mann) ; Old Calabar river {G.Mann 

Rev. W. 

3. B. AURicuLATA, sp. n. FoUoHs 2-3-jugis obovali-oblongis eUipticisve tenuiter coriace 

racemis brevibus subcorymbosis, bracteis parvis caducissimis, petali summi ung 
bracteolis 2-3 -plo longiore supra basin auriculato, lamina bifida, inferioribus parv 


Arbor 20-30-pedalis. Foliola loiigiuscule petiolulataj fere B. acuminatce^ sed saepe basi insequilatera, 
pleraque 4-6-pollicaria. Stipulse inconspicuae. Racemi ad apices ramorum conferti^ rhachibus vix 
tomcntellis 1-2-pollicaribiis. Pedicelli 4-6 lin. longi. Eracteolse obovatse^ concavse^ 8-9 lin. longse, 
basi valde contract^e et ima basi diu connatee. Calyx glaber^ tubo angusto 3 lin. longo^ segmentis 
linearibiis v. lineari-lanceolatis petaloideis 5-6 lin, longis. PetaJi smnmi unguis subpollicaris, 


utrinquc supra basin auricida latiuscula obtusa auctus, lamina ad poUicem lata ; petala infcriora 
calycis segmentis breviora^ supra basin dilatata^ acute acuminata^ omnia sequalia v. 2 infima multo 
minora. Stamina 10^ longe exserta. Ovarium brcAissime stipitatum, 

I H 

Hab. AVcst tropical Africa, Cameroon river (G. Mann). 

4. B. STiPULACEA, sp. n. Foliolis 3-5-jugis anguste oblongis rigide coriaceis, stipulis longis 

rigidis persistentibus, racemis subcorymbosis, bracteis parvis caducissimis, petali 
snmini ungiie tenui bracteolis longiore lamina late bifida, inferioribus minimis, 
staminibus 5. 

iVrLor 20-30-pedalis,iuflorescentia excepta^ glabra. Foliola quam in cseteris speciebus angustiora et rigidiora, 

secus rliacliin fere sessllia, 4-5-pollicariaj brevissime acuminata v. calloso-mucronata, pennivenia et 
reticulato-venulosa, nitidula. Stipulse rigidaej late lanceolatae, multinerYes, ssepius vix poll, longse. 
Racemi in paniculam breviter corymbosam dispositi^ rbacH 1-2-pollicari cum bracteoUs tomento 
brevi femiginea. Bractese late ovatse v. orbiculatse^ pediccllo multo breviores et ante anthesin 
deciduse. Pedicelli i-1-pollicares. Bracteolse obovato-oblongse, concavsSj pollicares v. paullo 
longioresj basi quam in prseccdentlbus minus contractae. Calycis tubus discifer vix 2 lin. longus, late 
tui-biuatus; segmenta angustata, 3-4 lin. longa. Petali summi unguis angustuSj inappendiculatus^ 
circa 15 lin. longus, lamina li poll, lata, profunde bifida ; petala 4 inferiora minima, linearia. Stamina 
5, longe exserta. Ovai'ium viUosum, bre\dssime stipitatum. 

JIab. West tropical Africa. On the river Muni, lat. 1° N. {G. Mann). 

5. B. AXGOLENSis, "Welw., sp. n. Foliolis 8-4-jugis ovalibus v. ovali-oblongis tenuiter 

coriaceis, racemis subcorymbosis, bracteis parvis caducissimis, petalis subsequilongis, 
4 subsessilibus, summo evidentiiis stipitato, staminibus 10. 

Arbor mediocris,inflorescentia excepta, glabra v. foliis novellis tenuitercanescentibus. Foliola in speciminibus 

1-8-pollicaria, nunc latiuscula et obtusissima v. retusa, nunc angustiora acuminataque, petiolulo brevi 
rigidulo ; in ramulis sterilibus foliola interdum fide Welwitschii idtrapedalia. Racemi breves, conferti, 
paniculam corymbosam v. rarius oblongam foliis ultimis multo breviorem efficientes, rliacbi bracteo- 
lisque scriceo-tomentosis. Bractese parvae, latse, longe ante anthesin deciduse. Pedicelli vix 2 lin. 


racteolse obovali-oblongse, concavse, 6-7 lin. long», per anthesin patentes. Calycis tubus 
gustus, 3-4 lin. longus, glaber ; linibi segmenta petaloidea, lineari-lanceolata, acutiuscula. 

4-5 lin. long 

intimum breviter unguiculatum, ovatum, cucullato 


6-7 lin. longum ; lateralia 4 sessilia, oblique ovali-oblonga, plana v. vix margine undulata. Stamina 
10, longiuscule exserta, filamentis basi glabris pilosulisve. Ovarium villosissimum, stipite brevi ; 
ovula 5-6. Legumen planum, crasso-coriaceum, oblique rugosum, |-pedale. 

Andongo [Welwitsch) 


The flowers, so mucb smaller than those of any of the preceding BerHnias, would 

appear to connect this species with Macrolohkm ; but their structure is entirely that of 



6. B. PANICULATA, sp. n. Poliolis 2-4-jugis OTali-ol)longis basi ina3quilatcris coriaceis 

canesceiiti-tomentosis glabratisve, racemis brevibus paniculatis, bracteis parvis ca- 
ducis, petalis subsequilongis, 4 spathulatis, summo breviter stipitato, staminibus 10 
basi diadelpbis. 

Arbor mediocris^ late comosa^ 30 pedes attingens^ sed jam statu juvenili 5-6 pedes alta frecpicnter florens. 

Ramuli foliaque novella tomcnto brevi molK canescentia, adidta saepe glabrata. Foliola 2-4-i)olli- 
caria^ obtusissinia v. breviter obtuseque acuminata^ rigidule coriacca^ petiolulo 1-2 lin. longo^ lamina 
tamen latere inferiore fere ad basin petioluli decurreute. Stipulse parvse^ latse^ rigidae. Eaccmi breves 
densique^ in paniculam ramosam folia superiora ssepe sequantem dispositi^ rliachi bracteis bracteolisque 
fiilvo-tomentosisj floribus ex albido flavescentibus. Bractese orbicidataej concavie^ 1-2 lin. latse. 
Pedicelli vix unquam 1 lin. longi. Bractcolse suborbiculatsej concavsej ^1 lin. longa3, alahastra 
includenteSj per antbesin patentes. Calycis tubus discifer breAissime turbinatus^ vix 1 lin. longus; 
limbi segmenta 5, rigidule petaloidea^ margine ciliata^ obovali-oblonga, 2-3 lin. longa. Pctala 4 
inferiora spatbulata^ 4-5 lin. longa^ lamina 1-2 lin. lata^ 2 infima lateralibus paullo minora ; quintum 
summum interius breviter unguiculatum^ late ovato-suborbiculatum^ concavum, caetcris paullo 
brevius. Stamina 10^ longiuscule exserta^ 9 inferiora basi in vaginam fere 2 lin. longam connata, 
decimum summum a basi liberum. Ovarium brevissime stipitatum^ breve, villosissimum, ondis 4-5 ; 
stylus elongatusj glaber, involutus, stigmate peltato. Legumcn oblongum, valdcobliquum, 2-3 poll, 
longum, 1-1| polL latum^ Junius dense tomentosum, demum glabratum, Iseve ncc rugosum. 

Hah. West tropical Afi^ica. Angola district, forming Tvitli other Leguminous trees considerable woods in the 

district of Huilla, and, judging from a specimen in fruit only, also in Pungo Andongo {Ifelwitsch) . 

This species, in its small flowers, short calyx-tuhe, and reduced petals, forms some 
approach to the genus Brachystegia, and diflPers from that, as well as from tlie true Ber- 
linias, in the stamens diadelphous at the base ; hut this character does not appear to he 
of sufficient importance for its separation from the latter genus, with whicli it is closely 
connected through B. angolensis. 

Var. ? ferruginea, foliis moUiter fulYO-villosis. Eare near MumpuUa in the HuiUa 
district ( Welwitsch). 

The specimen is in fruit only, hut appears to differ from the normal form only in the 


XIV. BEACHYSTEGIA, Benth. in Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. 582. 

(Tribe Amhekstie^. Tropical Africa.) 

R Gdn Calycis tubus discifer brevissimus y. snbuuUus; limbi segmenta 2-5, parva, petaloidca v. mimte 
squamiformia. Petala vel rarius 1-2 miuutissima. Stamina 10, subdeclinata, basi breviter connata v. 
sublibera, filamcntis elongatis ; antliene ovato-oblong«, locnlis longitndinabter deh«cenhbns. 
Ovarium stipitatiim v. subsessUe, liberum, breve, »-ovulatum ; stylus elongatus, sfgmate termmaU 
tmncato v. dilatato. Legumen oblongum v. lato-Uneare, obliquum v. faleatnm, eompressum, cona- 

subli-nosum, 2-valTe, sutura superiore incrassata. Semina pauca, transversa, _ ovala vel 


orHculata, compressa; albumen 0; 
Arbores corticc fibroso. Folia abrupt 








The above character is slightly modified from that which we had given in the ' Genera 
Plantanim/ the additional species received from Dr. Welwitsch since the sheet was 
printed off having enabled me more correctly to understand the structure of the flowers. 
The calyx-like outer envelope is in fact, as we had doubtfully suggested, a pair of 
bracteoles like those of MacroloMum and Berlinia ; the very small scale-like bodies 
described as petals are shown by the B. famarindoidesj in which they are more developed, 
to be calyx-segments, like those of Berlinia, five in number when complete, but some often 
deficient ; and the petals appear to be entirely wanting, or reduced to one or two quite 
microscopic. The genus may be considered, therefore, to be much more closely allied to 
BerUnia than we had supposed, chiefly in the very much reduced floral envelopes. 

Of this genus we have now the three following species : 

1. B. TAMAEiNDoiDES, Wclw. PolioUs 10-20-jugis obliquc oblongo-lanceolatis obtusis 

sessilibus basi valde insequilateris, racemis brevibus densis paniculatis, pedicellis 
brevissimis, ovario subsessili. 

Arbor ex Welwitscliio 20-40 -pedalis^ habitu et imprimis folionim figura et compositione Tamarindo 

t7idiC(jB simillima. Ramuli et folia novella tomentoso-puberula, adulta glabrata. Poliola arete 
sessiliaj conferta, 6-9 lin. longa, obtusa, basi latere intcriore angusta, exteriore rotundata^ coriacea^ 


excentrica, Inflorescentia fulvo-tomentosa; i 


conferti, in paniculam oblone-am folia smnma 

positi, Bracteae ovatae, concavae, 1-1 1 lin. longse, caducse. Pedicelli vix ulli. Bracteje ovali-orbicu- 
latcx, concavse, 2| lin. longae. Calycis segmenta 5, squamiformia, ciliata, vix lineam longa. Petala 



connata. Ovarinm subsessile, \illosum, 6-8-ovulatum. Stylus glabratus, stigmate tmncato, Le- 
gumen valde obliquum, in stipitc brevissimo angulo recto inflexum, 2-3 poll, longum, planum, crasso- 
coriacemn, Iseve, sutura superiore incrassato-dilatata, 
Hab. West tropical Africa. In the Huilla district of Angola, forming here and there small woods be- 
tween Lopollo and Lake ToantMa [Welwitsch). 

Dr. Wehvitscb has also specimens of two trees which, if not varieties, appear to be 
closely allied to the preceding,— one, in leaf and fruit, with the leaflets of the same 
number and shape as in B. tamarindoideSy but nearly twice as large, and not crowded, 
and the pod larger and not so smooth. This was gathered by "Welwitsch between Condo 
and Guisonde, and at Sansamanda in Pungo Andongo. A single leaf of a tree from the 
mountains of Zanguebar in Speke and Grant's collection belongs probably to the same 
species or variety. The other is more evidently distinct, but is in leaf only : the leaflets 
are more numerous, intermediate in size between those of the two others, and the midrib is 
very near to the upper margin. It forms a low shrub of 1 to 2J feet, common in the Mu- 
tollo woods between Pedras de Guinga and Candumba in the district of Pungo Andongo. 

2. B. spic^roRMis. Foliolis 4-6-jugis ovatis vel ovali-oblongis obtusis basi obHquis 

brevissime petiolulatis, racemis brevibus simplicibus dense spiciformibus, pedicellis 
brevissimis, ovario breviter stipitato. 

Arbor gracilis, 10-20-peaalis, ramulis foliisaue novelHs nube brevi nbis Tninn^ v^«f;ti-« rl^n 



usculis. FoHola per paria dissita, 1-1^ vel 

coriacea, pennivenia, costa parum cxccntrica, pctiolulo" brevissimo at distincto. Stipulie' linearcs, 




membranacesej caducissinife. Spicse fulvo-pubescenteSj novelise cyliiulricae Lractcis alabastrisque im- 
IjricatiSj per aiitliesin obloiigsej rliachi demuin l-l|-pollicari. Bractese, orblculatae, coiii 

longffij caducissimai. PcdicellL vix ulli. 


antbesiu patentes. Calycis segmenta sqnamiformia 1-5^ spepius 2^ iiia3qnalia; oblonga v. liucaria, 
rarissime lineam exeedentia. Petala srepius 0^ rarissimc adsiint 1-2 minuta. Stamina 10, brcviter 
exscrtaj basi in cupulam brcvem irregulariter connata. Ovarium breviter stipitatum, dense villosum, 
o^allis ad 6; stylus glaber, stigmate truncato. Legumen 3-4 poll. longum_, 1^-11 poll, latum, 
coriaceo-siiblignosum^ Iseve, sutui'a superiore incrassato-dilatata. 
Hab. Tropical Africa.- In woods of the Huilla district of Angola, ratlicr frequent between MunipuUa 

and Kene, and between Morino and Lake Tvantala (Welwitsch). 

Yar. parviflora. Bracteoles scarcely 3 lines long, but every other character precisely 
as hi the western specimens. Eobeho mountains, in Zanguebar, at an elevation of 
4700 feet {Spelce and Grant, who observe that the bark is made into kilts, cloths, 
hand-boxes, huge grain-stores, mats, roofing for camp-huts, &c., and that a blood-red 

juice exudes on cutting the bark). 
Var. (?) grandiflora. Bracteoles rather above 4 lines long, and flowers not quite So 
sessile, but otherwise the same. Summits of the Sierra da Ilella in the Iluilla 
district, at an elevation of 4000 feet, with flowers and young leaves at the ends of the 
branches, otherwise nearly leafless (TFekcitscJi) . 

3. B. APPENDicuLATA. (Plate XLII.) Poliolis 3-6-jugis ovali-oblongis lanceolatisve vix 

coriaceis glabris breviter petiolatis, racemis confertis subramosis, pedicelUs brac- 
teolis subcequilongis, ovario longe stipitato. 

Arbor 20-40-pcdalis, Inflorescentia excepta, glabra ; foliola secus petiolum tenuem per paria dissita, 1-2- 

poUicaria, acuminata v. obtusa, obliqua, falcata v. basi imequilatera v. rarius sub^quaHa, multo 
tenuiora quam in speciebus pr^cedcntibns, pennivenia et venulosa. Stipulas nou vidi. Glandular 
parvcT vesiciformes ad basin foliolorum s^pe stipellas mentientes. Eacemi dense multiflon, oblongi, 
breviter pedunculati, 1-2-pollicarcs, solitarii simphcesqnc v. basi ramo uno alterove mstructi. Bractcie 
minima, lincares, caducissim^. Pedicelli graciles, ad 3 lin. longi. Bracteolse 2-2^ Im. longa., late 
obovat^, concave, extus tomentcll*, per anthesin patentes. Calycis segmenta squamiformia s^pms 

2-3. Petala nulla invenimus. 

breviter connatis; anthcrse glandida minuta apiculatse. 




margine ciliatum; ovulis 5-6. Legumen 3-4 poll, longum, U-l] poll latum, sutura superiore in- 

Higlilands of the Batoka Country and about Zoxnba, on Lake Sliirwa, the 



XV. BAIKI^EA, Bcnth. in Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. 581 

(Tribe Amheestie^. Tropical Africa.) 

Ch^r. Gex. Calrcis tubus discifer turbinatus; segmenta 4, longa, crassa, marginibus a 

anguste imbricatis. Petala 5, unguiculata, obovato-spathulata, sub^qmlatera, sui 
aquilatero, cantoris obliquis. 


basi viUosis, altemis tenuioribus glabris ; anthers Uneai'es, versatdes. Ovarium dense villosissimum, 
oc-ovulatum, stipite calycis tubo hinc adnato; stylus glaber, elongatus, stigmate parvo. Legu- 


.Vrborcs, floribus exceptis, glabrae. Folia abrupt 

confcrti, Bracteaj et bracteolje breves, caduca. 






■ As the flowers of Camoensia maxima are tlie largest known among PapilionaceEe, so 

^^^ ^^^ I r 

arc tliose of BaiMaa insigms the largest among Csesalpinieae, and said to he as grand- 
looking as those of Camoensia. Its characters also, although showing some affinity to 

Schotla, are at the same time 

ell marked, that there is little danger of the 

being merged into any other. I have therefore great pleasure in dedicating it to the 
distinguished and enterprising traveller who, during his noble and persevering exertions 
in the cause of West-tropical-African civilization, has also done so much towards 
making us acquainted with the botanical treasures of that country, and whose loss every 
friend of Africa has so much reason to deplore. 
The only species know^n may be thus described : — 

B. iNSiGXis, sp. n. (Plate XLI.) 

Arbor^ teste ManniO; 30-40-pedalis^ iafiorescentia excepta^ glabra. Foliola nunc semipeclalia late ovali- 

clliptica^ nunc oblouga ^-S-poUicaria^ obtusa v. obtuse acuminata^ rigide coriaceaj nitida^ venis 
praeter costam validam parum conspicuis^ petiolulata^ secus petiolum brevem opposita v. altema. 
Stipul?e parvsej ovatsc^ squamiformes. Flores maximi^ nutantes^ pauci ad apices ramorum conferti 
racemiim brcvissimum constituentes^ rliacbi bracteis calycibusque dense fusco-yelutinis. Bractese 
et braetcolse latnCj concavse^ 1-2 lin. long^e. PediccUi brevissimij crassi. Calycis tubus crassus^ tur- 
binatus^ fere 9 lin. longus; segmenta linearia^ demum 3 poll, longa^ crassa^ dorso fusco-velutiua^ intus 
sericco-\illosaj ad margines angustissime attenuata^ per anthesin revoluta et mox decidua. Petala 
semipcdalia^ obovata^ basi in unguem longe angustata^ dorso laxe villosaj intus medio pilosula^ 
marginibus utrinque glabris; summum intimuuij cseteris latius at non longius. Stamina 5 petalis 
fere ?equilongaj 5 alterna triente breviora^ filamentis basi villosis superne sparse pilosis glabratisve. 
Ovarium villosissimumj in stipitcm longiusculum attenuatum^ ovulis ad 8 ; stylus superne glaber^ 
stigmate capitato, , , \ 

Hab. West tropical Africa. Island of Fernando Po (G. Mann). Some fragments sent from Ango by 

Consul Burton may possibly belong to the same species. 

XVI. CRUDIA, Sclireb. i Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PL 584. 

This genus, hitherto supposed to be exclusively American, had not been recognized 
in the Old-World species published, which have, consequently, been referred to other 
genera. The three I am acquainted with are the following : 


1. 0. SENEGALENSis, Plancli. in herl). Hook. MS. Glabra, foliolis 5-7 ovatis oblon^isve 

acuminatis basi valde obliquis,' stipulis maximis foliaceis persistentibus, racemis laxis 
pedunculatis. - . 

Frutex elatus v. arbor parva^ C Parivo^Bj DC.^ stipulis exceptis^ simillima. Foliola 3-4-pollicaria. 

Stipulse ovato-lanceolatse^ acutse^ membranaceEGj pcrsistentes^ | 
PediceUi graciles, dissiti. 
West tronical Africa. C 



Nunez river^ Senegambia (Heudelot 


Fernando Po (G. Mann) 

2. C. Z13XLANICA. Glabra^ foliolis 2-G